Evolution

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

32-7-9  الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ ۖ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الْإِنسَانِ مِن طِينٍ  ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِن سُلَالَةٍ مِّن مَّاءٍ مَّهِينٍ  ثُمَّ سَوَّاهُ وَنَفَخَ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِهِ ۖ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ ۚ قَلِيلًا مَّا تَشْكُرُونَ

He Who has perfected everything which He has created and He began the creation of man from clay/dust. Then He made his progeny from an extract of an insignificant fluid. Then He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him from His Spirit. And He gave you (the faculties of) hearing and sight and heart (feelings), little thanks do ye give

The above Ayat informs us that the creation of man started from clay/dust. Dust or clay is in-organic material. From in-organic matter to organic matter and then into present form of human being, stage after stage of creations (71:14, 84:19) may span several hundred million years. What course did this stage by stage evolution took, we don’t know as yet. The famous Miller-Urey experiment gives some hint about the first step, i.e the possibility of creation of organic matter from in-organic matter.

The Miller–Urey experiment[1] (or Miller experiment)[2] was a chemical experiment conducted in 1952, that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions. The experiment supported the hypothesis that putative conditions on the primitive Earth favoured chemical reactions that synthesized more complex organic compounds from simpler inorganic precursors.

After Miller’s death in 2007, scientists examining sealed vials preserved from the original experiments were able to show that there were actually well over 20 different amino acids produced in Miller’s original experiments. That is considerably more than what Miller originally reported, and more than the 20 that naturally occur in life.[7] More-recent evidence suggests that Earth’s original atmosphere might have had a different composition from the gas used in the Miller experiment. But prebiotic experiments continue to produce racemic mixtures of simple to complex compounds under varying conditions.[8]

The experiments showed that simple organic compounds of building blocks of proteins and other macromolecules can be formed from gases with the addition of energy.

The living organisms undergo changes in their genes according to their environment and they change and adopt according to the changes in their environment. Genes are the codes of the program according to which the living organisms grow, age and die. How the evolution took place since the beginning of life on Earth, is still not understood properly and there are many theories about it. Quran tells us that Allah has created man from different stages and the first stage was dust. Dust and mud is in-organic material. So the beginning of evolution was from in-organic materials. Quran does not mention the time it took from mud to the formation of homo sapiens; it could have taken hundreds of millions of years in the making and we don’t know if it involved going through different animal stages or not. Science has also not found out for sure, as yet.

7:11    وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ صَوَّرْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ لَمْ يَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ

And We created you all, then We gave you (all), shapes; then We said to the angels to bow down to Adam, and they bowed down; except for Iblis; he was not to be of those who bowed down.

The above Ayat states that after creating us and figuring us, Allah gave the order to angels to bow down to Adam. So it means that mankind had existed physically when Allah breathed his Sprit into the Khalifa/vicegerent on Earth.

What we dont’ know, is the complete story of evolution. We don’t even find evidence of mid way species e.g lets say if a specie is changing from form A to B, it would undergo transition stages. What we find is fully transformed species and not sure if we have evidence of transition forms.

The main standoff between Darwinism and religion is not that religion excludes evolution. It is mainly that Darwinism wants to exclude God from evolution. It postulates that evolution takes place without intervention of God. While the Book tells us that evolution is the mechanism by which God creates. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pZyRgYZe6tM)

71-14  وَقَدْ خَلَقَكُمْ أَطْوَارًا

He (Allah) has created you in stages.

76:1  هَلْ أَتَىٰ عَلَى الْإِنسَانِ حِينٌ مِّنَ الدَّهْرِ لَمْ يَكُن شَيْئًا مَّذْكُورًا

 There surely came over man a period of time when he was a thing not worth mentioning.

71:17  وَاللَّهُ أَنبَتَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ نَبَاتًا

And God sprouted/grew you from the Earth (as) a growth

84:19 لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ

Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage.

29:20  قُلْ سِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَانظُرُوا كَيْفَ بَدَأَ الْخَلْقَ ۚ ثُمَّ اللَّهُ يُنشِئُ النَّشْأَةَ الْآخِرَةَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Say. “Travel through the earth and see how Allah did originate creation; so will Allah produce a later creation, for Allah has power over all things.

Allah ask us to explore the land to find out evidence of how the creation began on Earth.

22:5  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّنَ الْبَعْثِ فَإِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ عَلَقَةٍ ثُمَّ مِن مُّضْغَةٍ مُّخَلَّقَةٍ وَغَيْرِ مُخَلَّقَةٍ لِّنُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ ۚ وَنُقِرُّ فِي الْأَرْحَامِ مَا نَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ثُمَّ نُخْرِجُكُمْ طِفْلًا ثُمَّ لِتَبْلُغُوا أَشُدَّكُمْ ۖ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُتَوَفَّىٰ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰ أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ لِكَيْلَا يَعْلَمَ مِن بَعْدِ عِلْمٍ شَيْئًا ۚ وَتَرَى الْأَرْضَ هَامِدَةً فَإِذَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا الْمَاءَ اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ وَأَنبَتَتْ مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ

O’ Mankind! if you are in doubt about the raising, then surely We created you from dust, then from a sperm, then from a clot, then from a lump of flesh, complete in make and incomplete, that We may make clear to you; and We cause what We please to stay in the wombs till an appointed time, then We bring you forth as babies, then that you may attain your maturity; and of you is he, who is caused to die, and of you is he, who is brought back to the worst part of life, so that after having knowledge he does not know anything; and you see the earth sterile land, but when We send down on it the water, it stirs and swells and brings forth of every kind a beautiful herbage.

 

 

 

 

Movement of Mountains

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

27:88    وَتَرَى الْجِبَالَ تَحْسَبُهَا جَامِدَةً وَهِيَ تَمُرُّ مَرَّ السَّحَابِ ۚ صُنْعَ اللَّهِ الَّذِي أَتْقَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ ۚ إِنَّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَفْعَلُونَ

You see the mountains and think them as unmoving, but they move like the movement of clouds. The artistry of Allah, who perfected everything, for He is aware of what you do.

 

The above Ayat states that the mountains apparently look fixed, however their movement is similar to the movement of clouds.

 

The Earth as a sphere, comprises layers one over another. Mountains, and in general the Earth’s crust is part of the lithosphere. This lithosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth. It is a relatively non-dense, solid and rigid piece of rock. The lithosphere lies on top of the asthenosphere, which is a more ductile layer composed of the upper mantle. In a sense, the lithosphere “floats” on the asthenosphere. You can think of ice cubes floating on water, or a better comparison would be solid cold chocolate floating on warm (but still solid) chocolate.

Inside the Earth

The Earth’s interior is composed of several layers. The deepest layer is a solid iron ball, about 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometers) in diameter. Although this inner core is white hot, the pressure is so high the iron cannot melt.

Above the inner core is the outer core, a shell of liquid iron. This layer is cooler but still very hot, perhaps 4,000 to 5,000 degrees Celsius. It too is composed mostly of iron, plus substantial amounts of sulfur and nickel. It creates the Earth’s magnetic field and is about 1,400 miles (2,300 kilometers) thick.

River of Rock

The next layer is the mantle. Many people think of this as lava, but it’s actually rock. The rock is so hot, however, that it flows under pressure, like road tar. This creates very slow-moving currents as hot rock rises from the depths and cooler rock descends.

The mantle is about 1,800 miles (2,900 kilometers) thick and appears to be divided into two layers: the upper mantle and the lower mantle. The boundary between the two lies about 465 miles (750 kilometers) beneath the Earth’s surface.

The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth. It is the familiar landscape on which we live: rocks, soil, and seabed. It ranges from about five miles (eight kilometers) thick beneath the oceans to an average of 25 miles (40 kilometers) thick beneath the continents.

Currents within the mantle have broken the crust into blocks, called plates, which slowly move around, colliding to build mountains or rifting apart to form new seafloor.

Continents are composed of relatively light blocks that float high on the mantle, like gigantic, slow-moving icebergs. Seafloor is made of a denser rock called basalt, which presses deeper into the mantle, producing basins that can fill with water.

(https://www.geolsoc.org.uk/Education-and-Careers/Ask-a-Geologist/Continents-Supercontinents-and-the-Earths-Crust/Mountain-Roots)

 

Image result for Do mountains have roots

 

21:31  وَجَعَلْنَا فِي الْأَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِهِمْ وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا فِجَاجًا سُبُلًا لَّعَلَّهُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ

And We have set on the earth firmaments, so that it should sway with them, and We have made therein broad highways so that they may receive guidance.

The above Ayat is usually translated with an extra negation added while it may be a possibility that the Ayat is referring to the tilt of the Earth. We know that Earth is tilted on its axis and this tilt gives the seasons on Earth.

Without the extra negation added, the above Ayat states that Allah has put firmaments or pegs so that the Earth should sway with them. Could be some thing for further research to find out if the mountains have a role in keeping the tilt of Earth on its axis, something similar to shim pieces.

 

Notes:

Some relevant information and their links are given below:

Mountain ranges are the result of continental collision. When two plates carrying continental crust converge, crustal rocks are folded and faulted. The result is deformed, thickened crust. This thicker crust rests on the underlying mantle, floating on the denser mantle rocks just as an iceberg floats in water. Mountains also resemble icebergs in that the part you see is much smaller than the part hidden beneath the Earth’s surface. The high topography of mountain ranges is mirrored by a much larger crustal root beneath. The height of mountains depends on the thickness of the crust, and the difference in density between the crust and the mantle. These relationships are part of the principle of isostasy, which governs how icebergs, mountains, and all other objects float.
Mountains, exert less gravitational pull than they should do because they have roots. Their less dense material extends down into the earth, in whose denser interior they float like icebergs in water.
A link with useful information is given below;

Earth’s tectonic plates are in constant motion. Their movement is driven by heat within the Earth. The deep Earth is very hot, while its surface is quite cool. This causes hot material within the Earth to rise, until it reaches the surface where it moves sideways, cools, then sinks. This circular motion is called convection. Convection within the mantle drives the motion of the overlying plates.

‘Nafs’ as conscious mind

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The word ‘Nafs’ in Al-Quran is used in the meaning of ‘psyche’ or ‘consciousness’ which is accountable for its orders. What choices we make or what decisions we take consciously, are by our ‘Nafs/Psyche’ and we will be accountable for these actions. When we are asleep our Nafs/consciousness is dead. Anything we do, during your sleep or unconscious state, we will not be held accountable for it. The below Ayas 39:42 and 6:50, define the characteristics of Nafs as a conscious state of mind.

39:42  اللَّهُ يَتَوَفَّى الْأَنفُسَ حِينَ مَوْتِهَا وَالَّتِي لَمْ تَمُتْ فِي مَنَامِهَا ۖ فَيُمْسِكُ الَّتِي قَضَىٰ عَلَيْهَا الْمَوْتَ وَيُرْسِلُ الْأُخْرَىٰ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

It is Allah who cause to die/complete the nafs/phyche at the time of death; and those whose time of death has not come (He causes these Nafs to die/ be completed) during their sleep. Then those (Nafoos) on whom He has passed the decree of death, He prevents (from returning to life), but the rest He sends until a term appointed; Verily in this are Signs for those who ponder.

6:60  وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَتَوَفَّاكُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا جَرَحْتُم بِالنَّهَارِ ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُكُمْ فِيهِ لِيُقْضَىٰ أَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّى ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

It is He who makes you (your Nafs/psyche) to die by night, and He knows of all that you do by the day. He raises you up again in it; so that a term appointed is fulfilled; In the end unto Him will be your return; then will He inform you of all that you used to do.

Nafs is the psyche/psychology of a person. The nafs is capable of both corruption and obedience to God. The one who puts efforts in purifying the Nafs will be successful in the eyes of the Lord.

91:7-10  وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا  فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا  قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّاهَا  وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّاهَا

By the Nafs/pshyce, and what shapes it, So He transmitted (to) it its corruption, and its obedience, Truly he succeeds who purifies it (the Nafs), and he fails who corrupts it (nafs)

The Nafs/psyche is prone to give orders of evil and corruption, unless with the help of God. The help of God comes to he, who tries to purify his Nafs (91:9)

12:53  وَمَا أُبَرِّئُ نَفْسِي ۚ إِنَّ النَّفْسَ لَأَمَّارَةٌ بِالسُّوءِ إِلَّا مَا رَحِمَ رَبِّي ۚ إِنَّ رَبِّي غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

“Nor do I absolve my own nafs (of blame). the Nafs/psyche certainly orders (to do) evil, unless on whom my Lord bestows His Mercy,  but surely my Lord is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.”

A child Nafs/psyche is not fully matured, therefore its is not considered accountable for its deeds as it is not considered a (matured) Nafs in Quran.

18:74  فَانطَلَقَا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا لَقِيَا غُلَامًا فَقَتَلَهُ قَالَ أَقَتَلْتَ نَفْسًا زَكِيَّةً بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ لَّقَدْ جِئْتَ شَيْئًا نُّكْرًا

Then they proceeded, until, when they met a child, he slew him. Moses said. “Did you slay an innocent Nafs without a Nafs? Truly you came up with a strange thing”

The Nafs/psyche is reprimanding/reproaching, unless one purifies it to become contended by keeping a clean conscience.

75:2  وَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ

But nay! I call to witness the reproaching Nafs

89:27-30  يَا أَيَّتُهَا النَّفْسُ الْمُطْمَئِنَّةُ  ارْجِعِي إِلَىٰ رَبِّكِ رَاضِيَةً مَّرْضِيَّةً  فَادْخُلِي فِي عِبَادِي  وَادْخُلِي جَنَّتِي

“O you the satisfied Nafs/psyche! Come to your Lord,- well pleased (yourself), and well-pleasing unto Him! Enter, in My servants! and, enter in My gardens! “

To be overcome by powerful influences of one’s environment of corruption and disbelief  and not taking corrective actions to control one’s Nafs, shall be considered as being unjust to one’s nafs (phyche)

4:97  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنفُسِهِمْ قَالُوا فِيمَ كُنتُمْ ۖ قَالُوا كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ قَالُوا أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُوا فِيهَا ۚ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا

Verily, when angels are completing/taking lives of those who were unjust to their nafs (psyche), they say. “In what (plight) were you?” They reply. “We were weak in the earth.” They say. “Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to have migrated?” For such the abode is in Hell,- What an evil abode! –

To be killed in the way of Allah, means that our Nafs/psyche is killed by us following orders of Allah. For example, our Nafs could be fond of doing things forbidden by Allah, then after getting Spirit of Allahs Ayats, we abstain our self from them and kill our nafs and its internal desires abstaining from evil. After killing our own Nafs and with the help of Spirit of Ayas, we then fight an intellectual fight with the Nafoos of other people.

9:111  إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ ۚ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ ۖ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ ۚ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بَايَعْتُم بِهِ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

Surely Allah has purchased from the believers their Nafs and their wealth,  (in return) is gardens for them. They fight in the way of Allah thus they kill (their nafs) and get killed (their nafs). A promise on Him in truth in At-Taurah / The Law and Al-Injeel / The Good news and in Al-Quran / The Reading. And who can fulfill with his promise than Allah, thus rejoice with your deal that you bargained with Him, and that is the supreme achievement.

When one has killed his own Nafs with Haq/Truth, only then he would be able to kill others Nafs/psyche with truth. Believers strive to sell their Nafs to Allah. After this sale, only Allah’s Will should remain in the Nafs.  There is a difference between believers killing their Nafs and rejecters killing their Nafs. Believers are killing their Nafs so that it is purchased by Allah and their self is nullified. Rejecters do the opposite, their Nafoos are not purchased by Allah.  Their Nafoos are their desires. Allah does not purchase their Nafoos and their Nafoos are dead in the eyes of Allah. One indication for successful sale of Nafs, is that once you kill an evil in your Nafs/psyche, the desire of it should not re-occur. If this desire reoccurs, it is an indication that the evil was not killed properly and Allah has not purchased your Nafs and you still have to make more effort *

Notes:

Lecture by Scholar Mohammad Shaikh on killing of Nafs:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/11/06/killing-2008/

 

 

Maula

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

‘Maula’ (مَوْلَا) means helper/protector. Al-Kitab states Allah as Maula Haq (the Maula of Truth) for the people.  Allah has declared that He is the Maula Al-Haq for the people and the other maulas, the people call upon, are batil/false (31:30). Allah has declared upon the prophet to proclaim that he does not have authority for any benefit or harm for the people (72:21). Nor the prophet has the knowledge of Ghaib or unseen because of which he could hear people in his absence (7:188). Also Allah has informed people that the other people they call upon are only people like them (7:194).

3:150 بَلِ اللَّهُ مَوْلَاكُمْ ۖ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ النَّاصِرِينَ

Instead, Allah is your Maula/protector, and He is the best of helpers.

8:40  وَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَاكُمْ ۚ نِعْمَ الْمَوْلَىٰ وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ

If they refuse, be sure that Allah is your Maula/Protector – the best to protect and the best to help.

9:51  قُل لَّن يُصِيبَنَا إِلَّا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَنَا هُوَ مَوْلَانَا ۚ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ

Say. “Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us. He is our Maula/protector”,  and on Allah let the believers should put their trust.

10:30  هُنَالِكَ تَبْلُو كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا أَسْلَفَتْ ۚ وَرُدُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلَاهُمُ الْحَقِّ ۖ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ

There will every nafs/pshyche get (the fruits of) the deeds it sent before. They will be brought back to Allah their Maula Al-Haq/ Rightful Protector, and their invented falsehoods will leave them in the lurch.

Allah is the protector of those who believe that Allah is their Maula, and those who reject and may consider others as their Maulas, Allah is not the Maula/protector of them.

47:11  ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَأَنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ لَا مَوْلَىٰ لَهُمْ

That is because Allah is the Maula/protector of those who believe, but those who reject, have no protector.

44:41  يَوْمَ لَا يُغْنِي مَوْلًى عَن مَّوْلًى شَيْئًا وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

The Day when no protector can avail his client in aught, and no help can they receive.

Maulas other than Allah, can not really help.

3:79  مَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَن يُؤْتِيَهُ اللَّهُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ ثُمَّ يَقُولَ لِلنَّاسِ كُونُوا عِبَادًا لِّي مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِن كُونُوا رَبَّانِيِّينَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تُعَلِّمُونَ الْكِتَابَ وَبِمَا كُنتُمْ تَدْرُسُونَ

It is not for a man whom is given the Book, and Wisdom, and the Prophet-hood; should say to people. “Be you my servants rather than Allah’s”. on the contrary (He would say) “Be you the servants of the Lord. For you have taught the Book and you have studied it.”

A messenger of Allah, never would say to people to be his servants or to make him their Maula. He would direct the focus of the people to Allah, as this is what Allah’s Books is about.

7:188  قُل لَّا أَمْلِكُ لِنَفْسِي نَفْعًا وَلَا ضَرًّا إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَلَوْ كُنتُ أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ لَاسْتَكْثَرْتُ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ وَمَا مَسَّنِيَ السُّوءُ ۚ إِنْ أَنَا إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ وَبَشِيرٌ لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Say. “I have no power over any good or harm to myself except as Allah wills. If I had knowledge of the ghaib/unseen, I should have multiplied all goods, and no evil should have touched me. I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings to those who have faith.”

Allah asks the Messenger to declare that he does not possess power for any good or harm, nor he has the knowledge of unseen. Had he such knowledge he would have got a lot of goodies. The role of the Messenger is to be a bringer of glad tidings and warner to the people.

72:21  قُلْ إِنِّي لَا أَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ ضَرًّا وَلَا رَشَدًا

Say, “Behold, I do not own the power to harm or enforce enlightenment upon you.”

The prophet declared that it is not for him any harm or good for the people. When prophet does not have this power, is it imaginable that any other person can possess such power over other people?

18:44  هُنَالِكَ الْوَلَايَةُ لِلَّهِ الْحَقِّ ۚ هُوَ خَيْرٌ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ عُقْبًا

Here Al-Walayat/the protection is only Allah’s, the True One; He is best in (the giving of) reward and best in requiting.

7:194  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ عِبَادٌ أَمْثَالُكُمْ ۖ فَادْعُوهُمْ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Verily those whom you call upon besides Allah are servants like you. Call upon them, and let them respond to you, if you are (indeed) truthful!

Ummi Prophet and Ummi Nation

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Word ‘Ummi’ is from root ( ا م م ), the same root from which the word Umm/Mother is formed. Common perception is that this word means ‘un-lettered’ i.e someone who is ‘unable to read or write’. This word is not a common word in Arabic usage, therefore not well defined in dictionaries. We will see occurrences of this word in Al-Kitab, to see what could be the intended meanings of this word.

In Al-Kitab, the word ‘Ummi’ is used for a prophet and also for a nation in which the prophet was sent. The word is used in a positive sense for the prophet and in the negative sense for the nation. The traditional rendering of the word ‘Ummi’ is ‘un-lettered’. We will look into the Ayas to see if the ‘Un-lettered’ rendering of this word makes sense in light of Quran.

62:2  هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَإِن كَانُوا مِن قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ

It is He, Who sent amongst the Ummi people a messenger from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to purify them, and to instruct them in the Book and Wisdom,- although they had been, before, in manifest error;-

Allah sent down among the ‘Ummiyyin’, a messenger from among them who recites Ayas of Allah on them and teaches them Al-Kitab and Widsom and before that, they were in manifest error. In this Ayat, ‘un-lettered’ would not fit as meaning of ‘Ummiyyin’ because if the nation does not know how to read and write then what is the purpose of sending a book to them. Also, historically we know that, the whole community at that time was not unlettered. There were many people who knew how to read and write at that time. 

The word ‘Ummi’ is from the same root as of the word ‘Umm’ (mother). ‘Ummi’ could be referring to ‘motherly’ or ‘original’ state. ‘Ummiyyin’ in above Ayat seems to be those people who are at their original state of belief in which they were born. i.e they don’t get guidance from the Book. They just believe what their environment and people around them tell them to believe. They have not themselves studied the Book and gained knowledge from it. Does not necessarily mean that they don’t know how to read and write. It just implies that they did not change their direction of belief in the light of the Book (2:141) and remained on their original belief system on which they were born.

2:78  وَمِنْهُمْ أُمِّيُّونَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا أَمَانِيَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ

And there are among them Ummis, who donot know about the Book, but (see therein their own) desires, and they do nothing but conjecture.

Now what about Nabi Ummi mentioned in Al-Kitab?  Is there a prophet mentioned in Al-Kitab who also remained on his original belief system? When we study Al-Kitab, we find that, one prophet in Al-Quran is referred to by his mother i.e Essa ibne Mariam A.S. He is the one, who is prophet from birth as a sign of Allah, i.e he was not granted prophet-hood at a later stage in life, but was made prophet since birth and was able to talk to people since that time.

19:29-30  فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ ۖ قَالُوا كَيْفَ نُكَلِّمُ مَن كَانَ فِي الْمَهْدِ صَبِيًّا قَالَ إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ آتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلَنِي نَبِيًّا

But she (Mariam) pointed to the baby. They said. “How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?” Essa / Jesus said: “I am indeed a servant of Allah: He (Allah) has given me Al-Kitab / The Book and made me a prophet.

The Messenger of Allah  declares to all mankind to believe in that Ummi prophet, who believes in Allah and his Words. The Ummi prophet in Al-Kitab declares that he and his mother are no gods but they are only servants of God (5:72, 5:116-117)

7:158  قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا الَّذِي لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ ۖ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

Say. “O people! I am to you all, the messenger of Allah, to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. there is no god but He. It is He who gives life and death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the Ummi Prophet, who believes in Allah and His words. And follow him so that you may be guided.”

The Ummi prophet teaches them from Hikma, the Book (Al-kitab), Taurat and Injeel, informs them about lawful and unlawful things and removes un-necessary burdens on them (3:47-50)

7:157  الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِيَّ الْأُمِّيَّ الَّذِي يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِندَهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ يَأْمُرُهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَاهُمْ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبَائِثَ وَيَضَعُ عَنْهُمْ إِصْرَهُمْ وَالْأَغْلَالَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِهِ وَعَزَّرُوهُ وَنَصَرُوهُ وَاتَّبَعُوا النُّورَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ مَعَهُ ۙ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

“Those who follow the messenger, the Ummi Prophet, whom they find written in what is with them,- in the Taurat/law and the Injeel/Good News;- for he commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure); He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them. So it is those who believe in him, honor him, help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him,- it is they who will prosper.”

For clarity on Ahlal-Kitab please see previous post (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/26/who-are-ahlal-kitab/ ). The below Ayat mentions ‘Ahlal Kitab’ and ‘Ummiyyin’ as two groups. There can be some overlapping between the groups as well. Ahlal Kitab are those who have the Book. ‘Ummiyin’ are those who don’t change the direction of belief in which they were born, so they can be of any religion or sect. The below Ayat mentions a portion of Ahlal Kitab who are not very honest in financial dealings because they have made by themselves some rules of financial transactions based on religious beliefs. They have a tendency to treat people differently in financial transactions based on religion. Their rules are tilted disadvantageously to people belonging to different religion than theirs.

3:75  وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ مَنْ إِن تَأْمَنْهُ بِقِنطَارٍ يُؤَدِّهِ إِلَيْكَ وَمِنْهُم مَّنْ إِن تَأْمَنْهُ بِدِينَارٍ لَّا يُؤَدِّهِ إِلَيْكَ إِلَّا مَا دُمْتَ عَلَيْهِ قَائِمًا ۗ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا لَيْسَ عَلَيْنَا فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ سَبِيلٌ وَيَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

Among the People of the Book are some who, if entrusted with a hoard of gold, will pay it back; others, who, if entrusted with a single Dinar/silver coin, will not repay it unless you constantly stood demanding, because, they say, “there is no call on us with these Ummi people.” but they tell a lie against Allah, and they know it.

The message of the Messenger to Ahlal Kitab and Ummiyyin is  ‘submit to the Ayas of Al-Kitab. If they submit to Al-Kitab they get guidance, but if they deviate to other teachings, the duty of the Messenger is to convey the message only.

3:20  فَإِنْ حَاجُّوكَ فَقُلْ أَسْلَمْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّهِ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِ ۗ وَقُل لِّلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ وَالْأُمِّيِّينَ أَأَسْلَمْتُمْ ۚ فَإِنْ أَسْلَمُوا فَقَدِ اهْتَدَوا ۖ وَّإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَاغُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِالْعِبَادِ

So if they dispute with you, say. “I have submitted myself to Allah and so have those who follow me.” And say to the People of the Book and to Ummis. “Do you (also) submit yourselves?” If they do, they are in right guidance, but if they turn back, your duty is to convey the Message; and Allah is an observer of (all) His servants.

Notes:

3:47-50  قَالَتْ رَبِّ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لِي وَلَدٌ وَلَمْ يَمْسَسْنِي بَشَرٌ ۖ قَالَ كَذَٰلِكِ اللَّهُ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ ۚ إِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ  وَيُعَلِّمُهُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَالتَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ  وَرَسُولًا إِلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنِّي قَدْ جِئْتُكُم بِآيَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۖ أَنِّي أَخْلُقُ لَكُم مِّنَ الطِّينِ كَهَيْئَةِ الطَّيْرِ فَأَنفُخُ فِيهِ فَيَكُونُ طَيْرًا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَأُبْرِئُ الْأَكْمَهَ وَالْأَبْرَصَ وَأُحْيِي الْمَوْتَىٰ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَأُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا تَأْكُلُونَ وَمَا تَدَّخِرُونَ فِي بُيُوتِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ  وَمُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَلِأُحِلَّ لَكُم بَعْضَ الَّذِي حُرِّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَجِئْتُكُم بِآيَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُونِ

She (Mariam) said. ‘O my Lord how shall I have a son when no man has ever touched me?’ He (Allah)  said. ‘This is how Allah creates what He wills. When He has decreed an order, He says it to, `Be` and it is!’ And (Allah) will teach him(Essa), Al-Kitab (The Book) and Al-Hikma (The Wisdom)  And At-Taurah (The Law) and Al-Injeel (The Good News). And a messenger to the children of Israel, that is I have come to you, with  Ayat (Sign) from your Lord, in that I make for you out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird (flyer), and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird (flyer) by Allah`s leave. and I heal the blind , and the lepers, and I give life to the dead, by Allah’s leave. And I inform you in what you consume, and what you store in your houses. Surely it is an Ayat(sign) for you if you are the believers. “‘(I have come to you), to attest the Taurat/Law which is between the hands and to make lawful to you part of what was forbidden to you; I have come to you with a Sign/Ayat from your Lord. So take guard of Allah, and obey me.

 

 

 

 

Ahlal-Bait in Al-Quran

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bait (بَيْت) in Arabic means ‘house’. Al-Bait when mentioned in Al-Quran refers to a  specific house which is Allah’s House. This House has been identified in Quran as the first House established for man-kind (3:96), and is situated in Bakka/Makka. Other identification for this House of Allah is that it is situated  in a non-agricultural valley, where fruits are brought from all over (14:37). This House of Allah is for guidance of all man-kind (3:96).

House in general is associated with providing protection to its inhabitants. Similarly a spiritual house is the one which is associated with faith. Most people in the world, have a spiritual house of faith, the foundations of which are built upon the religious or philosophical beliefs they adhere to. The people who have built their houses of faith not on the basis of Ayas of Allah but on the teaching of their leaders of faiths, their houses have the similitude of the house of a spider which is inherently weak (29:41) and will not be able to sustain when confronted with the force of Ayas of Allah.

Allah advise that the House of Allah is the guidance for all mankind and whosoever enters His House will be lead to security ( وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا 3:97). To enter the house of Allah, first you have to set your direction correctly towards the Masjid Ul Haram, where the House of Allah is situated. From whichever faith/philosophy you were before or are now, after clarification of these Ayas, you have to make your orientation towards Masjid ul Haram ( 2:144 وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ ۗ ). You should not be opposing system of Masjid ul Haram (8:34 وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلَّا يُعَذِّبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُوا أَوْلِيَاءَهُ ۚ إِنْ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُ إِلَّا الْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ) and not taking guidance from it if you want to be associated with the House of Allah.

The word ‘Ahl’ means ‘people’. The people associated with the House of Allah (in Al-Quran) will be ‘Ahlal Bait’ (As the people associated with Allah’s Book are Ahlal Kitab). The messengers of Allah who clarify the Ayas of Allah are obviously associated with the House of Allah as they invite towards Allah’s House and are Ahlal Bait. Likewise, the family of the Ibrahim A.S and the Prophets’ family are called Ahlal Bait in Quran.

3:96  إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِي بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكًا وَهُدًى لِّلْعَالَمِينَ

The first House appointed for mankind is that at Bakka/Makkah: Full of blessings and of guidance for all worlds.

The Bait/House in Quran is the House of Allah in Bakka/Makka.

3:97  فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّنَاتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۖ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا ۗ وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا ۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ

In it are clear Ayas / signs, the standing position of Ibraheem whoever enters it attains security. and for Allah is pilgrimage of the house on people, those who can afford the journey but if anyone denies, surely Allah is not in need of any of His beings in the worlds.

Who ever enters the House of Allah will attain security. ‘Ahl’ means people, who-ever enters the House of Allah spiritually will therefore be ‘Ahlal Bait’ in Quran. As Al-Bait in Quran is the House of Allah and ‘Ahlal Bait would be the people of the House of Allah.

29:41  مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ كَمَثَلِ الْعَنكَبُوتِ اتَّخَذَتْ بَيْتًا ۖ وَإِنَّ أَوْهَنَ الْبُيُوتِ لَبَيْتُ الْعَنكَبُوتِ ۖ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ

The example of those who take protectors other than Allah is that of the spider, who builds a house; and truly the flimsiest of houses is that of the spider;- if they but knew.

The people who will take an alternative house instead of Allah’s House based on teachings other than Allah’s and His Ayas, will have a weak house without solid foundations.

22:26  وَإِذْ بَوَّأْنَا لِإِبْرَاهِيمَ مَكَانَ الْبَيْتِ أَن لَّا تُشْرِكْ بِي شَيْئًا وَطَهِّرْ بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْقَائِمِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ

And when We pointed out the place of the house to Ibrahim “associate not anything with Me; and purify My house for those who go around, and who stand and bow, prostrate.”

The House of Allah is associated with removal of all sort of associations with Allah and bowing and prostrating on the Ayas of Allah. All messengers of Allah, order this to the believers and lead them towards the House of Allah to be Ahlal Bait. Ibrahim’s A.S and his family (his wife and sons) is specifically named in Quran to be Ahlal Bait/People of the House.

11:71 -73  وَامْرَأَتُهُ قَائِمَةٌ فَضَحِكَتْ فَبَشَّرْنَاهَا بِإِسْحَاقَ وَمِن وَرَاءِ إِسْحَاقَ يَعْقُوبَ  قَالَتْ يَا وَيْلَتَىٰ أَأَلِدُ وَأَنَا عَجُوزٌ وَهَٰذَا بَعْلِي شَيْخًا ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عَجِيبٌ  قَالُوا أَتَعْجَبِينَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ ۖ رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ ۚ إِنَّهُ حَمِيدٌ مَّجِيدٌ

And his wife was standing and she laughed then We gave her the good news with Ishaq A.S and after Ishaq, Yaqoob A.S. She said : O Alas, shall I bear a child? And I am an old woman, and my husband is an old man. Surely this would be an amazing thing. They said : are you amazed at the order of Allah, the mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you, O’People of the House! Surely, He is praiseworthy, Glorious.

In the below Ayat the family and wives of the Prophet pbuh are stated to be Ahlal Bait.

33:32-33 يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ ۚ إِنِ اتَّقَيْتُنَّ فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا   وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَىٰ ۖ وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِينَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا

O’women of the Prophet, you are not like any one from the (other) women, if you take guard, do not be subjugated with the saying (conversation) so the one who has disease in his heart will have desire, and you should speak an acknowledged saying. And keep link with your houses and you do not decorate yourself as you decorated previously in ignorance and establish Salah/Prayers and give Zakat/justification and obey Allah and His messenger surely Allah wants to take away the filth from you O’people of the house and to purify you as purified ones.

 

 33:40  مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا

Mohammad is not the father / ancestor of any one of you men but he is the messenger of Allah and the seal of prophets. And Allah has knowledge of everything.

As per Quran, Mohammad pbuh is not the father/forefather of any man. Therefore Allah does not accept claim of anyone to be in the lineage of the messenger Mohammad PBUH, why because Ayat further says that ‘But he is a Messenger of Allah and Seal of Prophets’. So Allah has projected the role of Mohammad pbuh as the Messenger and seal of prophets and not as a founder of a family. Now of course, Mohammad pbuh as a person/bashar may have a lineage, however, this lineage is not spiritually considered by Allah associated with Mohammad the messenger.

28:12  وَحَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِ الْمَرَاضِعَ مِن قَبْلُ فَقَالَتْ هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَىٰ أَهْلِ بَيْتٍ يَكْفُلُونَهُ لَكُمْ وَهُمْ لَهُ نَاصِحُونَ

And we ordained that he (Moosa) refused suck at first, until (His sister came up and) said. “Shall I point out to you the people of a house that will nourish and bring him up for you and be sincere to him?”

When the word used in Quran is Ahle Bait, instead of Ahlal Bait, it means a ‘household’.

 

Notes:

What guidance can the World take from the House of Lord? Allah has established place of Ibrahim at the House/Kaaba and ordered mankind to take their ‘mussala’ from the place of Ibrahim, who is the Imam for mankind. See earlier post about procedure of As-Salat from Quran (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/21/salat-procedure/ ).

2:144 قَدْ نَرَىٰ تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ ۖ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْلَةً تَرْضَاهَا ۚ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۚ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ ۗ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۗ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ

Without doubt, We see the movements of your face in the sky, so, We will revert you to a Qiblah/direction (of faith) that shall please you. So revert yourself to the intersection/portion of the Sacred Mosque: and from wherever you come, revert yourselves to its intersection/portion. Surely, those who are given the Book definitely know that this is the truth from their Lord. and Allah is not unaware of what they are doing.

8:34 وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلَّا يُعَذِّبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُوا أَوْلِيَاءَهُ ۚ إِنْ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُ إِلَّا الْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

But what plea they have, that Allah should not punish them when they are in opposition about the Sacred Mosque and they are not its protectors (Walis). No one can be its protectors except those who guard, but most of them do not understand.

3:103  وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا ۚ وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنتُمْ أَعْدَاءً فَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُم بِنِعْمَتِهِ إِخْوَانًا وَكُنتُمْ عَلَىٰ شَفَا حُفْرَةٍ مِّنَ النَّارِ فَأَنقَذَكُم مِّنْهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

And hold fast all together to the rope of Allah and do not be divided among yourselves, and remember the favor of Allah on you when you were enemies and He joined your hearts in love; you became brethren and you were on the brink of the pit of fire and He saved you from it. Likewise Allah make His Ayats/Signs clear to you that you may be guided.

Believers when leaving the sectarian teachings and holding to one rope of Allah, will get rid of hatred with each other in their hearts and will be saved after being very near to be fallen off from the edge of the pit of fire.

Ar-Riba / The Increase

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The word Riba / رِبَا  is from root word (ر ب و). This root word conveys the meanings of  increased/augmented, excess/addition, to grow/swell etc. Ar-Riba (الرِّبَا) when used in Quran, means ‘the increase’ referring to a specific increase. Lets review Ayas of Quran to see what is this specific increase:

4:161 وَأَخْذِهِمُ الرِّبَا وَقَدْ نُهُوا عَنْهُ وَأَكْلِهِمْ أَمْوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالْبَاطِلِ ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

And they took Ar-Riba / The Increase and without doubt they were prohibited about it. And they ate the wealth of the people (the categories) with falsehood and We have prepared for the rejecters among them a painful punishment.

The above Ayat states that Ar-Riba/the increase is prohibited. Also we come to know that Ar-Riba/the increase is related to the wealth of the people and eating Ar-Riba is related to eating wealth of the people. So we try to find where the wealth of the people is defined in Al-Quran.

8:41  وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُم مِّن شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ إِن كُنتُمْ آمَنتُم بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

And know that whatever Ghanim / Profit / gain you get from anything, if you believe in Allah then surely, One Fifth is for Allah and for the Messenger and for the relatives and for the orphans and for the needy (poor) and for the sons of the way, and whatever We sent down over Our servant on the day of the division, the day when the two accumulations meet. And Allah has power over everything.

In the above Ayat we see that Allah is ordering what ever we gain from anything, the fifth portion of that wealth is for certain categories e.g Allah, Messenger (i.e propagation of message of Allah), orphans, poors and for way-farers. So Allah has ordered that one fifth portion of our savings (gain=which is saved after expenses over a certain period of time) is the defined wealth for these categories, to be distributed among them. However, if one does not pay the defined portion of his savings as per above instruction then he is increasing his own wealth by holding back on Allah’s prescribed portion, and this is therefore the increase (Ar-Riba) which Allah has forbidden.  

2:278  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَذَرُوا مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الرِّبَا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

O’ you who believe, take guard of Allah and leave off, what remains from Ar-Riba/the increase, if you are believers.

When the Ayas related to Ar-Riba are clear to believers they are asked to leave that portion of the wealth which they have been holding back from the deserving categories. That is if they have been paying less than 1/5th portion of their savings on the deserving categories, then they are now advised to pay the prescribed amount.

2:280  وَإِن كَانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظِرَةٌ إِلَىٰ مَيْسَرَةٍ ۚ وَأَن تَصَدَّقُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

And if he is in difficulties, then respite is given to him towards easiness and that you give sadaq / charity, that is better for you if you would have known.

If some one is not currently able to pay the prescribed amount to the categories after doing calculations of 1/5th of savings, (the gain is the increase in your net worth from the last calculation period) then the same will remain in his account to pay, and he can pay them later on, upon ease of his financial situation. Please see previous post on Zakat (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/11/04/zakatcharity/ )

3:130  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا الرِّبَا أَضْعَافًا مُّضَاعَفَةً ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

O’ you who believe! eat not Ar-Riba, double redouble and take guard of Allah so that you may prosper.

Warning to believers not to pay less than the amount of charity prescribed in Quran. If you are paying 2.5% only, instead of prescribed 20% then you are eating the ‘wealth of the categories of people’ multiple times.

2:279  فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا فَأْذَنُوا بِحَرْبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۖ وَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُءُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُمْ لَا تَظْلِمُونَ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ

Then if you do not, (leave off, what remains from Ar-Riba/the increase),so take a notice of war from Allah and His messenger. And if you turn back, so for you are the heads of your wealth. You do not oppress and you will not be oppressed.

Please note that the notice of war has been given by Allah to the people who believe but eat Riba/Increase. The notice of war is given only in this Aya in the whole Quran and it is issued to the momineen/believers. And when you pay heed, for you are the heads of the wealth i.e 80% of the savings and the remaining 20% is for the categories of people (deserving of Sadqa/Zakat).

8:69  فَكُلُوا مِمَّا غَنِمْتُمْ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

So, enjoy what you have saved, lawful and good. But fear Allah. For Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

80% of the savings after paying the 20% portion to the categories, is lawful for us to spend. The Ayat 2:279 informs that for you is the heads of the wealth i.e after paying the prescribed portion in Zakat.

2:261  مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ حَبَّةٍ أَنبَتَتْ سَبْعَ سَنَابِلَ فِي كُلِّ سُنبُلَةٍ مِّائَةُ حَبَّةٍ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يُضَاعِفُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

The example of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is like the example of grain that grows seven ears and in every ear is 100 grains. And Allah multiplies for whom He wills. And Allah is All spacious, All knowing

The money spent from your wealth (after paying the due share of categories) increases in multiples in the nearness of Allah.

3:39  وَمَا آتَيْتُم مِّن رِّبًا لِّيَرْبُوَ فِي أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ فَلَا يَرْبُو عِندَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا آتَيْتُم مِّن زَكَاةٍ تُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَ اللَّهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُضْعِفُونَ

And what you give from Riba/increase,  to increase in the wealth of people (the categories) then it does not increase in the nearness of Allah and what you give from Zakah/ justification) intending the face of Allah so they are those who will get manifolds.

If you have not paid the full due share of 20% from savings then any charity you give is being given from Ar-Riba/the increase which you are holding back from the wealth of categories (by not giving from the Allah’s allotted share to them). So this charity does not grow in the nearness of Allah, as it was already their share, not your wealth.

2:276  يَمْحَقُ اللَّهُ الرِّبَا وَيُرْبِي الصَّدَقَاتِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ أَثِيمٍ

Allah removes Ar-Riba/the increase , and increases Sadqa/charities , and Allah does not love any rejecter, sinner.

There exists an inverse relationship for the Al-Riba and Al-Sadqat. As you spend from Sadqat the Ar-Riba decreases  (if you have held the due share to be paid from savings)

2:275  الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا ۗ وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا ۚ فَمَن جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىٰ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Those who eat Ar-Riba/the increase,  do not take a stand except like one, who stands to madness from the touch of Satan. That is because they say that Al-Bai/the deal  is the example of Ar-Riba . And Allah has made Al-Bai/the deal  lawful and has made Ar-Riba/the increase unlawful so he to whom comes the sermon from his Lord then he abstain, that is past for him. And his affair is towards Allah, and whosoever returns , then they are the companions of the fire. They will live forever in it.

The common perception however in the society is that Ar-Riba is the interest i.e a periodical charge on the original amount of loan. They say that if you loan some one money and charge an amount in addition to the original amount, then this is Ar-Riba. Most people think, that the interest bank charges on loans, is Ar-Riba, while Al-Bai is ‘a deal’ i.e a normal trade transaction. Normally when banks give a loan they make a deal with the loanee and both parties agree on the loan amount and the interest to be charged on the loan. Those people who equate Ar-Riba (which is the increase in wealth by not paying the prescribed charity) with Al-Bai (that is the deal which, is made with the bank or any other loaner or trading partner), are declared as crazy people. They are two different things. Deals are lawful and Ar-Riba is not lawful.

We know that there is a time value of money. If you loan some one a certain amount of money in currency and if he returns the same denomination of currency, in lets say 20 years time, the purchasing power of that amount of currency would have been reduced multiple times. In fact it will not be fair to you to be returned the same amount of currency, loaned several years earlier keeping in view the factor of depreciation of currency.

Also we know that any thing of value when we borrow it from the owner, we have to pay rent for it. For example if we live in some one’s house, we pay rent for it. Similarly if we rent someone’s car we have to pay rent for it. Will it be fair to the person whose house we are borrowing, not to pay him any rent? Similar is the case of money, as it has a value attached to it. Will it be fair to get a loan from someone and not to pay any rent on that loan? Consider the example of a house valued at one million dollars. When you rent this house, you will pay a certain amount of rent on it. If instead of a house, you borrow, one million dollars in currency, is there no obligation on you to pay the due amount of rent to the loaner?  If you borrow a thing of value and do not pay any rent for it, is definitely not fair to the lender.

The justification we normally hear is that instead of making a deal of paying fixed amount interest, we should share in profit and loss of that business. However, we know that a majority of people in the society are not business oriented people. They don’t have the capability of carrying out a business profitably. At best they will be sleeping partners and then depend upon the active partners for the fair returns and the fees charged for being active partners. Many people in the society simply cannot take the risk of being involved in businesses e.g widowers and retired people, they do not have the risk taking capability nor any risk taking is suitable for them. Then why should they be forced to take un-necessary risks on which they don’t have any control. Similarly it is banks’ business to give loans to people who can do business and take risks. However, banks cannot be in partnership of profit and loss sharing with all those people who take loans from banks. It is simply not possible to handle so many businesses and risks for banks. Therefore interest is the factor which keeps the economic cycle running i.e deposits by general public to the banks or Government institutions and operation of banks, in turn by lending the money to prospective people or groups who can invest and  run businesses and utilize loans for their businesses.

Usury i.e very high interest rates is definitely a social evil as the poorest of people fall victims to it. Normally, the interest rate you will get depends upon your credit rating. The people with the best credit ratings will get the best rate of interest on their loans. Those people who are at the highest risks of being able to return the loan, get the highest rates of interests on their loans. These very people are the ones who deserve the charity of people (20% share for categories)or subsidies from the Government, instead of getting loans from loan sharks on high interest rate. While Quran does not prohibits interests or deals that people make with one another, it is the duty of the Government to curb un-fair deals as like other social or criminal evils.

Notes:

The Arabic Word for ‘Interest’ is (فائده ).

 

links to a lecture by scholar Mohammad Shaikh on Ar-Riba:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/10/26/riba-increase-2007/

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/12/02/riba-2006/       (in Urdu)

Usage of root word (ر ب و) in Quran:

raba vb. (1) perf. act. 22:5, 41:39 impf. act. 30:39, 30:39 pcple. act. 13:17, 16:92, 69:10  rabwah n.f. 2:265, 23:50  riba n.m. 2:275, 2:275, 2:275, 2:276, 2:278, 3:130, 4:161, 30:39  rabba vb. (2) perf. act. 17:24 impf. act. 26:18  arba vb. (4) impf. act. 2:276  LL, V3, p: 189, 190