بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
This post is in continuation of the series with the same title. In this series we review Ayas related to Qital/fighting and see if they mean ideological fighting or physical fighting. Let us review below Ayas in Quran about physical fighting:
5:27-29 وَاتْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ نَبَأَ ابْنَيْ آدَمَ بِالْحَقِّ إِذْ قَرَّبَا قُرْبَانًا فَتُقُبِّلَ مِنْ أَحَدِهِمَا وَلَمْ يُتَقَبَّلْ مِنَ الْآخَرِ قَالَ لَأَقْتُلَنَّكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ لَئِن بَسَطتَ إِلَيَّ يَدَكَ لِتَقْتُلَنِي مَا أَنَا بِبَاسِطٍ يَدِيَ إِلَيْكَ لِأَقْتُلَكَ ۖ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَن تَبُوءَ بِإِثْمِي وَإِثْمِكَ فَتَكُونَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّارِ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الظَّالِمِينَ
And recite over them the news in truth of the two sons of Adam. When they both gave sacrifice to be close (to Allah) then it was accepted from one of them and was not accepted from the other. “He said I will definitely kill you.” “He said surely Allah accepts (the sacrifice)from those who guard.” “If you will stretch out your hand towards me to kill me, I will not stretch out my hand towards you to kill you. Surely I fear Allah the Lord of the Worlds.” “Surely I intend that you reside with my sin (in killing me ) and with your sin. So you will be from the companion of fire. And that is the reward of the oppressors.”
What is the lesson we get from the above Ayas? When some one attacks you physically you are not to strike back, why? because Allah is there to recompense fully the evil doers? (See related post of Qasas : https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/06/04/qasas/)A grave evil act like murder will stay in the psyche of the perpetrator and will haunt him and eventually destroy his psychology. A person doing bad acts can not live peacefully like a person with clean conscience who does not have to fear everyday getting recompensed for his evil actions. If there is a choice, it is always better to leave the scene where some one attacks you to cause bodily harm.
2:84 وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ
And when We took a covenant with you, not to shed your blood and do not expel your souls/selves from your circles then you confirmed and you are witness to it.
This is the covenant Allah took with Bani Israeel, that they will not shed their blood. So the fighting/Qital which is ordained in Quran is an ideological fight i.e a fight in which you are not allowed to shed your blood.
From the above two sets of Ayas we come to know that with regards to Qital/fighting, if we fear Allah, we cannot not extend our hand towards the one who extends his hand towards us for causing harm. And Allah had taken a covenant from before that we are not to shed our blood. Also in 2:195 Allah orders (لَا تُلْقُوا بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ) i.e not to put your self to destruction with your own hands. Keeping in view these conditions, now we can see, how and with whom to do Qital/fighting in the way of Allah.
9:29 قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَلَا يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حَتَّىٰ يُعْطُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَن يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ
Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which has been made forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor they decide by the judegment of Truth, from the People who has been given the Book, until they pay tribute with their hands while being belittled.
Allah’s order to engage in ideological fight, is with those who don’t make it forbidden on them, what has been made forbidden by Allah. We will shortly see what is made forbidden by Allah in below Ayas. This ideological fight is to be done with the People of the Book (not labeled Jews and Christians) but with those who have the Book (Al-Quran) however who do not really believe in Allah and accountability and do not act on its injunctions of haram/forbidden acts.
6:151 قُلْ تَعَالَوْا أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ ۖ أَلَّا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا ۖ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا ۖ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلَادَكُم مِّنْ إِمْلَاقٍ ۖ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُكُمْ وَإِيَّاهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ ۖ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُم بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
Say. “Come, I will rehearse what Allah has prohibited on you ” Do not join anything in partnership with Him; Do good deeds to your parents; Do not kill your children for fear of poverty;- We provide sustenance for you and for them;- do not come near shameful acts whether openly or secretly; and do not kill a nafs/life, which Allah has made forbidden, except with Haq/truth, thus He enjoins you, so that you may use your intellect.
7:33 قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالْإِثْمَ وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَن تُشْرِكُوا بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَأَن تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
Say. my Lord has indeed forbidden shameful acts, whether open or secret; sins and unjust trespassing; and that you associate partners with Allah, for whom He has sent down no authority; and that you say things about Allah that you do not know.
The above Ayat states what is made forbidden by Allah. The ideological fight ordained as per 9:29, is with those people who associate with Allah, do obscenity, say things about Allah which are not verified by Quran, and kill what is made forbidden by Allah. And remember, ideological fight is a non physical fight in which extending your hand and shedding blood is not allowed. If some one, rejects this peaceful message of Allah and do physical fighting then Allah says that no body can be a bigger oppressor than him, as he will then be tarnishing the image of peaceful Islam.
61:7 وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ وَهُوَ يُدْعَىٰ إِلَى الْإِسْلَامِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
Who does greater wrong than one who invents falsehood against Allah, even as he is being invited to Islam/Peace? And Allah guides not those who do wrong.
The person who is invited towards Peace and then he belies this invitation and instead choose a way of violence, In the Lords words above, nobody can be a bigger oppressor than him.
Allah orders the believers to immerse themselves fully in Peace and security and donot follow Shaitan, as Shaitan tries to sow seeds of enmity among them.
2:208 يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ
O’ People who believe, Enter into peace completely; and follow not the footsteps of Satan for he is an open enemy to you.
In all situations of life, the believers are to choose the judgment/option of Peace and security. Judgments other than of Peace are not acceptable to Allah.
3:85 وَمَن يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الْإِسْلَامِ دِينًا فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ
If anyone desire a Din/judgment other than Islam/Peace never will be accepted of him and in the hereafter he will be from those who are the losers.
That is the circle of Faith which is made for the believers who don’t want violence and war fare on the land.
28:83 تِلْكَ الدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ نَجْعَلُهَا لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُرِيدُونَ عُلُوًّا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فَسَادًا ۚ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ
That Home/circle of the Hereafter We shall give to those who intend no high-handedness nor mischief on earth. and the end is (best) for the righteous.
Those people who fight with the believers in their judgment/Din of Peace as mentioned above and caste them out of the circles of faith and instigate others to caste them out too, believers are prevented to make these people their patrons/guardians. Those people who don’t cast the believers out of their circles of faith (does not label them as infidels if their beliefs differ), Allah does not prevent believers to do good to them.
60:8-9 لَّا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ أَن تَبَرُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُوا إِلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ إِنَّمَا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ قَاتَلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَأَخْرَجُوكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ وَظَاهَرُوا عَلَىٰ إِخْرَاجِكُمْ أَن تَوَلَّوْهُمْ ۚ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُمْ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ
Allah does not prevent you with regards to those who do not fight with you and do not drive you out of your circles, from dealing kindly and justly with them, for Allah loves those who are just. Verily, Allah prevents you, with regard to those who fight with you in Din/judgment, and drive you out of your circles, and support (others) in driving you out, from turning to them for patronage. If any turns to them for patronage, then those are the unjust ones.
There are however, some historical accounts of physical fighting. Traditionalist say that below Ayas in Quran mention an incident of war which is famous with the name of ‘Badr’.
3-121-123 وَإِذْ غَدَوْتَ مِنْ أَهْلِكَ تُبَوِّئُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَقَاعِدَ لِلْقِتَالِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ إِذْ هَمَّت طَّائِفَتَانِ مِنكُمْ أَن تَفْشَلَا وَاللَّهُ وَلِيُّهُمَا ۗ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَلَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ بِبَدْرٍ وَأَنتُمْ أَذِلَّةٌ ۖ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
And when in the morning you left your household, to post the faithful at their stations for fighting. And Allah hears and knows all things. When two of your parties meditated cowardice; but Allah was their protector, and in Allah should the faithful put their trust. Allah had helped you at Badr (Earlier), when you were a weak/lowly; thus take guard of Allah; so that you be thankful.
‘Badr’ denotes ‘early stage’. These Ayats 3:121-123 should actually be referring to early stage ideological fight of believers with those against whom is the order of fighting in Ayat 9:29. In the early stage when the believers are not as intellectually strong for ideological fight, Allah has helped them in their fighting. The stages of intellectual development of believers are described in below Ayat 48:29.
48:29 مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا ۖ سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ ۚ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ ۗ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا
Muhammad (PBUH) is the Messenger of Allah; and those who are with him are strong against unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other. You will see them bow and prostrate themselves seeking Grace from Allah and (His) good pleasure. On their faces/beings are their marks, the traces of their prostration. This is their similitude in the Taurat; and their similitude in the Injeel, like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, (filling) the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers with rage at them. Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds forgiveness, and a great reward.
‘Badr’ is the early stage of knowledge and maturity of the believers when they were not strong enough to stand on their intellectual footings of knowledge and at that time, in an intellectual fight imposed on them by unbelievers, they were helped by Allah.