بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
106-1-4 لِإِيلَافِ قُرَيْشٍ إِيلَافِهِمْ رِحْلَةَ الشِّتَاءِ وَالصَّيْفِ فَلْيَعْبُدُوا رَبَّ هَٰذَا الْبَيْتِ الَّذِي أَطْعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ وَآمَنَهُم مِّنْ خَوْف
For the joining/amalgamation of the Quraish, Their joining in journeys in winter and summer,- Let them serve the Lord of this House, The One who feeds them in hunger, and secures them from fear.
The root word (ق ر ش) conveys the meaning of gathering from various places. The Sura Quraish states that for the joining and amalgamation of Quraish in their journeys in winter and summer months, so that they serve the Lord of this House who feeds them in hunger and protects them from fear.
The Quraish should mean the pilgrims/Hajjaj, those people who gather from various places of the world and are joined together in winter and summers months and their hearts are joined in the the cause of performing Hajj and serving the Lord of the House. Quraish could also be the name of a tribe in Arabia, however, as a principle, terms in Quran should be recognized per character traits and descriptions of them given in Quran and not by labels which people put on themselves or others.
Islamic calendar is calculated on the basis of moon positions. Ramadhan and Hajj months are according to lunar calendar. Had they been according to solar calendar, Ramadhan and Hajj would always fall in the same season. However, because of lunar calendar the seasons for fasting and Hajj keep on changing i.e some times they fall in summer, sometimes in winter and so on.
3:96 إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِي بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكًا وَهُدًى لِّلْعَالَمِينَ
The First house appointed for mankind is that with BAKKA, full of blessing and guidance for all worlds
The first house established for mankind is in Makkah/Bakka, it is a place of Aman/security and guidance.
3:97 فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّنَاتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۖ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا ۗ وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا ۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ
In it are clear ayats / signs, the standing position of Ibraheem whoever enters it attains security. and for Allah is Pilgrimage of the House on people, those who can afford the journey but if anyone denies, surely Allah is not in need of any of His beings in the worlds.
The place of Ibrahim, the Idol breaker is established in the House. It is incumbent upon the people who have the means, to perform Hajj of this House of Allah. And who ever rejects, then Allah is not in need of any thing from the worlds.
22:26-27 وَإِذْ بَوَّأْنَا لِإِبْرَاهِيمَ مَكَانَ الْبَيْتِ أَن لَّا تُشْرِكْ بِي شَيْئًا وَطَهِّرْ بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْقَائِمِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ وَأَذِّن فِي النَّاسِ بِالْحَجِّ يَأْتُوكَ رِجَالًا وَعَلَىٰ كُلِّ ضَامِرٍ يَأْتِينَ مِن كُلِّ فَجٍّ عَمِيقٍ
And when We pointed out the place of the house to Ibraheem “associate not anything with Me; and purify My house for those who go around (do Tawaf), and who stand and bow, prostrate. And proclaim the Pilgrimage to mankind. they will come to thee on foot and riding from all remote places.”
Ibraheem A.S had been entrusted to cleanse the House of Allah of any associations with Him. This House is associated with system of Tawaf and Salat. The systems of Tawaf and Salat are established in the Holy City of Makkah by Sunnat/practice of Allah in all times. See previous post ‘procedure of Salat in Quran’
There are some groups who dissuade people from Salat saying that this is a ritualistic practice invented by ritualistic muslims. Also, there are those groups who prevent people from Hajj, some saying it was a pagan practice adopted by muslims. Others have notions about the House of Allah that in earlier times, it was filled with idols and people used to go round it unclothed. Allah wants His House to be cleansed of these obscene notions. The House of Allah is the first House established on Earth for guidance of mankind for all times. If it were filled with Idols and obscenity how could it be a source of guidance at that time? People should get rid of these notions, and believe that it is the first House established for mankind, source of guidance, all prophets in all times performed Hajj of this House and Hajj was never a pagan practice established in the sacred valley.
Some argue that by Hajj, Allah does not mean the ritualistic practice of going to Makkah and performing Hajj as prescribed in Quran. According to them salat and Hajj have different spiritual meanings and practice established in Masjid ul Haram for Salat and Hajj is not what actually is ordered by Allah. However, Allah says whoever says it and oppose the (system of) Masjid ul Haram is a rejecter.
22:25 إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَيَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ الَّذِي جَعَلْنَاهُ لِلنَّاسِ سَوَاءً الْعَاكِفُ فِيهِ وَالْبَادِ ۚ وَمَن يُرِدْ فِيهِ بِإِلْحَادٍ بِظُلْمٍ نُّذِقْهُ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
As to those who have rejected, and would prevent (people) from the Way of Allah, and from the Sacred Mosque, which We have made for (all) people – equal is the dweller there and the visitor from the country – and any whose purpose therein is profanity or wrong-doing – We will cause him to taste a grievous penalty.
The place of Makkah/Masjid ul Haram, is recognizable and associated with the physical signs as well, so that, not to confuse it with any other place on Earth or to consider it as a spiritual place only; Place of Ibrahim A.S 22:26, Signs of Safa and Marwa in Ayat 2:158, a valley of layers where one has to take off shoes 20:12, a non-agricultural valley where fruits are imported from all over 14:37. The process of Hajj is described in Quran e.g 2:197-203 (and other places) and the practice is established in the Sacred valley of Makkha/Bakka.
48:25 هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْهَدْيَ مَعْكُوفًا أَن يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ ۚ وَلَوْلَا رِجَالٌ مُّؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَاءٌ مُّؤْمِنَاتٌ لَّمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَن تَطَئُوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكُم مِّنْهُم مَّعَرَّةٌ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۖ لِّيُدْخِلَ اللَّهُ فِي رَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ لَوْ تَزَيَّلُوا لَعَذَّبْنَا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا
They are the ones who rejected and prevented you from the Sacred Mosque and the gifts/sacrificial animals, detained from reaching their place. Had there not been believing men and believing women whom ye did not know that ye were trampling down and on whose account a crime would have accrued to you without (your) knowledge, that He may admit to His Mercy whom He will. If they had been apart, We should certainly have punished the Unbelievers among them with a grievous Punishment.
The group who dissuades from Hajj as being a ritualistic practice of going to Makkah; they also cut off the connection of the gift of sacrificial animals with the practice of Hajj. Allah would have punished this group, if it were not that some believing men and women are mixed up with this group. Ayas 2:196 and 22:33 establish the connection of gift of sacrificial animals with the ptactice of Hajj.
2:197 الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ ۚ فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلَا رَفَثَ وَلَا فُسُوقَ وَلَا جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللَّهُ ۗ وَتَزَوَّدُوا فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَىٰ ۚ وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ
The months of Hajj/Pilgrimage are known, so whosoever impose Hajj / Pilgrimage (on himself) in them, so he should not commit obscenity nor commit immoralities and should not engage in arguments in the Hajj / Pilgrimage. And what you do from betterment Allah knows it. And take provision, so surely the best of the provision is to take guard and take guard from Me O’ you who posses the core (to know the essence / spirit of anything).
The Hajis/Pilgrims joined in the joint cause of doing Hajj in the way of the Lord, are required to maintain decorum and discipline of Hajj, by not engaging in arguments and fighting and to be patient and practice endurance and perseverance over the inconveniences encountered in this undertaking.
As Allah has several attributes which are known as the beautiful names of Allah and the Book of Allah also has several attributes; similarly the City of Makkah also has attributes such as Bakka (root implying busy place), Umm ul Qura أُمَّ الْقُرَىٰ(mother of dwellings 42:7) etc.
A link to a related lecture about Kaaba and direction of belief is given below: