‘Nafs’ as conscious mind

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The word ‘Nafs’ in Al-Quran is used in the meaning of ‘psyche’ or ‘consciousness’ which is accountable for its orders. What choices we make or what decisions we take consciously, are by our ‘Nafs/Psyche’ and we will be accountable for these actions. When we are asleep our Nafs/consciousness is dead. Anything we do, during your sleep or unconscious state, we will not be held accountable for it. The below Ayas 39:42 and 6:50, define the characteristics of Nafs as a conscious state of mind.

39:42  اللَّهُ يَتَوَفَّى الْأَنفُسَ حِينَ مَوْتِهَا وَالَّتِي لَمْ تَمُتْ فِي مَنَامِهَا ۖ فَيُمْسِكُ الَّتِي قَضَىٰ عَلَيْهَا الْمَوْتَ وَيُرْسِلُ الْأُخْرَىٰ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

It is Allah who cause to die/complete the nafs/phyche at the time of death; and those whose time of death has not come (He causes these Nafs to die/ be completed) during their sleep. Then those (Nafoos) on whom He has passed the decree of death, He prevents (from returning to life), but the rest He sends until a term appointed; Verily in this are Signs for those who ponder.

6:60  وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَتَوَفَّاكُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا جَرَحْتُم بِالنَّهَارِ ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُكُمْ فِيهِ لِيُقْضَىٰ أَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّى ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

It is He who makes you (your Nafs/psyche) to die by night, and He knows of all that you do by the day. He raises you up again in it; so that a term appointed is fulfilled; In the end unto Him will be your return; then will He inform you of all that you used to do.

Nafs is the psyche/psychology of a person. The nafs is capable of both corruption and obedience to God. The one who puts efforts in purifying the Nafs will be successful in the eyes of the Lord.

91:7-10  وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا  فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا  قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّاهَا  وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّاهَا

By the Nafs/pshyce, and what shapes it, So He transmitted (to) it its corruption, and its obedience, Truly he succeeds who purifies it (the Nafs), and he fails who corrupts it (nafs)

The Nafs/psyche is prone to give orders of evil and corruption, unless with the help of God. The help of God comes to he, who tries to purify his Nafs (91:9)

12:53  وَمَا أُبَرِّئُ نَفْسِي ۚ إِنَّ النَّفْسَ لَأَمَّارَةٌ بِالسُّوءِ إِلَّا مَا رَحِمَ رَبِّي ۚ إِنَّ رَبِّي غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

“Nor do I absolve my own nafs (of blame). the Nafs/psyche certainly orders (to do) evil, unless on whom my Lord bestows His Mercy,  but surely my Lord is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.”

A child Nafs/psyche is not fully matured, therefore its is not considered accountable for its deeds as it is not considered a (matured) Nafs in Quran.

18:74  فَانطَلَقَا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا لَقِيَا غُلَامًا فَقَتَلَهُ قَالَ أَقَتَلْتَ نَفْسًا زَكِيَّةً بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ لَّقَدْ جِئْتَ شَيْئًا نُّكْرًا

Then they proceeded, until, when they met a child, he slew him. Moses said. “Did you slay an innocent Nafs without a Nafs? Truly you came up with a strange thing”

The Nafs/psyche is reprimanding/reproaching, unless one purifies it to become contended by keeping a clean conscience.

75:2  وَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ

But nay! I call to witness the reproaching Nafs

89:27-30  يَا أَيَّتُهَا النَّفْسُ الْمُطْمَئِنَّةُ  ارْجِعِي إِلَىٰ رَبِّكِ رَاضِيَةً مَّرْضِيَّةً  فَادْخُلِي فِي عِبَادِي  وَادْخُلِي جَنَّتِي

“O you the satisfied Nafs/psyche! Come to your Lord,- well pleased (yourself), and well-pleasing unto Him! Enter, in My servants! and, enter in My gardens! “

To be overcome by powerful influences of one’s environment of corruption and disbelief  and not taking corrective actions to control one’s Nafs, shall be considered as being unjust to one’s nafs (phyche)

4:97  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنفُسِهِمْ قَالُوا فِيمَ كُنتُمْ ۖ قَالُوا كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ قَالُوا أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُوا فِيهَا ۚ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا

Verily, when angels are completing/taking lives of those who were unjust to their nafs (psyche), they say. “In what (plight) were you?” They reply. “We were weak in the earth.” They say. “Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to have migrated?” For such the abode is in Hell,- What an evil abode! –

To be killed in the way of Allah, means that our Nafs/psyche is killed by us following orders of Allah. For example, our Nafs could be fond of doing things forbidden by Allah, then after getting Spirit of Allahs Ayats, we abstain our self from them and kill our nafs and its internal desires abstaining from evil. After killing our own Nafs and with the help of Spirit of Ayas, we then fight an intellectual fight with the Nafoos of other people.

9:111  إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ ۚ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ ۖ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ ۚ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بَايَعْتُم بِهِ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

Surely Allah has purchased from the believers their Nafs and their wealth,  (in return) is gardens for them. They fight in the way of Allah thus they kill (their nafs) and get killed (their nafs). A promise on Him in truth in At-Taurah / The Law and Al-Injeel / The Good news and in Al-Quran / The Reading. And who can fulfill with his promise than Allah, thus rejoice with your deal that you bargained with Him, and that is the supreme achievement.

When one has killed his own Nafs with Haq/Truth, only then he would be able to kill others Nafs/psyche with truth. Believers strive to sell their Nafs to Allah. After this sale, only Allah’s Will should remain in the Nafs.  There is a difference between believers killing their Nafs and rejecters killing their Nafs. Believers are killing their Nafs so that it is purchased by Allah and their self is nullified. Rejecters do the opposite, their Nafoos are not purchased by Allah.  Their Nafoos are their desires. Allah does not purchase their Nafoos and their Nafoos are dead in the eyes of Allah. One indication for successful sale of Nafs, is that once you kill an evil in your Nafs/psyche, the desire of it should not re-occur. If this desire reoccurs, it is an indication that the evil was not killed properly and Allah has not purchased your Nafs and you still have to make more effort *

Notes:

Lecture by Scholar Mohammad Shaikh on killing of Nafs:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/11/06/killing-2008/

 

 

Maula

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

‘Maula’ (مَوْلَا) means helper/protector. Al-Kitab states Allah as Maula Haq (the Maula of Truth) for the people.  Allah has declared that He is the Maula Al-Haq for the people and the other maulas, the people call upon, are batil/false (31:30). Allah has declared upon the prophet to proclaim that he does not have authority for any benefit or harm for the people (72:21). Nor the prophet has the knowledge of Ghaib or unseen because of which he could hear people in his absence (7:188). Also Allah has informed people that the other people they call upon are only people like them (7:194).

3:150 بَلِ اللَّهُ مَوْلَاكُمْ ۖ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ النَّاصِرِينَ

Instead, Allah is your Maula/protector, and He is the best of helpers.

8:40  وَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَاكُمْ ۚ نِعْمَ الْمَوْلَىٰ وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ

If they refuse, be sure that Allah is your Maula/Protector – the best to protect and the best to help.

9:51  قُل لَّن يُصِيبَنَا إِلَّا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَنَا هُوَ مَوْلَانَا ۚ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ

Say. “Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us. He is our Maula/protector”,  and on Allah let the believers should put their trust.

10:30  هُنَالِكَ تَبْلُو كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا أَسْلَفَتْ ۚ وَرُدُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلَاهُمُ الْحَقِّ ۖ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ

There will every nafs/pshyche get (the fruits of) the deeds it sent before. They will be brought back to Allah their Maula Al-Haq/ Rightful Protector, and their invented falsehoods will leave them in the lurch.

Allah is the protector of those who believe that Allah is their Maula, and those who reject and may consider others as their Maulas, Allah is not the Maula/protector of them.

47:11  ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَأَنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ لَا مَوْلَىٰ لَهُمْ

That is because Allah is the Maula/protector of those who believe, but those who reject, have no protector.

44:41  يَوْمَ لَا يُغْنِي مَوْلًى عَن مَّوْلًى شَيْئًا وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

The Day when no protector can avail his client in aught, and no help can they receive.

Maulas other than Allah, can not really help.

3:79  مَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَن يُؤْتِيَهُ اللَّهُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ ثُمَّ يَقُولَ لِلنَّاسِ كُونُوا عِبَادًا لِّي مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِن كُونُوا رَبَّانِيِّينَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تُعَلِّمُونَ الْكِتَابَ وَبِمَا كُنتُمْ تَدْرُسُونَ

It is not for a man whom is given the Book, and Wisdom, and the Prophet-hood; should say to people. “Be you my servants rather than Allah’s”. on the contrary (He would say) “Be you the servants of the Lord. For you have taught the Book and you have studied it.”

A messenger of Allah, never would say to people to be his servants or to make him their Maula. He would direct the focus of the people to Allah, as this is what Allah’s Books is about.

7:188  قُل لَّا أَمْلِكُ لِنَفْسِي نَفْعًا وَلَا ضَرًّا إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَلَوْ كُنتُ أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ لَاسْتَكْثَرْتُ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ وَمَا مَسَّنِيَ السُّوءُ ۚ إِنْ أَنَا إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ وَبَشِيرٌ لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Say. “I have no power over any good or harm to myself except as Allah wills. If I had knowledge of the ghaib/unseen, I should have multiplied all goods, and no evil should have touched me. I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings to those who have faith.”

Allah asks the Messenger to declare that he does not possess power for any good or harm, nor he has the knowledge of unseen. Had he such knowledge he would have got a lot of goodies. The role of the Messenger is to be a bringer of glad tidings and warner to the people.

72:21  قُلْ إِنِّي لَا أَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ ضَرًّا وَلَا رَشَدًا

Say, “Behold, I do not own the power to harm or enforce enlightenment upon you.”

The prophet declared that it is not for him any harm or good for the people. When prophet does not have this power, is it imaginable that any other person can possess such power over other people?

18:44  هُنَالِكَ الْوَلَايَةُ لِلَّهِ الْحَقِّ ۚ هُوَ خَيْرٌ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ عُقْبًا

Here Al-Walayat/the protection is only Allah’s, the True One; He is best in (the giving of) reward and best in requiting.

7:194  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ عِبَادٌ أَمْثَالُكُمْ ۖ فَادْعُوهُمْ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Verily those whom you call upon besides Allah are servants like you. Call upon them, and let them respond to you, if you are (indeed) truthful!

Ummi Prophet and Ummi Nation

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Word ‘Ummi’ is from root ( ا م م ), the same root from which the word Umm/Mother is formed. Common perception is that this word means ‘un-lettered’ i.e someone who is ‘unable to read or write’. This word is not a common word in Arabic usage, therefore not well defined in dictionaries. We will see occurrences of this word in Al-Kitab, to see what could be the intended meanings of this word.

In Al-Kitab, the word ‘Ummi’ is used for a prophet and also for a nation in which the prophet was sent. The word is used in a positive sense for the prophet and in the negative sense for the nation. The traditional rendering of the word ‘Ummi’ is ‘un-lettered’. We will look into the Ayas to see if the ‘Un-lettered’ rendering of this word makes sense in light of Quran.

62:2  هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَإِن كَانُوا مِن قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ

It is He, Who sent amongst the Ummi people a messenger from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to purify them, and to instruct them in the Book and Wisdom,- although they had been, before, in manifest error;-

Allah sent down among the ‘Ummiyyin’, a messenger from among them who recites Ayas of Allah on them and teaches them Al-Kitab and Widsom and before that, they were in manifest error. In this Ayat, ‘un-lettered’ would not fit as meaning of ‘Ummiyyin’ because if the nation does not know how to read and write then what is the purpose of sending a book to them. Also, historically we know that, the whole community at that time was not unlettered. There were many people who knew how to read and write at that time. 

The word ‘Ummi’ is from the same root as of the word ‘Umm’ (mother). ‘Ummi’ could be referring to ‘motherly’ or ‘original’ state. ‘Ummiyyin’ in above Ayat seems to be those people who are at their original state of belief in which they were born. i.e they don’t get guidance from the Book. They just believe what their environment and people around them tell them to believe. They have not themselves studied the Book and gained knowledge from it. Does not necessarily mean that they don’t know how to read and write. It just implies that they did not change their direction of belief in the light of the Book (2:141) and remained on their original belief system on which they were born.

2:78  وَمِنْهُمْ أُمِّيُّونَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا أَمَانِيَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ

And there are among them Ummis, who donot know about the Book, but (see therein their own) desires, and they do nothing but conjecture.

Now what about Nabi Ummi mentioned in Al-Kitab?  Is there a prophet mentioned in Al-Kitab who also remained on his original belief system? When we study Al-Kitab, we find that, one prophet in Al-Quran is referred to by his mother i.e Essa ibne Mariam A.S. He is the one, who is prophet from birth as a sign of Allah, i.e he was not granted prophet-hood at a later stage in life, but was made prophet since birth and was able to talk to people since that time.

19:29-30  فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ ۖ قَالُوا كَيْفَ نُكَلِّمُ مَن كَانَ فِي الْمَهْدِ صَبِيًّا قَالَ إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ آتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلَنِي نَبِيًّا

But she (Mariam) pointed to the baby. They said. “How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?” Essa / Jesus said: “I am indeed a servant of Allah: He (Allah) has given me Al-Kitab / The Book and made me a prophet.

The Messenger of Allah  declares to all mankind to believe in that Ummi prophet, who believes in Allah and his Words. The Ummi prophet in Al-Kitab declares that he and his mother are no gods but they are only servants of God (5:72, 5:116-117)

7:158  قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا الَّذِي لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ ۖ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

Say. “O people! I am to you all, the messenger of Allah, to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. there is no god but He. It is He who gives life and death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the Ummi Prophet, who believes in Allah and His words. And follow him so that you may be guided.”

The Ummi prophet teaches them from Hikma, the Book (Al-kitab), Taurat and Injeel, informs them about lawful and unlawful things and removes un-necessary burdens on them (3:47-50)

7:157  الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِيَّ الْأُمِّيَّ الَّذِي يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِندَهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ يَأْمُرُهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَاهُمْ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبَائِثَ وَيَضَعُ عَنْهُمْ إِصْرَهُمْ وَالْأَغْلَالَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِهِ وَعَزَّرُوهُ وَنَصَرُوهُ وَاتَّبَعُوا النُّورَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ مَعَهُ ۙ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

“Those who follow the messenger, the Ummi Prophet, whom they find written in what is with them,- in the Taurat/law and the Injeel/Good News;- for he commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure); He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them. So it is those who believe in him, honor him, help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him,- it is they who will prosper.”

For clarity on Ahlal-Kitab please see previous post (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/26/who-are-ahlal-kitab/ ). The below Ayat mentions ‘Ahlal Kitab’ and ‘Ummiyyin’ as two groups. There can be some overlapping between the groups as well. Ahlal Kitab are those who have the Book. ‘Ummiyin’ are those who don’t change the direction of belief in which they were born, so they can be of any religion or sect. The below Ayat mentions a portion of Ahlal Kitab who are not very honest in financial dealings because they have made by themselves some rules of financial transactions based on religious beliefs. They have a tendency to treat people differently in financial transactions based on religion. Their rules are tilted disadvantageously to people belonging to different religion than theirs.

3:75  وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ مَنْ إِن تَأْمَنْهُ بِقِنطَارٍ يُؤَدِّهِ إِلَيْكَ وَمِنْهُم مَّنْ إِن تَأْمَنْهُ بِدِينَارٍ لَّا يُؤَدِّهِ إِلَيْكَ إِلَّا مَا دُمْتَ عَلَيْهِ قَائِمًا ۗ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا لَيْسَ عَلَيْنَا فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ سَبِيلٌ وَيَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

Among the People of the Book are some who, if entrusted with a hoard of gold, will pay it back; others, who, if entrusted with a single Dinar/silver coin, will not repay it unless you constantly stood demanding, because, they say, “there is no call on us with these Ummi people.” but they tell a lie against Allah, and they know it.

The message of the Messenger to Ahlal Kitab and Ummiyyin is  ‘submit to the Ayas of Al-Kitab. If they submit to Al-Kitab they get guidance, but if they deviate to other teachings, the duty of the Messenger is to convey the message only.

3:20  فَإِنْ حَاجُّوكَ فَقُلْ أَسْلَمْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّهِ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِ ۗ وَقُل لِّلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ وَالْأُمِّيِّينَ أَأَسْلَمْتُمْ ۚ فَإِنْ أَسْلَمُوا فَقَدِ اهْتَدَوا ۖ وَّإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَاغُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِالْعِبَادِ

So if they dispute with you, say. “I have submitted myself to Allah and so have those who follow me.” And say to the People of the Book and to Ummis. “Do you (also) submit yourselves?” If they do, they are in right guidance, but if they turn back, your duty is to convey the Message; and Allah is an observer of (all) His servants.

Notes:

3:47-50  قَالَتْ رَبِّ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لِي وَلَدٌ وَلَمْ يَمْسَسْنِي بَشَرٌ ۖ قَالَ كَذَٰلِكِ اللَّهُ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ ۚ إِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ  وَيُعَلِّمُهُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَالتَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ  وَرَسُولًا إِلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنِّي قَدْ جِئْتُكُم بِآيَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۖ أَنِّي أَخْلُقُ لَكُم مِّنَ الطِّينِ كَهَيْئَةِ الطَّيْرِ فَأَنفُخُ فِيهِ فَيَكُونُ طَيْرًا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَأُبْرِئُ الْأَكْمَهَ وَالْأَبْرَصَ وَأُحْيِي الْمَوْتَىٰ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَأُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا تَأْكُلُونَ وَمَا تَدَّخِرُونَ فِي بُيُوتِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ  وَمُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَلِأُحِلَّ لَكُم بَعْضَ الَّذِي حُرِّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَجِئْتُكُم بِآيَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُونِ

She (Mariam) said. ‘O my Lord how shall I have a son when no man has ever touched me?’ He (Allah)  said. ‘This is how Allah creates what He wills. When He has decreed an order, He says it to, `Be` and it is!’ And (Allah) will teach him(Essa), Al-Kitab (The Book) and Al-Hikma (The Wisdom)  And At-Taurah (The Law) and Al-Injeel (The Good News). And a messenger to the children of Israel, that is I have come to you, with  Ayat (Sign) from your Lord, in that I make for you out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird (flyer), and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird (flyer) by Allah`s leave. and I heal the blind , and the lepers, and I give life to the dead, by Allah’s leave. And I inform you in what you consume, and what you store in your houses. Surely it is an Ayat(sign) for you if you are the believers. “‘(I have come to you), to attest the Taurat/Law which is between the hands and to make lawful to you part of what was forbidden to you; I have come to you with a Sign/Ayat from your Lord. So take guard of Allah, and obey me.

 

 

 

 

Ahlal-Bait in Al-Quran

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bait (بَيْت) in Arabic means ‘house’. Al-Bait when mentioned in Al-Quran refers to a  specific house which is Allah’s House. This House has been identified in Quran as the first House established for man-kind (3:96), and is situated in Bakka/Makka. Other identification for this House of Allah is that it is situated  in a non-agricultural valley, where fruits are brought from all over (14:37). This House of Allah is for guidance of all man-kind (3:96).

House in general is associated with providing protection to its inhabitants. Similarly a spiritual house is the one which is associated with faith. Most people in the world, have a spiritual house of faith, the foundations of which are built upon the religious or philosophical beliefs they adhere to. The people who have built their houses of faith not on the basis of Ayas of Allah but on the teaching of their leaders of faiths, their houses have the similitude of the house of a spider which is inherently weak (29:41) and will not be able to sustain when confronted with the force of Ayas of Allah.

Allah advise that the House of Allah is the guidance for all mankind and whosoever enters His House will be lead to security ( وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا 3:97). To enter the house of Allah, first you have to set your direction correctly towards the Masjid Ul Haram, where the House of Allah is situated. From whichever faith/philosophy you were before or are now, after clarification of these Ayas, you have to make your orientation towards Masjid ul Haram ( 2:144 وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ ۗ ). You should not be opposing system of Masjid ul Haram (8:34 وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلَّا يُعَذِّبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُوا أَوْلِيَاءَهُ ۚ إِنْ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُ إِلَّا الْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ) and not taking guidance from it if you want to be associated with the House of Allah.

The word ‘Ahl’ means ‘people’. The people associated with the House of Allah (in Al-Quran) will be ‘Ahlal Bait’ (As the people associated with Allah’s Book are Ahlal Kitab). The messengers of Allah who clarify the Ayas of Allah are obviously associated with the House of Allah as they invite towards Allah’s House and are Ahlal Bait. Likewise, the family of the Ibrahim A.S and the Prophets’ family are called Ahlal Bait in Quran.

3:96  إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِي بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكًا وَهُدًى لِّلْعَالَمِينَ

The first House appointed for mankind is that at Bakka/Makkah: Full of blessings and of guidance for all worlds.

The Bait/House in Quran is the House of Allah in Bakka/Makka.

3:97  فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّنَاتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۖ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا ۗ وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا ۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ

In it are clear Ayas / signs, the standing position of Ibraheem whoever enters it attains security. and for Allah is pilgrimage of the house on people, those who can afford the journey but if anyone denies, surely Allah is not in need of any of His beings in the worlds.

Who ever enters the House of Allah will attain security. ‘Ahl’ means people, who-ever enters the House of Allah spiritually will therefore be ‘Ahlal Bait’ in Quran. As Al-Bait in Quran is the House of Allah and ‘Ahlal Bait would be the people of the House of Allah.

29:41  مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ كَمَثَلِ الْعَنكَبُوتِ اتَّخَذَتْ بَيْتًا ۖ وَإِنَّ أَوْهَنَ الْبُيُوتِ لَبَيْتُ الْعَنكَبُوتِ ۖ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ

The example of those who take protectors other than Allah is that of the spider, who builds a house; and truly the flimsiest of houses is that of the spider;- if they but knew.

The people who will take an alternative house instead of Allah’s House based on teachings other than Allah’s and His Ayas, will have a weak house without solid foundations.

22:26  وَإِذْ بَوَّأْنَا لِإِبْرَاهِيمَ مَكَانَ الْبَيْتِ أَن لَّا تُشْرِكْ بِي شَيْئًا وَطَهِّرْ بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْقَائِمِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ

And when We pointed out the place of the house to Ibrahim “associate not anything with Me; and purify My house for those who go around, and who stand and bow, prostrate.”

The House of Allah is associated with removal of all sort of associations with Allah and bowing and prostrating on the Ayas of Allah. All messengers of Allah, order this to the believers and lead them towards the House of Allah to be Ahlal Bait. Ibrahim’s A.S and his family (his wife and sons) is specifically named in Quran to be Ahlal Bait/People of the House.

11:71 -73  وَامْرَأَتُهُ قَائِمَةٌ فَضَحِكَتْ فَبَشَّرْنَاهَا بِإِسْحَاقَ وَمِن وَرَاءِ إِسْحَاقَ يَعْقُوبَ  قَالَتْ يَا وَيْلَتَىٰ أَأَلِدُ وَأَنَا عَجُوزٌ وَهَٰذَا بَعْلِي شَيْخًا ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عَجِيبٌ  قَالُوا أَتَعْجَبِينَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ ۖ رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ ۚ إِنَّهُ حَمِيدٌ مَّجِيدٌ

And his wife was standing and she laughed then We gave her the good news with Ishaq A.S and after Ishaq, Yaqoob A.S. She said : O Alas, shall I bear a child? And I am an old woman, and my husband is an old man. Surely this would be an amazing thing. They said : are you amazed at the order of Allah, the mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you, O’People of the House! Surely, He is praiseworthy, Glorious.

In the below Ayat the family and wives of the Prophet pbuh are stated to be Ahlal Bait.

33:32-33 يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ ۚ إِنِ اتَّقَيْتُنَّ فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا   وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَىٰ ۖ وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِينَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا

O’women of the Prophet, you are not like any one from the (other) women, if you take guard, do not be subjugated with the saying (conversation) so the one who has disease in his heart will have desire, and you should speak an acknowledged saying. And keep link with your houses and you do not decorate yourself as you decorated previously in ignorance and establish Salah/Prayers and give Zakat/justification and obey Allah and His messenger surely Allah wants to take away the filth from you O’people of the house and to purify you as purified ones.

 

 33:40  مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا

Mohammad is not the father / ancestor of any one of you men but he is the messenger of Allah and the seal of prophets. And Allah has knowledge of everything.

As per Quran, Mohammad pbuh is not the father/forefather of any man. Therefore Allah does not accept claim of anyone to be in the lineage of the messenger Mohammad PBUH, why because Ayat further says that ‘But he is a Messenger of Allah and Seal of Prophets’. So Allah has projected the role of Mohammad pbuh as the Messenger and seal of prophets and not as a founder of a family. Now of course, Mohammad pbuh as a person/bashar may have a lineage, however, this lineage is not spiritually considered by Allah associated with Mohammad the messenger.

28:12  وَحَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِ الْمَرَاضِعَ مِن قَبْلُ فَقَالَتْ هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَىٰ أَهْلِ بَيْتٍ يَكْفُلُونَهُ لَكُمْ وَهُمْ لَهُ نَاصِحُونَ

And we ordained that he (Moosa) refused suck at first, until (His sister came up and) said. “Shall I point out to you the people of a house that will nourish and bring him up for you and be sincere to him?”

When the word used in Quran is Ahle Bait, instead of Ahlal Bait, it means a ‘household’.

 

Notes:

What guidance can the World take from the House of Lord? Allah has established place of Ibrahim at the House/Kaaba and ordered mankind to take their ‘mussala’ from the place of Ibrahim, who is the Imam for mankind. See earlier post about procedure of As-Salat from Quran (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/21/salat-procedure/ ).

2:144 قَدْ نَرَىٰ تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ ۖ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْلَةً تَرْضَاهَا ۚ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۚ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ ۗ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۗ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ

Without doubt, We see the movements of your face in the sky, so, We will revert you to a Qiblah/direction (of faith) that shall please you. So revert yourself to the intersection/portion of the Sacred Mosque: and from wherever you come, revert yourselves to its intersection/portion. Surely, those who are given the Book definitely know that this is the truth from their Lord. and Allah is not unaware of what they are doing.

8:34 وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلَّا يُعَذِّبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُوا أَوْلِيَاءَهُ ۚ إِنْ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُ إِلَّا الْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

But what plea they have, that Allah should not punish them when they are in opposition about the Sacred Mosque and they are not its protectors (Walis). No one can be its protectors except those who guard, but most of them do not understand.

3:103  وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا ۚ وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنتُمْ أَعْدَاءً فَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُم بِنِعْمَتِهِ إِخْوَانًا وَكُنتُمْ عَلَىٰ شَفَا حُفْرَةٍ مِّنَ النَّارِ فَأَنقَذَكُم مِّنْهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

And hold fast all together to the rope of Allah and do not be divided among yourselves, and remember the favor of Allah on you when you were enemies and He joined your hearts in love; you became brethren and you were on the brink of the pit of fire and He saved you from it. Likewise Allah make His Ayats/Signs clear to you that you may be guided.

Believers when leaving the sectarian teachings and holding to one rope of Allah, will get rid of hatred with each other in their hearts and will be saved after being very near to be fallen off from the edge of the pit of fire.

Ar-Riba / The Increase

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The word Riba / رِبَا  is from root word (ر ب و). This root word conveys the meanings of  increased/augmented, excess/addition, to grow/swell etc. Ar-Riba (الرِّبَا) when used in Quran, means ‘the increase’ referring to a specific increase. Lets review Ayas of Quran to see what is this specific increase:

4:161 وَأَخْذِهِمُ الرِّبَا وَقَدْ نُهُوا عَنْهُ وَأَكْلِهِمْ أَمْوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالْبَاطِلِ ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

And they took Ar-Riba / The Increase and without doubt they were prohibited about it. And they ate the wealth of the people (the categories) with falsehood and We have prepared for the rejecters among them a painful punishment.

The above Ayat states that Ar-Riba/the increase is prohibited. Also we come to know that Ar-Riba/the increase is related to the wealth of the people and eating Ar-Riba is related to eating wealth of the people. So we try to find where the wealth of the people is defined in Al-Quran.

8:41  وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُم مِّن شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ إِن كُنتُمْ آمَنتُم بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

And know that whatever Ghanim / Profit / gain you get from anything, if you believe in Allah then surely, One Fifth is for Allah and for the Messenger and for the relatives and for the orphans and for the needy (poor) and for the sons of the way, and whatever We sent down over Our servant on the day of the division, the day when the two accumulations meet. And Allah has power over everything.

In the above Ayat we see that Allah is ordering what ever we gain from anything, the fifth portion of that wealth is for certain categories e.g Allah, Messenger (i.e propagation of message of Allah), orphans, poors and for way-farers. So Allah has ordered that one fifth portion of our savings (gain=which is saved after expenses over a certain period of time) is the defined wealth for these categories, to be distributed among them. However, if one does not pay the defined portion of his savings as per above instruction then he is increasing his own wealth by holding back on Allah’s prescribed portion, and this is therefore the increase (Ar-Riba) which Allah has forbidden.  

2:278  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَذَرُوا مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الرِّبَا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

O’ you who believe, take guard of Allah and leave off, what remains from Ar-Riba/the increase, if you are believers.

When the Ayas related to Ar-Riba are clear to believers they are asked to leave that portion of the wealth which they have been holding back from the deserving categories. That is if they have been paying less than 1/5th portion of their savings on the deserving categories, then they are now advised to pay the prescribed amount.

2:280  وَإِن كَانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظِرَةٌ إِلَىٰ مَيْسَرَةٍ ۚ وَأَن تَصَدَّقُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

And if he is in difficulties, then respite is given to him towards easiness and that you give sadaq / charity, that is better for you if you would have known.

If some one is not currently able to pay the prescribed amount to the categories after doing calculations of 1/5th of savings, (the gain is the increase in your net worth from the last calculation period) then the same will remain in his account to pay, and he can pay them later on, upon ease of his financial situation. Please see previous post on Zakat (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/11/04/zakatcharity/ )

3:130  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا الرِّبَا أَضْعَافًا مُّضَاعَفَةً ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

O’ you who believe! eat not Ar-Riba, double redouble and take guard of Allah so that you may prosper.

Warning to believers not to pay less than the amount of charity prescribed in Quran. If you are paying 2.5% only, instead of prescribed 20% then you are eating the ‘wealth of the categories of people’ multiple times.

2:279  فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا فَأْذَنُوا بِحَرْبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۖ وَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُءُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُمْ لَا تَظْلِمُونَ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ

Then if you do not, (leave off, what remains from Ar-Riba/the increase),so take a notice of war from Allah and His messenger. And if you turn back, so for you are the heads of your wealth. You do not oppress and you will not be oppressed.

Please note that the notice of war has been given by Allah to the people who believe but eat Riba/Increase. The notice of war is given only in this Aya in the whole Quran and it is issued to the momineen/believers. And when you pay heed, for you are the heads of the wealth i.e 80% of the savings and the remaining 20% is for the categories of people (deserving of Sadqa/Zakat).

8:69  فَكُلُوا مِمَّا غَنِمْتُمْ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

So, enjoy what you have saved, lawful and good. But fear Allah. For Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

80% of the savings after paying the 20% portion to the categories, is lawful for us to spend. The Ayat 2:279 informs that for you is the heads of the wealth i.e after paying the prescribed portion in Zakat.

2:261  مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ حَبَّةٍ أَنبَتَتْ سَبْعَ سَنَابِلَ فِي كُلِّ سُنبُلَةٍ مِّائَةُ حَبَّةٍ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يُضَاعِفُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

The example of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is like the example of grain that grows seven ears and in every ear is 100 grains. And Allah multiplies for whom He wills. And Allah is All spacious, All knowing

The money spent from your wealth (after paying the due share of categories) increases in multiples in the nearness of Allah.

3:39  وَمَا آتَيْتُم مِّن رِّبًا لِّيَرْبُوَ فِي أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ فَلَا يَرْبُو عِندَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا آتَيْتُم مِّن زَكَاةٍ تُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَ اللَّهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُضْعِفُونَ

And what you give from Riba/increase,  to increase in the wealth of people (the categories) then it does not increase in the nearness of Allah and what you give from Zakah/ justification) intending the face of Allah so they are those who will get manifolds.

If you have not paid the full due share of 20% from savings then any charity you give is being given from Ar-Riba/the increase which you are holding back from the wealth of categories (by not giving from the Allah’s allotted share to them). So this charity does not grow in the nearness of Allah, as it was already their share, not your wealth.

2:276  يَمْحَقُ اللَّهُ الرِّبَا وَيُرْبِي الصَّدَقَاتِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ أَثِيمٍ

Allah removes Ar-Riba/the increase , and increases Sadqa/charities , and Allah does not love any rejecter, sinner.

There exists an inverse relationship for the Al-Riba and Al-Sadqat. As you spend from Sadqat the Ar-Riba decreases  (if you have held the due share to be paid from savings)

2:275  الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا ۗ وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا ۚ فَمَن جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىٰ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Those who eat Ar-Riba/the increase,  do not take a stand except like one, who stands to madness from the touch of Satan. That is because they say that Al-Bai/the deal  is the example of Ar-Riba . And Allah has made Al-Bai/the deal  lawful and has made Ar-Riba/the increase unlawful so he to whom comes the sermon from his Lord then he abstain, that is past for him. And his affair is towards Allah, and whosoever returns , then they are the companions of the fire. They will live forever in it.

The common perception however in the society is that Ar-Riba is the interest i.e a periodical charge on the original amount of loan. They say that if you loan some one money and charge an amount in addition to the original amount, then this is Ar-Riba. Most people think, that the interest bank charges on loans, is Ar-Riba, while Al-Bai is ‘a deal’ i.e a normal trade transaction. Normally when banks give a loan they make a deal with the loanee and both parties agree on the loan amount and the interest to be charged on the loan. Those people who equate Ar-Riba (which is the increase in wealth by not paying the prescribed charity) with Al-Bai (that is the deal which, is made with the bank or any other loaner or trading partner), are declared as crazy people. They are two different things. Deals are lawful and Ar-Riba is not lawful.

We know that there is a time value of money. If you loan some one a certain amount of money in currency and if he returns the same denomination of currency, in lets say 20 years time, the purchasing power of that amount of currency would have been reduced multiple times. In fact it will not be fair to you to be returned the same amount of currency, loaned several years earlier keeping in view the factor of depreciation of currency.

Also we know that any thing of value when we borrow it from the owner, we have to pay rent for it. For example if we live in some one’s house, we pay rent for it. Similarly if we rent someone’s car we have to pay rent for it. Will it be fair to the person whose house we are borrowing, not to pay him any rent? Similar is the case of money, as it has a value attached to it. Will it be fair to get a loan from someone and not to pay any rent on that loan? Consider the example of a house valued at one million dollars. When you rent this house, you will pay a certain amount of rent on it. If instead of a house, you borrow, one million dollars in currency, is there no obligation on you to pay the due amount of rent to the loaner?  If you borrow a thing of value and do not pay any rent for it, is definitely not fair to the lender.

The justification we normally hear is that instead of making a deal of paying fixed amount interest, we should share in profit and loss of that business. However, we know that a majority of people in the society are not business oriented people. They don’t have the capability of carrying out a business profitably. At best they will be sleeping partners and then depend upon the active partners for the fair returns and the fees charged for being active partners. Many people in the society simply cannot take the risk of being involved in businesses e.g widowers and retired people, they do not have the risk taking capability nor any risk taking is suitable for them. Then why should they be forced to take un-necessary risks on which they don’t have any control. Similarly it is banks’ business to give loans to people who can do business and take risks. However, banks cannot be in partnership of profit and loss sharing with all those people who take loans from banks. It is simply not possible to handle so many businesses and risks for banks. Therefore interest is the factor which keeps the economic cycle running i.e deposits by general public to the banks or Government institutions and operation of banks, in turn by lending the money to prospective people or groups who can invest and  run businesses and utilize loans for their businesses.

Usury i.e very high interest rates is definitely a social evil as the poorest of people fall victims to it. Normally, the interest rate you will get depends upon your credit rating. The people with the best credit ratings will get the best rate of interest on their loans. Those people who are at the highest risks of being able to return the loan, get the highest rates of interests on their loans. These very people are the ones who deserve the charity of people (20% share for categories)or subsidies from the Government, instead of getting loans from loan sharks on high interest rate. While Quran does not prohibits interests or deals that people make with one another, it is the duty of the Government to curb un-fair deals as like other social or criminal evils.

Notes:

The Arabic Word for ‘Interest’ is (فائده ).

 

links to a lecture by scholar Mohammad Shaikh on Ar-Riba:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/10/26/riba-increase-2007/

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/12/02/riba-2006/       (in Urdu)

Usage of root word (ر ب و) in Quran:

raba vb. (1) perf. act. 22:5, 41:39 impf. act. 30:39, 30:39 pcple. act. 13:17, 16:92, 69:10  rabwah n.f. 2:265, 23:50  riba n.m. 2:275, 2:275, 2:275, 2:276, 2:278, 3:130, 4:161, 30:39  rabba vb. (2) perf. act. 17:24 impf. act. 26:18  arba vb. (4) impf. act. 2:276  LL, V3, p: 189, 190

 

Al-Ijl/ the Calf of Bani-Israeel

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Ijl ( عِجْل) in Arabic translates to ‘calf’. The root of this word is ( ع ج ل ) which in its core means ‘to be hasty’ or ‘hastiness’. There is a hadith in Al-Kitab relating people of Prophet Moosa A.S, to a ‘calf’, which they clung to for worship after Prophet Moosa went away from them for a certain period of time. The narration informs that the people of prophet Moosa A.S went through an ordeal in the form of the Pharaoh being very oppressive to them. When Allah emancipated them from the ordeal of Pharaoh and they crossed the sea, they went pass a people who were serving their beloved Idols ( أَصْنَامٍ). Bani Israeel were impressed by them and they asked Moosa A.S to assign similar idols for them. Moosa told them not to act like Jahil/Ignorant nation. After some time Moosa A.S went away from them for a certain period of time. During this time, a character which Quran calls ‘Samiri’, misguided the people to serve/worship a ‘calf’. Prophet Haroon A.S, was unable to dissuade the nation from the worship of the calf, due to overwhelming emotional attachment of the people with ‘the calf’.

We will analyze some of the terms used in this narration as below.

‘Samiri’ is from root word ( س م ر ) which in its core means idle or vain talk. Samiree is the name given to a character who leads others astray by making vain stories. Also he colored these stories from the ‘effect’ of the ‘Messenger’ as per what the ‘Nafs’ of Samiri suggested to him. So, these idol talks about the messenger that Samiri invented were from the suggestions of his own ‘nafs’ instead of the facts about the messenger. Moosa A.S, on this return, confronted Samiri and told him that what he had invented will be destroyed and thrown away and he will be saying to people not to touch him. That is what the people of Samiri’s character do; they tell people that they are ‘untouchables’. With the effect of the messenger in their vain talks, they make their vain talks appear as ‘unquestionable’ and themselves as ‘untouchables’.

The root of the word ( ع ج ل ) conveys meanings of ‘hastiness’. The term Al-Ijl/the calf represents some thing which people of Moosa clung to, in his absence. Quran states that these people’s hearts were made to drink ‘the calf’. It is not possible to drink a calf. Therefore ‘the calf’ in Quran is representative of something, towards which Quran wants our attention drawn. Quran further states that ‘the calf’ was a ‘Jasad/body with sounds’. Jasad refers to a mere body, i.e a body without ‘spirit’. So Al-Ijl is a body without spirit and when this body emits sounds, these sounds are lacking ‘spirit’ also and unable to guide people to the right path. Therefore ‘Al-Ijl’ can be deemed as representing a body of a system, which is based on vain talks and lacking the spirit of Book of Allah. When this system speaks, it makes strange sounds which are not able to guide the people to the right path. The people making this body of system induce effects of the Messenger in order to appeal to people emotions to make them cling to this body without spirit. The people making this body, make sure that they are considered ‘untouchable’ and their system unquestionable.

7:138 وَجَاوَزْنَا بِبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ الْبَحْرَ فَأَتَوْا عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ يَعْكُفُونَ عَلَىٰ أَصْنَامٍ لَّهُمْ ۚ قَالُوا يَا مُوسَى اجْعَل لَّنَا إِلَٰهًا كَمَا لَهُمْ آلِهَةٌ ۚ قَالَ إِنَّكُمْ قَوْمٌ تَجْهَلُونَ

We took the Children of Israeel across the sea. They came upon a people devoted to some idols they had. They said. “O Moses! make for us a god like unto the gods they have.” He said. “Surely ye are a people without knowledge.”

2:92  وَلَقَدْ جَاءَكُم مُّوسَىٰ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ مِن بَعْدِهِ وَأَنتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ

There came to you Moosa with clear (Signs); yet you took the Ijl/calf after that, and you were the wrong-doers.

Allah is lamenting, why after having clear Signs, you people grabbed the Ijl/calf? Why is it they don’t consider the clear Ayas enough for them and have to seek the Ijl/calf?

2:54  وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ يَا قَوْمِ إِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُم بِاتِّخَاذِكُمُ الْعِجْلَ فَتُوبُوا إِلَىٰ بَارِئِكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ عِندَ بَارِئِكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

And remember Moosa said to his people. “O my people! You have indeed wronged your nafs by your taking the Ijl/calf. So turn (in repentance) towards your Maker, and slay your nafs/psyche; that will be better for you in the sight of your Maker.” Then He turned towards you (in forgiveness), for He is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.

2:93  وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ خُذُوا مَا آتَيْنَاكُم بِقُوَّةٍ وَاسْمَعُوا ۖ قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَأُشْرِبُوا فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْعِجْلَ بِكُفْرِهِمْ ۚ قُلْ بِئْسَمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِهِ إِيمَانُكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

And remember We took your covenant and We raised above you, At-Toor.  “Hold firmly to what We have given you, and listen”. They said.” We hear, and we disobey.” And they were made to drink into their hearts the Ijl/calf because of their rejection. Say, “Vile indeed are the orders of your faith if you are the believers!”

The Ijl represent something which they drank in their hearts with so much emotional attachment because of the vain talks with effects of the messenger, that when they were ordered to hold with power what Allah has given them, they said that they will disobey. Allah says it is bad what their faith orders them to do.

7:148  وَاتَّخَذَ قَوْمُ مُوسَىٰ مِن بَعْدِهِ مِنْ حُلِيِّهِمْ عِجْلًا جَسَدًا لَّهُ خُوَارٌ ۚ أَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّهُ لَا يُكَلِّمُهُمْ وَلَا يَهْدِيهِمْ سَبِيلًا ۘ اتَّخَذُوهُ وَكَانُوا ظَالِمِينَ

The people of Moosa grabbed a calf, after him, from their ornamentations. A body with sound. Don’t they see that it did not speak to them, nor guided them to a path? They took it and they were oppressors.

Ornamentations are things which are made to appear good in the eyes of people. In 16:63 it is stated that Satan makes the works of the people appear attractive to them(تَاللَّهِ لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمَمٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمُ الْيَوْمَ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ )

7:150  وَلَمَّا رَجَعَ مُوسَىٰ إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ غَضْبَانَ أَسِفًا قَالَ بِئْسَمَا خَلَفْتُمُونِي مِن بَعْدِي ۖ أَعَجِلْتُمْ أَمْرَ رَبِّكُمْ ۖ وَأَلْقَى الْأَلْوَاحَ وَأَخَذَ بِرَأْسِ أَخِيهِ يَجُرُّهُ إِلَيْهِ ۚ قَالَ ابْنَ أُمَّ إِنَّ الْقَوْمَ اسْتَضْعَفُونِي وَكَادُوا يَقْتُلُونَنِي فَلَا تُشْمِتْ بِيَ الْأَعْدَاءَ وَلَا تَجْعَلْنِي مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ

When Moses came back to his people, angry and grieved, he said. “Evil it is that ye have done in my place in my absence. did ye make haste to bring on the judgment of your Lord?” He put down the tablets, seized his brother by (the hair of) his head, and dragged him to him. Aaron said. “Son of my mother! the people did indeed weakened me, and they were near to kill me! Make not the enemies gloat over me, nor count me amongst the wrong doers.”

When Prophet Moosa A.S returned to his nation, he was furious by the action of his people, and he asked them did they make haste in the orders of the Lord? So the calf’ is also associated with the ‘hastiness’ in orders of the Lord. The Spirit of the orders of the Lord does not come with the wishes of people, it only comes with the Will of Allah. Anyone wishing to get understanding of the Allah’s orders quickly, cannot attain by studying books from a huge body of religious system made by people. ‘The Spirit’ only comes to a pure heart, with the Will of Allah and it does not come in haste (75:16 لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ ) .

7:152  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا الْعِجْلَ سَيَنَالُهُمْ غَضَبٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَذِلَّةٌ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُفْتَرِينَ

Those who took the Ijl/calf will indeed be overwhelmed with wrath from their Lord, and with shame in this life. thus do We recompense those who invent (falsehoods).

The people who take Al-Ijl/the calf are Muftareen/makers of false hood they will experience the wrath of Allah in this world as well.

20:85  قَالَ فَإِنَّا قَدْ فَتَنَّا قَوْمَكَ مِن بَعْدِكَ وَأَضَلَّهُمُ السَّامِرِيُّ

(Allah) said. “We have tested your people after you. the Samiri has led them astray.”

Samiri is the vain talker/story teller who leads the people astray.

20:87  قَالُوا مَا أَخْلَفْنَا مَوْعِدَكَ بِمَلْكِنَا وَلَٰكِنَّا حُمِّلْنَا أَوْزَارًا مِّن زِينَةِ الْقَوْمِ فَقَذَفْنَاهَا فَكَذَٰلِكَ أَلْقَى السَّامِرِيُّ

They said. “We broke not the promise to thee, as far as lay in our power, but we were made to carry the weight of the ornamentation of the nation, and we dropped it, and that was what the Samiri suggested.

The nation was carrying a huge weight of things which were made alluring in their eyes (16:63). The used it in the making of the calf as suggested by Samiri.

20:88  فَأَخْرَجَ لَهُمْ عِجْلًا جَسَدًا لَّهُ خُوَارٌ فَقَالُوا هَٰذَا إِلَٰهُكُمْ وَإِلَٰهُ مُوسَىٰ فَنَسِيَ أَفَلَا يَرَوْنَ أَلَّا يَرْجِعُ إِلَيْهِمْ قَوْلًا وَلَا يَمْلِكُ لَهُمْ ضَرًّا وَلَا نَفْعًا

Then he brought out Ijl/calf before the (people) a body with sounds. So they said, This is your god, and the god of Moses, but (Moses) has forgotten! Could they not see that it could not return them a word (for answer), and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good?

Calf was a mere body (without Spirit) emitting sounds (deprived of guidance). He made the people believe that this body is the lord for the people and also the lord of Moosa, however Moosa forgot (so Samiri preserved it for the people). That’s what Samiri made people to believe.

20:95-96  قَالَ فَمَا خَطْبُكَ يَا سَامِرِيُّ  قَالَ بَصُرْتُ بِمَا لَمْ يَبْصُرُوا بِهِ فَقَبَضْتُ قَبْضَةً مِّنْ أَثَرِ الرَّسُولِ فَنَبَذْتُهَا وَكَذَٰلِكَ سَوَّلَتْ لِي نَفْسِي

(Moses) said. “What then is your case, O Samiri?” He replied. “I saw what they did not see. so I took a handful of from the effects of the Messenger, and threw it in,  thus did my nafs/psyche suggested to me.”

Samiri told that he saw an opportunity. So, he took a only a handful from the effects/teachings of the Messenger and threw it in the mix of Ijl (The body of hasty and false teachings)

20:97  قَالَ فَاذْهَبْ فَإِنَّ لَكَ فِي الْحَيَاةِ أَن تَقُولَ لَا مِسَاسَ ۖ وَإِنَّ لَكَ مَوْعِدًا لَّن تُخْلَفَهُ ۖ وَانظُرْ إِلَىٰ إِلَٰهِكَ الَّذِي ظَلْتَ عَلَيْهِ عَاكِفًا ۖ لَّنُحَرِّقَنَّهُ ثُمَّ لَنَنسِفَنَّهُ فِي الْيَمِّ نَسْفًا

(Moses) said. “Go (from here)! For you in this life will be that, you will say, ‘touch me not’; and moreover you has a promise that will not fail. Now look at your god, of whom you had become a devout . We will certainly put it in a blazing fire and scatter it in the sea!”

Samiri the story teller, will say to the people ‘Don’t touch me’ probably in the sense that,  he is ‘un-touchable’.

21:37  خُلِقَ الْإِنسَانُ مِنْ عَجَلٍ ۚ سَأُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِي فَلَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونِ

Man is a creature of haste. soon (enough) will I show you My Signs; thus ye should not hasten/rush!

Allah will show His signs to man at the right time. People cannot make haste in their eagerness to get the essence of Allah’s Ayas by studying books written by people.

20:14  فَتَعَالَى اللَّهُ الْمَلِكُ الْحَقُّ ۗ وَلَا تَعْجَلْ بِالْقُرْآنِ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يُقْضَىٰ إِلَيْكَ وَحْيُهُ ۖ وَقُل رَّبِّ زِدْنِي عِلْمًا

High above all is Allah, the King of the Truth! Be not in haste with the Qur’an before its inspiration to thee is completed, but say, “O my Lord! advance me in knowledge.”

We have to pray to Allah supplicating to increase us in knowledge.

48:20  وَعَدَكُمُ اللَّهُ مَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً تَأْخُذُونَهَا فَعَجَّلَ لَكُمْ هَٰذِهِ وَكَفَّ أَيْدِيَ النَّاسِ عَنكُمْ وَلِتَكُونَ آيَةً لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا

Allah has promised you many gains that ye shall acquire, and He has given you this (some of it) beforehand; and He has restrained the hands of people from you; that it may be a Sign for the believers, and that He may guide you to a straight path.

The gains for the believers are also the secrets which Allah opens up for them. Some of the gains they get quickly and some come with time. Allah make these gains a sign for the believers, He protects them and leads them to a straight path.

Notes:

The word ‘samiran’  is also used in 23:67 in the meaning of vain stories. All translator have translated it in similar way.

23:67  مُسْتَكْبِرِينَ بِهِ سَامِرًا تَهْجُرُونَ

Being arrogant with it like vain fables, you abandoned.

 

Quranic Duas/Supplications

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

As we saw in the last post of As-Salat, Allah taught Adam ‘words’ to ask forgiveness and when Adam prayed with these words, Allah accepted his supplication (2:37). In this post we will see some duas/prayers in Quran which we can use in various situations normally encountered in life. By identifying our situation and appropriate prayer/dua in Quran for the situation, we can pray to Allah in Quran Words. We should honestly mean these Words, and repeat these Words/Ayas in As-Salat.

7:55 ادْعُوا رَبَّكُمْ تَضَرُّعًا وَخُفْيَةً ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ

Call on your Lord with humility and privately, for Allah does not like those who trespass beyond bounds.

Supplication to Allah to increase our knowledge:

20:114   رَّبِّ زِدْنِي عِلْمًا

“O my Lord! Advance me in knowledge.”

Prayers to make us and our offspring steadfast in As-Salat and asking forgiveness for ourselves and our parents:

14:40-41  رَبِّ اجْعَلْنِي مُقِيمَ الصَّلَاةِ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۚ رَبَّنَا وَتَقَبَّلْ دُعَاءِ  رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الْحِسَابُ

“O’ my Lord! Make me the one who establish As-salah/the prayer and also from my offspring and O my Lord! You accept my call.”

Asking for betterment in this world and hereafter:

2:201   رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ

Our Lord! give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and save us from the torment of the fire!”

When engulfed in problems in life, the below supplication makes us realize that the problems will not exceed our capacity to handle them and we supplicate to Allah to lessen our burden and grant us His forgiveness, blessings and help.

2:286  لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ ۗ رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْرًا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ ۖ وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا ۚ أَنتَ مَوْلَانَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

Allah does not put to task a nafs/soul except to his capacity;  what he earns is for him, and what he has earned is on him.  O’ our Lord, do not catch us if we forget and we make a mistake , O’ our Lord, do not load a burden on us like you burdened on those from before us ,  O’ our Lord, do not burden us with that we do not have the strength to bear, pardon us, and forgive us and have mercy on us! ,  You are our protector, so help us over the nation of rejecters.

On realization of a committed blunder and honestly seeking forgiveness and turning back to the Lord:

7:23  رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

O Our Lord! We have oppressed our nafs/pshyce and if You do not have forgiveness for us and mercy for us, definitely we will be from the losers.”

On seeking Allah’s intervention for providing right guidance in an affair:

18:10  رَبَّنَا آتِنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً وَهَيِّئْ لَنَا مِنْ أَمْرِنَا رَشَدًا

“Our Lord! bestow on us Mercy from Yourself, and dispose of our affair for us in the right way!”

Supplication  to keep us steadfast after we receive guidance from our Lord:

3:8  رَبَّنَا لَا تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ

“Our Lord!, Let not our hearts be crooked after You have guided us, and grant us mercy from Your nearness; for You are the Grantor.”

When persecuted by rejectors, prayers to Allah to grant patience, perseverance and help against the oppressors.

2:250  رَبَّنَا أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَنَا وَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

“Our Lord! Pour out patience on us and make our steps firm. Help us against the nation of rejecters.”

Prayers asking for authority and joining with the righteous people:

26:83  رَبِّ هَبْ لِي حُكْمًا وَأَلْحِقْنِي بِالصَّالِحِينَ

“O my Lord! Grant me authority, and join me with the righteous/reformers

Prayers to make one’s family a source of pride and for one to become a guide to  righteous people.

25:74  وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا هَبْ لَنَا مِنْ أَزْوَاجِنَا وَذُرِّيَّاتِنَا قُرَّةَ أَعْيُنٍ وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ إِمَامًا

And those who say, “O’ our Lord, grant for us the cooling of eyes from our pairs and our offspring and make us an Imam / Leader for those who guard.”

Prayers on start of travel:

43:13-14   سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي سَخَّرَ لَنَا هَٰذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لَهُ مُقْرِنِينَ وَإِنَّا إِلَىٰ رَبِّنَا لَمُنقَلِبُونَ

Glory to Him, Who has subjected these to our (use), for we could never have accomplished this (by ourselves), “And to our Lord, surely, we are to go back!”

When taking up a challenging task or speaknig to a formidable audience:

20:25-28   رَبِّ اشْرَحْ لِي صَدْرِي  وَيَسِّرْ لِي أَمْرِي  وَاحْلُلْ عُقْدَةً مِّن لِّسَانِي  يَفْقَهُوا قَوْلِي

“O! my Lord expand my chest for me and make my task easy and open the knot from my tongue So they may understand what I say.”

For lessening of parents’ difficulties in their old age:

17:24  رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي صَغِيرًا

“My Lord! bestow on them your Mercy as they cherished me in childhood.”

To become grateful for the blessings that Allah bestowed on us and our parents:

27:19   رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِي أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ وَعَلَىٰ وَالِدَيَّ وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَالِحًا تَرْضَاهُ وَأَدْخِلْنِي بِرَحْمَتِكَ فِي عِبَادِكَ الصَّالِحِينَ

“O my Lord! direct me that I should be grateful for your favours, which thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may work the righteousness that will please Thee. And admit me, by your Grace, to the ranks of your righteous Servants.”

After getting blessings from the Lord:

27:40   هَٰذَا مِن فَضْلِ رَبِّي لِيَبْلُوَنِي أَأَشْكُرُ أَمْ أَكْفُرُ ۖ وَمَن شَكَرَ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ رَبِّي غَنِيٌّ كَرِيمٌ

“This is by the Grace of my Lord!- to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And if any is grateful, truly his gratitude is (a gain) for his own self; but if any is ungrateful, truly my Lord is Free of all needs and is Gracious !”

Seeking guidance from the Lord:

37:99   إِنِّي ذَاهِبٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّي سَيَهْدِينِ

“I am a goer towards my Lord! He will surely guide me!

Seeking help from oppressive surroundings and country:

4:75   رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هَٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ وَلِيًّا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ نَصِيرًا

Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and appoint from your nearness a wali/protector/guardian for us; and appoint  from your nearness a helper for us!”

10:85   عَلَى اللَّهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا رَبَّنَا لَا تَجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً لِّلْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ

“In Allah do we put out trust. Our Lord! make us not a trial for those who practise oppression;

When being ousted of the circles of faith because of one’s beliefs:

7:89   وَسِعَ رَبُّنَا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا ۚ عَلَى اللَّهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا افْتَحْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ قَوْمِنَا بِالْحَقِّ وَأَنتَ خَيْرُ الْفَاتِحِينَ

Our Lord can reach out to the utmost recesses of things by His knowledge. In Allah is our trust. our Lord! decide Thou between us and our people in truth, for You are the best to decide.”

After getting out of a sad and painful situation in life:

35:34   الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَذْهَبَ عَنَّا الْحَزَنَ ۖ إِنَّ رَبَّنَا لَغَفُورٌ شَكُورٌ

And they will say. “Praise be to Allah, Who has removed from us (all) sorrow. for our Lord is indeed Oft-Forgiving, Appreciative.

For recovery from illness:

26:80  وَإِذَا مَرِضْتُ فَهُوَ يَشْفِينِ

“And when I am ill, it is He Who cures me;

Childless couples desiring children can make below supplication:

21:89 رَبِّ لَا تَذَرْنِي فَرْدًا وَأَنتَ خَيْرُ الْوَارِثِينَ

O my Lord! leave me not without offspring, though thou art the best of inheritors.”

After making the prayers/supplications we may ask for acceptance.

2:124  رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

Our Lord! Accept from us for you are All hearing, All knowing.”