Tafseer/explanation of Quran

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

A divinely sent book by God is supposed to be perfect and free of errors. Is it logical to assume that this Book can be explained by other books which are written by man? in other words, other books which are written by man and therefore will certainly have errors in them, can they explain a divinely sent perfect Book?

An attribute of the divinely sent Book is the Furqan i.e the Criteria between the truth and falsehood. If the criteria itself is dependent upon other explanations for understanding it, then logically it cannot be the criteria over the things which are explaining it.

25:1  تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ الْفُرْقَانَ عَلَىٰ عَبْدِهِ لِيَكُونَ لِلْعَالَمِينَ نَذِيرًا

Blessed is He who sent down the Furqan/Criterion to His servant, to be an admonition to all the worlds;-

The True sprit of an Ayat of Al-Quran will be that which does not conflct with the understanding/sprit of other Ayahs. So, if the understanding of an Ayat conflicts with the understanding of other Ayas of the Book, it would mean there exists a problem and more study is required towards its understanding.

4:82 أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ اللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا

Do they not consider/ponder The Quran/The Reading, if it had been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy/contradictions.

7:52  وَلَقَدْ جِئْنَاهُم بِكِتَابٍ فَصَّلْنَاهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ هُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

And we have come to them with a Book, which We explained in detail with knowledge,- a guidance and a mercy to the believing nation.

The Tafseer of Al-Kitab is contained within The Book, i.e the Ayahs explain each other.

25:33  وَلَا يَأْتُونَكَ بِمَثَلٍ إِلَّا جِئْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَأَحْسَنَ تَفْسِيرًا

And no example do so they bring to you but We bring to you the truth and the best tafseer / explanation.

6:105  وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ وَلِيَقُولُوا دَرَسْتَ وَلِنُبَيِّنَهُ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ

And in this way  We do explain the Ayahs/signs, so that they may say, “you taught (this)” and that We may make the matter clear to those who know.

The below Ayat informs about the Prophet’s method of giving sermon from the Quran for clarification of a certain topic, i.e the topic was explained from Ayahs from various Soorahs/chapters,  not necessary in their original order in the Book. So when by this method the topic is clarified and  if it were not according to the wishes of the people, they would say that the Messenger made this up.

16:101  وَإِذَا بَدَّلْنَا آيَةً مَّكَانَ آيَةٍ ۙ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يُنَزِّلُ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُفْتَرٍ ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

When We substitute the place of one Ayat with another Ayat and Allah knows best what He reveals ,- they say, “You are but a forger”. But most of them donot understand.

Allah is asking; Is the Book not enough for you? why you seek then, other explanations outside Quran.

29:51  أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِهِمْ أَنَّا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَرَحْمَةً وَذِكْرَىٰ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

And is it not enough for them that we have sent down to you the Book which is rehearsed to them? Verily, in it is Mercy and a Reminder to those who believe.

49:1  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

O You who believe! Do not go beyond from before Allah and His messenger; but fear Allah,  for Allah is He Who hears and knows all things.

Majority of the people are following conjectures which cannot be confirmed from Allah’s Book; there are volumes of books with stories which are believed to be religious; so Allah is warning don’t go beyond Allah and his messengers i.e don’t make your beliefs other than what Allah has revelaed and which is the Qaul/saying of the honorable Messenger; 69:40 (إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلُ رَسُولٍ كَرِيمٍ)

10:36 وَمَا يَتَّبِعُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ إِلَّا ظَنًّا ۚ إِنَّ الظَّنَّ لَا يُغْنِي مِنَ الْحَقِّ شَيْئًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَفْعَلُونَ

But most of them follow nothing but conjecture. truly conjecture can be of no avail against truth. Verily Allah is well aware of all that they do.

12:111 لَقَدْ كَانَ فِي قَصَصِهِمْ عِبْرَةٌ لِّأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ ۗ مَا كَانَ حَدِيثًا يُفْتَرَىٰ وَلَٰكِن تَصْدِيقَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَتَفْصِيلَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

There is, in their stories, admonition for men endued with understanding. It is not an invented Hadith/narration, but a confirmation of what is between the hands,- a detailed explanation of all things, and a guide and a mercy to those who believe.

On the day of judgement the messenger shall be the witness on all the people, in order to testify what he delivered to people and what they have been attributing to him.

16:89  وَيَوْمَ نَبْعَثُ فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ شَهِيدًا عَلَيْهِم مِّنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ ۖ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ شَهِيدًا عَلَىٰ هَٰؤُلَاءِ ۚ وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ تِبْيَانًا لِّكُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ

One day We shall raise from all Peoples a witness against them, from amongst themselves. and We shall bring you (the messenger)  as a witness against these (your people). and We have sent down to you the Book explaining all things, a Guide, a Mercy, and Glad Tidings to Muslims.

And at that time the messenger will testify that alas my nation held the Quran as if like leaving it,  which means that while paying lip service to Quran in essence they made the Quran ineffective by indulging in traditions and mixing traditions with Quran.

25:30  وَقَالَ الرَّسُولُ يَا رَبِّ إِنَّ قَوْمِي اتَّخَذُوا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ مَهْجُورًا

And the Messenger will say, O my Lord! Surely, my people took this AL-QURAN and abandoned it.

7:53 هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا تَأْوِيلَهُ ۚ يَوْمَ يَأْتِي تَأْوِيلُهُ يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ نَسُوهُ مِن قَبْلُ قَدْ جَاءَتْ رُسُلُ رَبِّنَا بِالْحَقِّ فَهَل لَّنَا مِن شُفَعَاءَ فَيَشْفَعُوا لَنَا أَوْ نُرَدُّ فَنَعْمَلَ غَيْرَ الَّذِي كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ ۚ قَدْ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ

Do they just wait for its’ Taweel (explanation)? The day when the Taweel shall come, those who forgot it before, will say. “The messengers of our Lord did indeed come with the truth. Now, do we have any intercessor to intercede on our behalf? Or could we be sent back? Then we would behave differently from our behaviour in the past.” In fact they have put themselves in loss, and the things they invented will leave them in the lurch.

Shane Nazool:

Another concept being propagated is that of Shane Nazool (i.e the conditions of revelation). The concept is that we have to understand  the causes of revelation of Quranic Ayahs i.e historic background, in order to understand why a certain verse was revealed, and its intentions.

However, We know that Qur’an is not a book restricted to time and space. It’s injunctions are applicable in all times and eras. To suggest that the Qur’an is in need of the historical tales dominant in certain time of history for its exegesis is to limit the Qur’an to just one particular era. It is tantamount to saying it as  ‘Asateer ul Awaleen/tales of the past. Quran states that the Book is a reminder to all the nations (81:27)  and “Guidance for all mankind” (2:185). These values do not change with the circumstances of time. The narrations in Quran are not tales of the past, but they teach principles, for present day solutions and are not meant for digging historical tales from outside sources.

83:13 إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ آيَاتُنَا قَالَ أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ

When Our Ayahs/signs are recited on him, he says these are but lines/tales of the earlier ones.

Harut, Marut and Magic in Quran

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

When Al-Quran uses the word ‘Sahar’ (magic) it does not mean black magic or Voodoo. Black magic and voodoo may exist however, Quran does not use the word ‘Sahar’ in this context. Magic (Sahar) in Quran is stated to be something which is false (batil). The magicians are those who present the falsehood which they have fabricated, in such a way that it appears alive and thriving. A person who comes under the influence of magic is not able to reason and use his intellect.

People who are much accustomed to magic/falsehood, when Al-Haq (the Truth) comes to them via a Messenger of Allah, they think it to be actually magic, because the Messenger shows the Ayahs of Allah, alive and thriving, which the magicians had convinced them to be archaic and tales of the past (83:13). The Haq/Truth presented by the Messenger engulfs and swallows the falsehood with which the magicians mesmerize the people. However, the people still bent on falsehood and with vested interests, believe in the magic/falsehood of their magicians and they accuse instead, the messenger of Allah for putting forth falsehood and magic:  

38:4  وَعَجِبُوا أَن جَاءَهُم مُّنذِرٌ مِّنْهُمْ ۖ وَقَالَ الْكَافِرُونَ هَٰذَا سَاحِرٌ كَذَّابٌ

So they wonder that a Warner has come to them from among themselves! and the rejecters say, “This is a sorcerer telling lies!

51:52  كَذَٰلِكَ مَا أَتَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا قَالُوا سَاحِرٌ أَوْ مَجْنُونٌ

Similarly, no Messenger came to the People before them, but they said (of him) in (like manner), “A sorcerer, or one possessed/psycopath”!

The falsehood is so perfected by their fabricators that it actually looks true to the onlookers. Only Allah’s help and Spirit of His Book can help overpower and engulf this falsehood.

20:66  قَالَ بَلْ أَلْقُوا ۖ فَإِذَا حِبَالُهُمْ وَعِصِيُّهُمْ يُخَيَّلُ إِلَيْهِ مِن سِحْرِهِمْ أَنَّهَا تَسْعَىٰ

He (Moosa) said, “Nay, throw ye first!” Then behold their ropes and their rods-so it seemed to him on account of their magic – to be in lively motion!

It also depends how we visualize the narrative in Quran. If we visualize it like a competition of sorcery then we may conclude like Pharaoh, who said that Moosa A.S was a bigger sorcerer (20:71). However, if we visualize it as a battle between truth and fabrications, then we will see it like the magicians who attained solid faith after witnessing the Truth from Allah engulfing their fabrications (7:126, 20:72).

10:82  وَيُحِقُّ اللَّهُ الْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُجْرِمُونَ

“And Allah by His Kalamat/Words establish His truth, however much the criminals may hate it!”

20:69  وَأَلْقِ مَا فِي يَمِينِكَ تَلْقَفْ مَا صَنَعُوا ۖ إِنَّمَا صَنَعُوا كَيْدُ سَاحِرٍ ۖ وَلَا يُفْلِحُ السَّاحِرُ حَيْثُ أَتَىٰ

(Allah said) “And put forth from your Right. It will swallow what they have faked; what they have faked is but a magician’s trick, and the magician thrives not, (no matter) where he goes.”

Allah has sent prophets to people and sent with the prophets, Al-Kitab/the Book, to judge between them with Haq/Truth. However, after this Truth came to the people through the Book and Prophets, they started differing among each other.

2:213   كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ فَهَدَى اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لِمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

‘Mankind is one single nation, and Allah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings; and with them He sent the Book in truth, to judge between mankind in matters wherein they differed; but the people given the Book, after the clear Signs came to them, did not differ among themselves, except through selfish contumacy. Allah by His grace guided the believers to the Truth, concerning that wherein they differed, for Allah guides whom He wills to a straight path.’

The corrupt clergy in order to gain control of masses and spread their own fabrications, hid the original Book behind their backs: 

2:101  وَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ نَبَذَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

And when there came to them a Messenger from Allah, confirming what was with them, a party of the people who were given the Book threw away the Book of Allah behind their backs, as if they did not know it!

The corrupt clergy after hiding Allah’s Book behind their back put forth an alternative, i.e a book which they wrote with their own hands and attributed it to be by divine inspiration.

2:79  فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَكْتُبُونَ الْكِتَابَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هَٰذَا مِنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ لِيَشْتَرُوا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا كَتَبَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ

Then woe to those who write the book with their own hands and they say, this is from Allah, to earn with it a small price! woe to them for what their hands write, and woe to the gain they make thereby.

Kingdom of Sulieman A.S is an era of advanced technological developments in mining, electricity, industries, air travel, entertainment industry and innovations. A reading of previous post about ‘who are Jinns as per Quran’ will be useful. Satan Jinns are those from advanced nations who are rejecters and hide their true personalities. Many people after putting the Book of Allah behind their backs, followed what these satans were reciting towards the Kingdom of Sueliman A.S.

2:102  وَاتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَىٰ مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ ۖ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَٰكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ ۚ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ ۖ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ ۚ وَمَا هُم بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنفَعُهُمْ ۚ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُوا لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْا بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ

And they followed what satans recited towards the kingdom of Suleiman/Solomon. And Suleiman did not reject but the satans rejected and taught the people the magic; and was not sent down on two angels with Babel, Harut and Marut.

And neither of the two, taught  anyone without saying. “We are but temptation; so do not reject”. Thus they learned from both of them what causes differences between man and wife. But they could not thus harm anyone except by the will of Allah. And they learned what harmed them, and not profited them. And they knew that whosoever bought it, would have no share in the Hereafter. And vile was the price for which they did sell their nafs/psyche, if they but knew!

The people followed what the satans of advanced nations kept on reciting towards the Kingdom of Sulieman. The satans managed to mesmerize the people with their teaching deviant to the teachings of God.

‘Babel’ is a proper name. In most exegeses, it is said to be the name of  an ancient city ‘Babylon’. However, when we read the previous verse 2:101, it says that the people had put the Book of Allah behind their backs as if they did not know it. This Ayat 2:102 is a continuation, stating that after putting the Book of Allah behind their back, they followed something alternative to Allah’s Book. ‘Babel’, mentioned in Quran should not be the name of a city but it should be the name of this alternative book which these mischievous ones brought forth. The ancient city with the name of ‘Babylon’ cannot be ‘Babel’ of Quran, because as per Quran, Suleiman A.S has been granted a Kingdom, the grandeur of which cannot be surpassed in present or future. Ruins of ancient city Babylone, don’t given indications of high-rise buildings which we see in present day mega cities, therefore this ancient city can not be the Kingdom of Suleiman. A city representing King Suleiman Kingdom, will have such grandeur which will be unsurpassable in all times to come (38:35).

38:35  قَالَ رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَهَبْ لِي مُلْكًا لَّا يَنبَغِي لِأَحَدٍ مِّن بَعْدِي ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ

He (Suleiman) said, “O my Lord! Forgive me, and grant me a kingdom (likes of ) which is not attained by any one after me; for You are the grantor of bounties.

Therefore ‘Babel’  is the name which Quran refers to that alternative book, which people of the world most commonly know as ‘Bible’.  Then Quran states that Suleiman did not reject but actually the satans are the rejecters. We observe that in Bible, satans recite lies towards Suleiman A.S, that Solomon was a sinful prophet who practiced idolatry. This lie in bible is rejected in this Ayat by Quran that Sulieman was not a rejecter.

Considering this part of the Ayat (وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ). There are two schools of thoughts one stating that the ( مَا) is ‘ما الموصولة‘ (relative pronoun) which means ‘what/which’ and the other school saying that this is the ( مَا)/’Ma’ of negation. As satans don’t follow angelic revelation, we will consider the ( مَا) as the negation and thus the above statement is translated as below :

And was not sent down on two angels with Babel, Harut and Marut

This is a statement that Babel (Bible) is not an angelic revelation. It was not revealed on two Angels. (by the way there are only two angels mentioned by name in Bible). Also, Harut and Marut could be separate entities from the angels mentioned in the Ayat and they are associated with Babel. The roots words of Harut and Marut indicate the meanings Harut as the ‘one who tears/splits’ and Marut as the one ‘who makes barren’. These negative names indicate that Harut and Marut are not angles, but those associated with teaching of alternative to the Book of Allah (Babel). Please consider that it is stated in Quran that Malaika/angels only comes with Haq/truth (15:8). So Harut and Marut should not be Malaika if they came with false hood and satans were following them.  

15:8 مَا نُنَزِّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَمَا كَانُوا إِذًا مُّنظَرِينَ

We do not send the angels down except with Haq/truth, and at that time the (rejecters) will not be given any respite.

So we deduce from above that Harut and Marut mentioned in above Ayat are separate entities from the angels mentioned. Harut and Marut are associated with teaching Bible. They apparently say that we all are temptations (of the world) so people should not reject. However, the preachers of bible also teach some thing which causes separation between man and wife. This thing which causes separation between man and wife is the concept of celibacy for priesthood which discourages marriages for the priests and at one time those priest who were already married were forced to forego their marriages.

The people casting the spells and teachings magical falsehood (Batil)  under the garb of religion, mostly are cheaters. Their motivation most of the times is not reward of the hereafter, but worldly gains and other vested interests. This is a very low price they sell their souls for against the reward of hereafter.  

3:187    وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَتُبَيِّنُنَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَكْتُمُونَهُ فَنَبَذُوهُ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ وَاشْتَرَوْا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَبِئْسَ مَا يَشْتَرُونَ

And Allah took the covenant of those who were given the Book: You will make it clear to the people and not conceal it, but they placed it behind their backs and purchased with it a cheap price. Miserable indeed is what they have purchased.

Notes:

The Bible portrays Solomon as the King who was a sinner of idolatry. These are the lies being spreads by the satans. In this Ayat Quran, confirms that Solomon was not a rejecter but those who are propagating these lies are in fact the rejecters.

Quote from Wiki:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon

“The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem,[5] beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel.[7] He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom’s being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam.[8]”

Roots of Harut and Marut:

Harata To spear, slit, widen, impair (reputation), have a wide mouth, have wide sides of the mouth, tear up. Hârût: A descriptive name one who tore up. Marata To break, make barren, Maratun: Barren and stripped land; Man without eyebrows. Mart: Hairless beast. Mârût:

Al-Injeel and Bible:

Important thing to note that Al-Injeel is an attribute of Al-Kitab, i.e the book revealed by God. Al-Injeel is not to be confused by the book known as Bible. Bible is not the altered version of Al-Injeel as Allah Kalima and Words cannot be changed and Bible cannot be presented as remnant of knowledge of Allah’s Book (46:4). See previous post of ‘Who are Ahlal Kitab (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/26/who-are-ahlal-kitab/)

Celibacy initiation:

Evolution of Rules on Celibacy

Because of the doctrine that sexual intercourse with a woman makes a man unclean, married priests were prohibited from celebrating the Eucharist for a full day after sex with their wives. Because the trend was to celebrate the Eucharist more and more often, sometimes even daily, priests were pressured to be celibate just to fulfill their basic religious functions—and eventually, they were prohibited from ever having sex with their wives. Celibacy was thus somewhat common by 300 CE, when the Spanish Council of Elvira required married bishops, priests, and deacons to permanently abstain from sex with their wives. The pressure this put on marriages was not important and the consequences for the wives would only get worse.

The final blow against priests’ ability to marry came through a technicality at the Council of Trent (1545-1563). The church asserted that a valid Christian marriage must be performed by a valid priest and in front of two witnesses. Previously, private marriages performed by priests or, indeed, just about anyone else, were common in some areas. Sometimes the only ones present were the officiant and the couple. Banning such clandestine marriages effectively eliminated marriage for the clergy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Verse about striking women 4:34

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The Ayat 4:34 has been the subject of heated debate and controversy as critics object that it allows beating of women by men while apologists try to assign alternative meanings to the Arabic word ‘Daraba’ in the Ayat. We will review this Ayat and its implication in this post.

4:34  الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ ۚ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَاللَّاتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا

Men take stand over women with what Allah has provided bounty to some over others and with what they spend from their wealth. Thus women are those who amend / correct and who are devout and they are preservers in absence, with what Allah has preserved. And those women from whom you fear of rebellion then sermon them, and abandon them in the beds and strike them. So if they obey you then do not seek over them a way. Surely Allah is all high, all great.

Men are those who take a stand over the women i.e protect them with a sense of belonging and spend on them. The women protect their home and it’s possessions in the absence of men. For those women, who men fear that they are not doing this, then they should sermon them according to the Ayas of Al-Quran and not with their own ideas and philosophies normally prevalent in society. In case the problem is not solved,  next step is to be separated from sleeping together. Women psychologies are based predominantly on emotions. They can sometimes become locked in their own emotions. The word strike in the above Ayat is in the sense of a shock treatment, to bring them out of a locked emotional state. In no case, the strike should cause bodily harm or fall within legal jurisdiction. The men who are not themselves acting on Ayahs of Allah i.e not taking a stand for their woman will not have any right to carry out this strike any way because it will not be effective.

4:59  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا

O’ you people who believe, obey Allah and obey the messenger and obey those among you who have the authority to give orders then if you dispute in anything then refer it towards Allah and the messenger, if you believe with Allah and the last day, that is better and the most beautiful interpretation

The above Ayat asks to obey Allah, the Messenger and those who can implement orders. Government has the power to implement orders therefore people should obey the law of land otherwise there will be chaos in the land. In case there is conflict with the law of the land, then the matter should be referred to Allah and Messenger i.e a plausible solution should be sought in the light of Ayahs. In essence, the law of the land should be respected.

The law of the land in all countries would prohibit domestic violence and physical beating. The shock treatment stated in the Ayat is to be such that it should not cause a legal implication. An example will be the treatment which we see sometimes on TV that  when people get in a state of shock (frozen state), then a sudden light strike or jostling would bring them back to normal state. The person carrying out this treatment is not blamed by any one for wrongdoing.  

Notes:

A link to a related lecture by scholar Mohammad Shaikh is given below:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/10/25/husband-and-wife-relationship-2006/

 

Sunnate Rasool/Practice of the Messenger

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

33:21 لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا

Without doubt for you, in the Rasool/Messenger of Allah is most beautiful pattern, who has hope in Allah and the last day and frequently remembers Allah.

The confirmed sunnate rasool/practice of the messenger,  is what Allah ordered the messenger to do in Al-Quran and most definitely the messenger complied with the orders of Allah. Therefore Ayahs of Quran will tell us the most confirmed sunnate-rasool i.e the confirmed practice which the messenger pbuh followed. As Quran is the only book in the world, in which there is no doubt, therefore the practice of the Messenger as described in Quran is more authentic than in any other book.

We will review in Quran, the orders which were given to the messenger to know about the confirmed practice of the messenger from Quran. These Ayahs let us know that the Messenger always leads to the straight path and advises with Al-Quran and not without Al-Quran. So those who follow the true sunnat/practice of the messenger, should always guide and order with the Quran and not associating other orders with Quran. The personality and practice described in the Quran are the best practice of the messenger:

3:79  مَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَن يُؤْتِيَهُ اللَّهُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ ثُمَّ يَقُولَ لِلنَّاسِ كُونُوا عِبَادًا لِّي مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِن كُونُوا رَبَّانِيِّينَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تُعَلِّمُونَ الْكِتَابَ وَبِمَا كُنتُمْ تَدْرُسُونَ

It is not for a human who is given the Book, and Wisdom, and the Prophet-hood; to say to people. “Be you my servants rather than Allah’s”. On the contrary (he would say) “Be you the servants of the Lord. For you have taught the Book and you have studied it.”

The prophet would not say to people; that ‘You make me your Master/Aaqqa/Maula!’, instead he would say that you be the people belonging to God/Allah.

9:33  هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ

It is He, who has sent His messenger with the guidance and with the judgment of truth so that he may make it obvious on every (other) judgment and even if those who associate (with Him) dislike it.

The purpose of sending the Messenger is that, the Messenger, makes the true judgment obvious and over, all other prevailing judgments existing in the world. Messenger has the aid of the Spirit of the Book. With the aid of the Spirit of the Book, the true Din/Judgment that the messenger brings forth, prevails over all other contradictory man- made judgments.

7:2  كِتَابٌ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ فَلَا يَكُن فِي صَدْرِكَ حَرَجٌ مِّنْهُ لِتُنذِرَ بِهِ وَذِكْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

A Book revealed to you,- it should not cause any tightening in your breast,- that you warn (the people) with it, and it is remembrance for the believers.

The messenger always reminds and advises with the Book.

5:49  وَأَنِ احْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَن يَفْتِنُوكَ عَن بَعْضِ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ ۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَن يُصِيبَهُم بِبَعْضِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ لَفَاسِقُونَ

And Judge/order among them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their vain desires, but beware of them lest they beguile you from any of that (teaching) which Allah has sent down to you. And if they turn away, be assured that for some of their sins it is Allah’s intention to put them into difficulty. And certainly the majority of the people are Fasiqeen/evil doers.

The messenger always judges and orders among the people with what has been revealed by Allah (Quran) and does not follow the vain desires of people.

27:92  وَأَنْ أَتْلُوَ الْقُرْآنَ ۖ فَمَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدِي لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَن ضَلَّ فَقُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُنذِرِينَ

And that I  recite the Quran, and if any one accept guidance, he does it for the good of his own self, and if anyone goes astray, say “I am only a warner”.

The messenger always warns by reciting from the Quran.

5:99  مَّا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا تَكْتُمُونَ

The Messenger’s duty is but to convey (the message). But Allah knows all that you reveal and you conceal.

Messenger’s duty is to convey the message. What people hide and what they show is known by Allah.

6:161  قُلْ إِنَّنِي هَدَانِي رَبِّي إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ دِينًا قِيَمًا مِّلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۚ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Say,  Surely my Lord has guided me to a Straight way a Judgment established. The Millat (Religion) of true Ibrahim (Abraham) and he was not from the polytheists/associators.

The Messenger follows the religion of Ibrahim A.S.

6:19  قُلْ أَيُّ شَيْءٍ أَكْبَرُ شَهَادَةً ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۖ شَهِيدٌ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَأُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ لِأُنذِرَكُم بِهِ وَمَن بَلَغَ ۚ أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ مَعَ اللَّهِ آلِهَةً أُخْرَىٰ ۚ قُل لَّا أَشْهَدُ ۚ قُلْ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ وَإِنَّنِي بَرِيءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ

Say what thing is greatest evidence, say Allah is witness between me and you and this Quran is inspired to me to warn you with it and to whom it is delivered. Do you surely bear witness, that with Allah there are other gods, Say I do not bear witness, say surely He is one God and surely I am exempted from what you associate (with Him).

Messenger confirms that what is inspired to him, is the Quran and he reminds with it i.e the Quran.

6:50  قُل لَّا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ عِندِي خَزَائِنُ اللَّهِ وَلَا أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ وَلَا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ إِنِّي مَلَكٌ ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ ۚ قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الْأَعْمَىٰ وَالْبَصِيرُ ۚ أَفَلَا تَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Say. “I do not tell you that with me are the treasures of Allah, nor do I know what is Ghaib/hidden, nor do I tell you I am an angel. I only follow what is revealed to me.” Say. “can the blind be held equal to the seeing?” Will you then consider not?

The messenger confirms that he does not know the knowledge of Ghaib/unseen and he follows only what is inspired to him i.e Al-Quran (6:19)

43:43  فَاسْتَمْسِكْ بِالَّذِي أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ ۖ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

So hold thou fast to the Inspiration/Revelation sent down to you (the Messenger); verily you are on a Straight Way.

The messenger holds fast the inspiration i.e the Quran (6:19)

28:85  إِنَّ الَّذِي فَرَضَ عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ لَرَادُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ ۚ قُل رَّبِّي أَعْلَمُ مَن جَاءَ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَمَنْ هُوَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ

Surely He Who has ordained (as mandatory) the Qur’an for you, will definitely restore you to a Place of Return(To a place you are accustomed to). Say. “My Lord knows best who it is that brings true guidance, and who is in manifest error.”

Quran is mandatory/Faraz on the Messenger with all his do’s and don’ts and therfore in his Sunnah to all believers.

21:45  قُلْ إِنَّمَا أُنذِرُكُم بِالْوَحْيِ ۚ وَلَا يَسْمَعُ الصُّمُّ الدُّعَاءَ إِذَا مَا يُنذَرُونَ

Say, “I do but warn you with the revelation”. But the deaf will not hear the call, (even) when they are warned!

Again and again the Messenger confirms that he warns with the inspiration/revelation i.e the Quran (6:19), however, the people seems oblivious to this fact.

75:16  لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ

Move not your tongue concerning the (Qur’an) to make haste therewith.

There should not be any haste with the Quran. It comes gradually.

7:203  وَإِذَا لَمْ تَأْتِهِم بِآيَةٍ قَالُوا لَوْلَا اجْتَبَيْتَهَا ۚ قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَتَّبِعُ مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ مِن رَّبِّي ۚ هَٰذَا بَصَائِرُ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

If you don’t come to them with a revelation, they say. “Why don’t you yourself chose it be (a revelation)?” Say. “I but follow what is revealed to me from my Lord. this is (nothing but) enlightened perception from your Lord, and Guidance, and mercy, for those who have faith.”

If the messenger doesn’t come (bring to people) with an Ayat (probably in a given situation), people would say that why not you choose anything (that would then become a Sunnat for them to follow), however, the messenger would always says, follow the Wahi/Quran not anything else. Also, this Ayat is a confirmation that everything that the prophet says or does is not Wahi/inspiration.

5:15  يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيرًا مِّمَّا كُنتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ ۚ قَدْ جَاءَكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ

O people of The Book! There has come to you our Messenger, revealing to you much that you used to hide in The Book, and passing over much: There has come to you from Allah a light and a perspicuous Book

Sunnate/Practice of the Messenger is to reveal clearly what people try to hide from The Book.

16:64  وَمَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ ۙ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

And We sent down the Book to you (the messenger) for the express purpose, that you should make clear to them those things in which they differ, and that it should be a guide and a mercy to those who believe.

Another practice of the Messenger is to clarify from the Book,  to the people who differ in it’s various matters.

10:15  وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ ۙ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا ائْتِ بِقُرْآنٍ غَيْرِ هَٰذَا أَوْ بَدِّلْهُ ۚ قُلْ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أُبَدِّلَهُ مِن تِلْقَاءِ نَفْسِي ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ ۖ إِنِّي أَخَافُ إِنْ عَصَيْتُ رَبِّي عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ

But when Our Clear Ayats are rehearsed unto them, those who rest not their hope on their meeting with Us, Say. “Bring us a Quran/Reading other than this, or change this,” Say. “It is not for me, of my own accord, to change it. I follow naught but what is revealed unto me. if I were to disobey my Lord, I should myself fear the penalty of a Great Day (to come).

The Messenger does not change what is sent down on his Nafs (i.e the inspiration/Wahi/Quran). He follows the inspiration and is afraid of the penalty of the great day.

18:28  وَاصْبِرْ نَفْسَكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُم بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ ۖ وَلَا تَعْدُ عَيْنَاكَ عَنْهُمْ تُرِيدُ زِينَةَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَا تُطِعْ مَنْ أَغْفَلْنَا قَلْبَهُ عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ وَكَانَ أَمْرُهُ فُرُطًا

And persevere yourself (the Messenger) with those who call on their Lord morning and evening, seeking His Presence; and let not your eyes pass beyond them, seeking the pomp and glitter of this Life;  and Don’t obey the one whose heart We have permitted to neglect the remembrance of Us, one who follows his own desires, and whose case has gone beyond all bounds.

The Messenger perseveres in the company of devout people, he does not long for worldly life’s glitter, and he does not obey ones who are oblivious to the remembrance of Allah.

39:11  قُلْ إِنِّي أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصًا لَّهُ الدِّينَ

Say. “Verily, I am commanded to serve Allah with judgment exclusively for Him.

The practice of the Messenger is to serve Allah in judgment purely and exclusively for Allah.

46:35  فَاصْبِرْ كَمَا صَبَرَ أُولُو الْعَزْمِ مِنَ الرُّسُلِ وَلَا تَسْتَعْجِل لَّهُمْ ۚ كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ مَا يُوعَدُونَ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا سَاعَةً مِّن نَّهَارٍ ۚ بَلَاغٌ ۚ فَهَلْ يُهْلَكُ إِلَّا الْقَوْمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

Therefore patiently persevere, as stead fast Messengers did earlier; and be in no haste about the (Unbelievers). On the Day that they see the (Punishment) promised to them, (it will be) as if they had not tarried more than an hour of a day. (You are but) to proclaim the Message, thus shall any be destroyed except those who transgress?

The Messenger patiently persevere against the adversities and does not make haste with the unbelievers.

50:45  نَّحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَقُولُونَ ۖ وَمَا أَنتَ عَلَيْهِم بِجَبَّارٍ ۖ فَذَكِّرْ بِالْقُرْآنِ مَن يَخَافُ وَعِيدِ

We know better what they say; and you are not a compeller over them. So remind (them) with the Qur’an those who fear My warning!

The Messenger does not forcefully compel people to believe or to do something. He only reminds with Quran.

9:73  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

‘O’ Prophet! Strive with the rejecters and the hypocrites and be strict over them. And their refuge is hell and a bad destination.

The prophet engages the rejectors and hypocrites for their false interpretations about Allah, and is not lenient on them in this matter. The prophet instructs with the Ayahs of Quran. If the Ayahs increase the rejecters and hypocrites in rejection, the prophet deals them with firmness.

8:64  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ حَسْبُكَ اللَّهُ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

O Prophet! Sufficient for you is Allah,-  and unto those who follow you among the believers.

The prophet’s support is basically Allah and after Him the believers who follow him. He is indifferent to worldly powers to support him in his mission.

33:28  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ إِن كُنتُنَّ تُرِدْنَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا وَزِينَتَهَا فَتَعَالَيْنَ أُمَتِّعْكُنَّ وَأُسَرِّحْكُنَّ سَرَاحًا جَمِيلًا

O Prophet! Say to your wives. “If you desire the life of this World, and its adornment,- then come! I will provide it to you and set you free in a beautiful manner.”

33:59  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَن يُعْرَفْنَ فَلَا يُؤْذَيْنَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

O Prophet! say to your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers that they let down upon them their over-garments; this will be more proper, that they may be known, and thus they will not be given trouble; and God is Forgiving, Merciful.

Prophet asks the women of his family and the believing ones to draw an over-garment over their dresses for their safety.

The above are some of Ayahs presented here as an example. All orders in Al-Kitab are basically the practice of the messengers and prophets.

45:6  تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَ اللَّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Such are the Ayats/Signs of Allah, which We rehearse to you in Truth; then in what Hadith/narration they will believe after Allah and His Ayahs?

These are the Ayahs of Allah which are revealed in truth by Allah. Allah then asks on which Hadith/narration, they will believe after Allah and His Ayahs?

Satan/Shaitan/Devil

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

16:98  فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

When you read the Quran/the Reading, seek Allah’s protection from Satan the stoned one.

Allah has warned mankind that Satan is their open enemy and that Satan will eventually be able to lead a majority of mankind to delusion and destruction. Therefore it is imperative for us to be able to identify the attacks of Satan in order to protect ourselves  Especially so, as Satan is relentless in his attacks and he is sitting at the ‘Sirate-Mustaqim’ (Straight Path). Quran gives us a lot of information about Satan for our protection. In this post we will review the Ayahs related to the story of Adam and his pair and the tree from which they ate and lost their place in Janna. Also, we will analyze various aspects of the personality of Satan and his delusion tactics.

38-71-76  إِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي خَالِقٌ بَشَرًا مِّن طِينٍ  فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ  فَسَجَدَ الْمَلَائِكَةُ كُلُّهُمْ أَجْمَعُونَ  إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ اسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ  قَالَ يَا إِبْلِيسُ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَن تَسْجُدَ لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ ۖ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ أَمْ كُنتَ مِنَ الْعَالِينَ  قَالَ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ ۖ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ

When your Lord said to the angels; ‘Surely I am creating a human from clay. When I have made him even and breathed into him from My spirit, then you all fall down prostrating for him.” So the angels prostrated, all of them together, except Iblis who showed arrogance and became from the rejecters. He (Allah) said: O’ Iblis, what prevented you to prostrate for what I have created with my hands. Did you show arrogance or are you from the higher class? He (Iblis) said. “I am better than him. You have created me from fire, and created him from clay.”

In the above Ayahs, we come to know about one aspect of the personality of Satan; The personality called ‘Iblis’. The root word of ‘Iblis’ is (ب ل س ) which means ‘in grief and hurts’. Iblis is the personality who considers himself superior based on criteria not given by Allah. Allah ordered the angels that you all prostrate to human when He breathes into the ‘human/bashar’ from His Sprit. The criteria which Iblis makes to compare, is made by himself for example fire is better than clay. While making the criteria he focuses on the body form and misses the essence/spirit. When he perceives injustice being done to him from things beyond his control, he rebels against Allah and thinks he is justified in doing so because he has been dealt unjustly. The lesson to recognize this aspect of Iblis is that, not to follow in his footsteps and be dejected and complexed in matters on which we have no control.  Creation is only from Allah so there should be no complexes and grudges from Allah, in people in what has been created or provided by Allah.

17:62  قَالَ أَرَأَيْتَكَ هَٰذَا الَّذِي كَرَّمْتَ عَلَيَّ لَئِنْ أَخَّرْتَنِ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَأَحْتَنِكَنَّ ذُرِّيَّتَهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

He (Iblis) said: “Do you see! this is the one you have honored over me! Definitely If you will give me respite till the day of resurrection, I will bring his descendants under my control except a few”.

The word  لَأَحْتَنِكَنَّ  is from root (ح ن ك ) which also means to make worldly experienced. The plan of Iblis/devil is to bring the descendent of Adam under his control by making them going after the worldly life. While Allah has always emphasized upon the Hereafter/Akhira over worldly life.

7:19  وَيَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ فَكُلَا مِنْ حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلَا تَقْرَبَا هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ

And “O Adam You and your pair stay in the garden, thus both of you eat from wherever you wish and do not go near this tree so you will become from the oppressors.

20:117-119  فَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ إِنَّ هَٰذَا عَدُوٌّ لَّكَ وَلِزَوْجِكَ فَلَا يُخْرِجَنَّكُمَا مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ فَتَشْقَىٰ إِنَّ لَكَ أَلَّا تَجُوعَ فِيهَا وَلَا تَعْرَىٰ  وَأَنَّكَ لَا تَظْمَأُ فِيهَا وَلَا تَضْحَىٰ

Then We said. “O Adam! verily, this is an enemy to thee and your pair. So let him not get you both out of the Garden, so that you land in misery. Surely you are not to be hungry and naked in it, and surely you are not to be thirsty and victimized in it.

Adam and his pair were in Al-Janna/the garden. Quran says that what is described as Jannat in Quran is an example (13:35 مَّثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ ۖ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ أُكُلُهَا دَائِمٌ وَظِلُّهَا ۚ تِلْكَ عُقْبَى الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا ۖ وَّعُقْبَى الْكَافِرِينَ النَّارُ ). The example of the Janna in which they were in, had the following characteristics as per Ayahs 20:117-119:

  1. Free from hunger as there is no shortage of food.  Hunger is also associated with the hunger for power, prestige and excelling others. In Janna there is no competition with any one, there-fore there is no desire for man to excel, exceed or compare with any one.
  2. No Nakedness. Nakedness is associated with covering one’s blemishes and weaknesses. In Janna, there is no need to cover ones’ shortcomings as again no comparison with others.
  3. No thirst. Thirst is also associated with ones thirst for knowledge to excel and compete with others. There is no desire in Janna for that.
  4. No victimization. In the example of Janna, people are not victimized as there is no  desire to leave others behind.

As Janna is an example, the tree of Janna is also an example. The example of the exit tree in Janna is something that when you experience it, you lose the Janna and along with it the characteristics mentioned above of Janna.  So this tree. which they were asked to avoid is associated with worldly life. Once they taste it, the protection of Janna which they were enjoying is withdrawn and they are exposed to worldly life. Worldly life is associated with competition with others to excel. They have to strive to compete with others to do better than others. They have to have the hunger and thirst to do better for themselves and get materials things for making their worldly life better. They have to cover themselves for their blemishes and shortcomings from people’s eyes. So, this tree is the tree of worldly life and competition, and after getting the taste of this tree all rigors of worldly life were exposed for them.

20:120  فَوَسْوَسَ إِلَيْهِ الشَّيْطَانُ قَالَ يَا آدَمُ هَلْ أَدُلُّكَ عَلَىٰ شَجَرَةِ الْخُلْدِ وَمُلْكٍ لَّا يَبْلَىٰ

Then Satan tempted him by saying: “O Adam, should I show you the tree of immortality, and a kingdom that will never know any wane?”

Satan tempted Adam and his pair, by suggesting them they should work for their worldly life, so that they become immortals. We often hear similar statements, that we should do something so that world would remember us even after our death. Similarly people have an inclination to leave their progeny behind so that their lineage would continue. However, God advises that what ever is in the world will be left here when you leave the world.

7:20 فَوَسْوَسَ لَهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ لِيُبْدِيَ لَهُمَا مَا وُورِيَ عَنْهُمَا مِن سَوْآتِهِمَا وَقَالَ مَا نَهَاكُمَا رَبُّكُمَا عَنْ هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةِ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَا مَلَكَيْنِ أَوْ تَكُونَا مِنَ الْخَالِدِينَ

Then Shaitan/Satan whispered so that he made for them appear from their ills which were behind them and said “that Your Lord has forbidden from this tree so that you become angels or you become eternal.

Sometimes we hear similar rhetoric that there is no hereafter and those who target hereafter are left behind in the World and this is just an illusion that religions creates to restrain mankind from development.

20:121  أَكَلَا مِنْهَا فَبَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْآتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ الْجَنَّةِ ۚ وَعَصَىٰ آدَمُ رَبَّهُ فَغَوَىٰ

And both ate of (its fruit), and their hidden evils were exposed to one another, and they patched the leaves of the garden (to hide them). Adam disobeyed his Lord, and went astray.

After eating from that tree, Adam and his pair, lost the protections of Janna as mentioned above. When they were exposed to the world and competition with others, they realized their short comings in comparison with others, and like all others started covering their short comings and blemishes from the world. Once they are exposed to the worldly life, they have to endure the hardships therein, and live the worldly life.

2:36  فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ ۖ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۖ وَلَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ

Then did Satan make them slip and got them out of the state (of felicity) in which they had been. We said. “Get down, all,  for you are enemies to one another. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood – for an appointed time.”

After getting out of Jannat, Adam had to live his life on Earth, which is associated with struggle and strife for the worldly life.

36:60  أَلَمْ أَعْهَدْ إِلَيْكُمْ يَا بَنِي آدَمَ أَن لَّا تَعْبُدُوا الشَّيْطَانَ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

“Did I not covenant to you, O Children of Adam, that you will not serve the Satan; for that he is a clear enemy to you?

7:27  يَا بَنِي آدَمَ لَا يَفْتِنَنَّكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ كَمَا أَخْرَجَ أَبَوَيْكُم مِّنَ الْجَنَّةِ يَنزِعُ عَنْهُمَا لِبَاسَهُمَا لِيُرِيَهُمَا سَوْآتِهِمَا ۗ إِنَّهُ يَرَاكُمْ هُوَ وَقَبِيلُهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا تَرَوْنَهُمْ ۗ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

O children of Adam, do not let the Satan dupe you as he did when he caused the eviction of your parents from the Garden, and the removal of their garments to expose their ills. He and his tribe see you, while you do not see them. We appoint the satans as companions of those who do not believe.

In the above Ayat, Allah advises us to be cautious of arguments from Satan to keep us involved in worldly life to the maximum. We are under constant scrutiny from him and the likes of him. Those who don’t believe in Allah’s advise, invariably become companions of Satan.

2:268  الشَّيْطَانُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُم بِالْفَحْشَاءِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَعِدُكُم مَّغْفِرَةً مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلًا ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Satan promises you of poverty and orders you with shameful acts. Allah promises you His forgiveness and bounties. And Allah  is bounteous for all and He knows all things.

Satan tries to scare you of poverty and keeps us involved in worldly affairs so that we are continuously working for this life. He makes doing shameful acts, alluring. While Allah promises forgiveness and bounties for the believers.

Means give to Satan to delude people in the world:

17:63-64  قَالَ اذْهَبْ فَمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ فَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ جَزَاؤُكُمْ جَزَاءً مَّوْفُورًا  وَاسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ مِنْهُم بِصَوْتِكَ وَأَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِم بِخَيْلِكَ وَرَجِلِكَ وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَوْلَادِ وَعِدْهُمْ ۚ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا

He (Allah) said (to Satan): “Go away, whosoever follows you from them, surely Hell is your reward, an abundant reward. And you can excite, with your sound; whosoever you can from them, and bring over them your horses and infantry (i.e overwhelm them with your ideologies), and be their partner in wealth and children. And make promises with them, and Satan promises them nothing except delusion.

The tools by which Satan delude, are the sounds which stirs up emotions, his ideologies, wealth and children i.e the worldly life adornments.

17:65  إِنَّ عِبَادِي لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانٌ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِرَبِّكَ وَكِيلًا

“Surely My servants, over them, you will never have any authority and sufficient advocate is your Lord.

7:16-17  قَالَ فَبِمَا أَغْوَيْتَنِي لَأَقْعُدَنَّ لَهُمْ صِرَاطَكَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ  ثُمَّ لَآتِيَنَّهُم مِّن بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ وَعَنْ أَيْمَانِهِمْ وَعَن شَمَائِلِهِمْ ۖ وَلَا تَجِدُ أَكْثَرَهُمْ شَاكِرِينَ

He (Satan) said. “so with what you have tempted me, definitely I will sit on Your straight path for them. Then definitely I will come to them from between their front and from their behind and about their right and about their left and you will not find the majority of them thankful.”

Satan sits on Allah’s ‘Sirate Mustaqim’/straight path. He is not sitting in places of shameful and criminal acts as there are others substituting him at those places.  As soon as one starts inclining towards the right path, Satan’s relentless attacks shall target him. Satan will give argument from both left and right side in order to sway him from the right path. The only way to guard off is to recognize Satan and his schemes is through the Ayahs of Allah.

4:19  وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمْ وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمْ وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ آذَانَ الْأَنْعَامِ وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ الشَّيْطَانَ وَلِيًّا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ خَسِرَ خُسْرَانًا مُّبِينًا

“And I will lead them astray, and I will make them wishful and I will order them so definitely they will cut off the ears of cattle, and I will order them so definitely they will alter the creation of Allah. And who takes the Satan a protector from other than Allah then without doubt he is at loss, a clear loss.

Satan promised that he will definitely make people desirous in the world. He will order them to make changes in the creations of Allah. The reference of phrase about ‘cutting ears of cattle’,  is metaphorical. In some languages this phrase means to ‘exceed in mischievous antics in a negative sense. On Satan’s instigation, people would exceed in carnal behaviors which can even put animals to shame.

7:18  قَالَ اخْرُجْ مِنْهَا مَذْءُومًا مَّدْحُورًا ۖ لَّمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

(Allah) said. “Get out from this, disgraced and expelled. I will fill Hell with all of you, whoever follows you from them,-

16:63  تَاللَّهِ لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمَمٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمُ الْيَوْمَ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

By Allah, We sent (Our messengers) to nations before you; but Satan made, their own acts seem alluring. He is also their patron today, but they shall have a most grievous penalty.

Satan provides justification to people in order to make their bad acts alluring in their eyes.

5:90  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

The works of Satan are Intoxicants and gambling, stones, statues and arrows; an abomination,- of Satan’s handwork. eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper.

The touch of Satan causes psychological problems. Satan is not physical.

2:275  الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا ۗ وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا ۚ فَمَن جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىٰ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Those who eat Ar-Riba/the increase  do not take a stand except like that he stands to madness from the touch of Satan. That is because they say that Al-Bai/the deal  is the example of Ar-Riba . And Allah has made Al-Bai/the deal  lawful and has made Ar-Riba/the increase unlawful so he to whom comes the sermon from his lord then forbids, that is past for him. And his affair is towards Allah, and whosoever returns , then they are the companions of the fire. They will live forever in it.

17:27  إِنَّ الْمُبَذِّرِينَ كَانُوا إِخْوَانَ الشَّيَاطِينِ ۖ وَكَانَ الشَّيْطَانُ لِرَبِّهِ كَفُورًا

Squanderers are the brothers of satans, and the Satan is to his Lord, a rejecter.

3:175  إِنَّمَا ذَٰلِكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

Verily it is the Satan who make you fear his protectors so do not be afraid of them, but fear Me, if you are the believers.

5:91  إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاءَ فِي الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلَاةِ ۖ فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ

Satan intends to create among you enmity and hatred through intoxicants and gambling, and to divert you from the remembrance of Allah and the prayer. Will you therefore not desist?

58:19  اسْتَحْوَذَ عَلَيْهِمُ الشَّيْطَانُ فَأَنسَاهُمْ ذِكْرَ اللَّهِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ حِزْبُ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ أَلَا إِنَّ حِزْبَ الشَّيْطَانِ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

Satan has got the better of them so he has made them forget the remembrance of Allah. They are the Party of the Satan. Truly, it is the Party of the Satan that will perish!

7:30  فَرِيقًا هَدَىٰ وَفَرِيقًا حَقَّ عَلَيْهِمُ الضَّلَالَةُ ۗ إِنَّهُمُ اتَّخَذُوا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ

One party He (Allah) has guided, others, on them the loss of the way has been established; as they took the satans, not Allah, for their protectors, and assume that they are the guided ones.

34:20  وَلَقَدْ صَدَّقَ عَلَيْهِمْ إِبْلِيسُ ظَنَّهُ فَاتَّبَعُوهُ إِلَّا فَرِيقًا مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

And without doubt Iblis/Devil made true his conjecture over them, so they followed him except a division from the believers.

16:98-99 فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ  إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ سُلْطَانٌ عَلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ  إِنَّمَا سُلْطَانُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَوَلَّوْنَهُ وَالَّذِينَ هُم بِهِ مُشْرِكُونَ

When you read the Quran/the Reading, seek Allah’s protection from Satan the stoned one. No authority has he over those who believe and put their trust in their Lord. His authority is over those only, who take him as protector and who join partners with Allah.

7:200-202  وَإِمَّا يَنزَغَنَّكَ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ نَزْغٌ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا إِذَا مَسَّهُمْ طَائِفٌ مِّنَ الشَّيْطَانِ تَذَكَّرُوا فَإِذَا هُم مُّبْصِرُونَ  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا إِذَا مَسَّهُمْ طَائِفٌ مِّنَ الشَّيْطَانِ تَذَكَّرُوا فَإِذَا هُم مُّبْصِرُونَ

And if you are incited from the Satan to incitement, so seek refuge with Allah, surely He is all hearing, all knowing. Those who are pious/take guard, when any evil from the Satan touches them, they remember (Allah), then they get the insight. Their (Satan’s) brothers keep on expanding them in the wrong and they do not relax.

If any evil thought comes across your mind, remember Allah at that moment.

Satan efforts with prophets and messengers and Golden words:

22:52  وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ وَلَا نَبِيٍّ إِلَّا إِذَا تَمَنَّىٰ أَلْقَى الشَّيْطَانُ فِي أُمْنِيَّتِهِ فَيَنسَخُ اللَّهُ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ ثُمَّ يُحْكِمُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ  لِّيَجْعَلَ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ فِتْنَةً لِّلَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَفِي شِقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ

And We have not sent  before you a Messenger nor a Prophet except when he wishes, Satan encounters in his wishes. So Allah cancels what Satan encounters, then Allah confirms His Ayahs/Signs and Allah is knowing, wise. That He may make the suggestions thrown in by Satan, a captivation for those in whose hearts is a disease and who are hardened of heart. verily the wrong-doers are in a schism far (from the Truth).

6:112-113  وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ عَدُوًّا شَيَاطِينَ الْإِنسِ وَالْجِنِّ يُوحِي بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ زُخْرُفَ الْقَوْلِ غُرُورًا ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ مَا فَعَلُوهُ ۖ فَذَرْهُمْ وَمَا يَفْتَرُونَ  وَلِتَصْغَىٰ إِلَيْهِ أَفْئِدَةُ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ وَلِيَرْضَوْهُ وَلِيَقْتَرِفُوا مَا هُم مُّقْتَرِفُونَ

And likewise ,We have made for every Prophet the satans of mankind and the satans of jin-kind an enemy, some of them inspire golden words (as sayings of prophets) on some, for the purpose of delusion, and if your Lord had willed they would have not done it, so leave them and what they have invented. To such (deceit) let the hearts of those incline (towards those golden words), who have no faith in the hereafter. let them delight in it, and let them earn from it what they may.

43:36-37  وَمَن يَعْشُ عَن ذِكْرِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ نُقَيِّضْ لَهُ شَيْطَانًا فَهُوَ لَهُ قَرِينٌ  وَإِنَّهُمْ لَيَصُدُّونَهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ

And whosoever turns away from the remembrance of the most Merciful, We appoint for him a Satan to be his constant companion. And they will definitely oppose  about the way (of Allah) and they will think that they are the guided ones.

Any one, who is not in constant touch with God remembrance/Quran, Satan will become his companion and he will be assuming that he is the guided one. The way to  Allah is through His Book. The obstacles creators in the way of Allah are termed as satans/shiateen. Recognize, what are these obstacles; Are there some who say that you cannot understand this Book unless you get this knowledge or that degree or you know about situation when the Aya was revealed or you get knowledge of history books etc.

23:96-98  ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ السَّيِّئَةَ ۚ نَحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَصِفُونَ  وَقُل رَّبِّ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ هَمَزَاتِ الشَّيَاطِينِ  وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ رَبِّ أَن يَحْضُرُونِ

Repel the ills with that which is good. We know very well with what they describe. And say O my Lord I seek refuge with you from the spurs/impulsive action of satans. And I seek refuge with you O my Lord! that they (satans) attend me.

Impulses from Satan, do much damage as people normally act impulsively on them. It is advisable to ask Allah’s refuge from Satan’s impulses.

Khannas:

Khuannas is one who withdraws and leaves you in a lurch. This is another aspect of the personality of Satan.

114-4-6  مِن شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ  الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ  مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ

(say I seek refuge) from the mischief of the Whisperer (of Evil), who withdraws (after his whisper), who whispers into the hearts of Mankind, Among Jinns and among men.

He (khunnas) can be both from Jinns (hidden/covered) and Inns (people)

14:22  وَقَالَ الشَّيْطَانُ لَمَّا قُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَعَدَكُمْ وَعْدَ الْحَقِّ وَوَعَدتُّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ ۖ وَمَا كَانَ لِيَ عَلَيْكُم مِّن سُلْطَانٍ إِلَّا أَن دَعَوْتُكُمْ فَاسْتَجَبْتُمْ لِي ۖ فَلَا تَلُومُونِي وَلُومُوا أَنفُسَكُم ۖ مَّا أَنَا بِمُصْرِخِكُمْ وَمَا أَنتُم بِمُصْرِخِيَّ ۖ إِنِّي كَفَرْتُ بِمَا أَشْرَكْتُمُونِ مِن قَبْلُ ۗ إِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

And Satan says when the order is complete,  “Surely Allah promised you the promise of truth and I also made promise with you then I turned back on my promise to you,  and I did not have any authority over you except to invite you, so you accepted my invitation, so you do not blame me and blame your self. My complaining cannot help you, nor can your complaining help me. Surely I reject with what you have been associating me from before. Surely for the oppressors is a grievous punishment.

When you have acted upon Satan’s advise then he will go back at once and will make you repent over your misdeed.

59:16  كَمَثَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِذْ قَالَ لِلْإِنسَانِ اكْفُرْ فَلَمَّا كَفَرَ قَالَ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّنكَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Like the Satan, when he says to man, “reject”. but when (man) rejects, (Satan) says, “I am free of you. I do fear Allah, the Lord of the Worlds!”

2:208  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

O’ People who believe, Enter into Peace completely; and follow not the footsteps of Satan for he is an open enemy to you.

Allah ordered the angels to prostrate when he invoked His Sprit in Adam, but Iblis did not look at the sprit (of the message), instead he saw only the body form of Adam, and in his later conversation with Allah he mentioned only the body form and not the Sprit. This is exactly what happens  now , whenever the message of Allah is delivered to people, they don’t look at the message (which is Ayats of Allah) instead they start looking at the person who is delivering the message and find faults in him. This happened with all the prophets mentioned in Quran. That’s why Allah forbids that don’t follow the footsteps of Satan.

2:169  إِنَّمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِالسُّوءِ وَالْفَحْشَاءِ وَأَن تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

For he commands you what is evil and shameful, and that you should say about Allah that of which you have no knowledge.

6:43  فَلَوْلَا إِذْ جَاءَهُم بَأْسُنَا تَضَرَّعُوا وَلَٰكِن قَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

Then why it was not that when Our suffering reached them they did not show humility? On the contrary their hearts became hardened, and Satan made their acts seem alluring to them.

36:60-62  أَلَمْ أَعْهَدْ إِلَيْكُمْ يَا بَنِي آدَمَ أَن لَّا تَعْبُدُوا الشَّيْطَانَ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ  وَأَنِ اعْبُدُونِي ۚ هَٰذَا صِرَاطٌ مُّسْتَقِيمٌ  وَلَقَدْ أَضَلَّ مِنكُمْ جِبِلًّا كَثِيرًا ۖ أَفَلَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْقِلُونَ

“Did I not covenant to you, O Children of Adam, that you will not serve the Satan; for that he is a clear enemy to you? and that you serve me, this is a straight path and without doubt he led astray the temperament of  majority from you, so will you not at all use your intellect?”

Sometimes a person does a bad act for experiment sake and gets hooked on it. After sometimes the bad act would become second nature to him i.e ingrained in him and then will be very difficult to get rid of.

Was Iblis a Jinn or Angel?

2:34  وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ

And when, We said to the angels. “Bow down to Adam” and they all bowed down except for Iblis, he refused and was arrogant. He was from the Kafireen/rejecters.

Allah ordered the angels to bow down to Adam so they all bowed down except for Iblis. The order to bow down was to angels and they all did so except for one of them who was Iblis. After that he was termed as a rejecter.

18:50  وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ كَانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ….

And when! We said to the angels, “Bow down for Adam:” they bowed down except Iblis. He was/became from the jinns…..

So Iblis, after he disobeyed the order of the Lord he was termed as rejecter in 2:34  and a Jinn in 18:50. He is termed a Jinn, because his personality is hidden from man and he poses himself as his well wisher while suggesting evil to man.

Notes:

Link to a lecture on Satan/Devil from scholar brother Mohammad Shaikh:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/09/09/satan-devil-2004/

https://www.iipccanada.com/category/urdu-video-lectures/page/8/

Ayat un Noor/The verse of the light

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

24:35  اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ ۖ الْمِصْبَاحُ فِي زُجَاجَةٍ ۖ الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ زَيْتُونَةٍ لَّا شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلَا غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِيءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ ۚ نُّورٌ عَلَىٰ نُورٍ ۗ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

Allah is the Light/reflection of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His light is of a niche and in it is a lamp. The lamp enclosed in glass. the glass as it were a brilliant planet. Lit from a blessed olive tree, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil is about to light up, though fire did not touch it. Light upon Light! Allah guides whom He wills to His light. Allah sets forth parables for people, and Allah  knows all things.

Light is a parable of knowledge and reflection while darkness is a parable of ignorance. Everything in the Universe reflects upon an intelligent design with which it has been created. Every single thing and its place in the perfect grand scheme of the Universe, helps us reflect on the Creator’s wisdom. From the grandest to the most minute part of the Universe including living beings, these complex intricate systems, working harmoniously together, speaks volumes about the intelligent design of the Creator. Science is making every day new discoveries about what has been created by the Creator. The discoveries are mind boggling and still we know that we know so little.  We don’t have any idea about the farthest frontier of the Universe, nor about the smallest particle on the micro scale. All systems within living organisms and the universe are so meticulously designed to work in harmony, it is unthinkable for a believer to consider it coming together as an act of random chance without the intervention of an intelligent designer. This is what the Ayat states that Allah is the light/reflection of the skies and the earth, i.e every thing in the Universe bears the signature of the Creator and Allah’s design is reflected from everything in the Universe.

This light and reflection of Allah is in something which is a parable of a niche, i.e some people may not be able to reflect upon it.  The unbelievers and atheists assume that the intricately balanced system of the Universe came into existence by random act of chance and is running without the intervention of an intelligent Designer. So they are unable to see the reflection or light of Allah in the Universe. The believers however are able to perceive this light in the niche. For them, this light and wisdom is the example of a lamp which is a source of light. The fuel of this light bearing lamp is their faith, which is the example of a blessed beneficial olive tree. They see the light through the parable of bright glass i.e not directly exposed to it, but they are able to perceive the light by inference. The light of Allah is knowledge/wisdom and reflection which is not dependent upon worldly source of knowledge. It’s fuel is the blessed faith, focused on the Creator and does not waiver to East or West side. Pure faith is able to manifest without the need of a  trigger or ignition every time. The faith leads to the light of Wisdom. Allah increases the light of Wisdom for those who strive to see this light and keeps on increasing it for their guidance. Allah teaches with the help of examples and He is the knower of all things.

 

Evolution

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

32-7-9  الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ ۖ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الْإِنسَانِ مِن طِينٍ  ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِن سُلَالَةٍ مِّن مَّاءٍ مَّهِينٍ  ثُمَّ سَوَّاهُ وَنَفَخَ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِهِ ۖ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ ۚ قَلِيلًا مَّا تَشْكُرُونَ

He Who has perfected everything which He has created and He began the creation of man from clay/dust. Then He made his progeny from an extract of an insignificant fluid. Then He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him from His Spirit. And He gave you (the faculties of) hearing and sight and heart (feelings), little thanks do ye give

The above Ayat informs us that the creation of man started from clay/dust. Dust or clay is in-organic material. From in-organic matter to organic matter and then into present form of human being, stage after stage of creations (71:14, 84:19) may span several hundred million years. What course did this stage by stage evolution took, we don’t know as yet. The famous Miller-Urey experiment gives some hint about the first step, i.e the possibility of creation of organic matter from in-organic matter.

The Miller–Urey experiment[1] (or Miller experiment)[2] was a chemical experiment conducted in 1952, that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions. The experiment supported the hypothesis that putative conditions on the primitive Earth favoured chemical reactions that synthesized more complex organic compounds from simpler inorganic precursors.

After Miller’s death in 2007, scientists examining sealed vials preserved from the original experiments were able to show that there were actually well over 20 different amino acids produced in Miller’s original experiments. That is considerably more than what Miller originally reported, and more than the 20 that naturally occur in life.[7] More-recent evidence suggests that Earth’s original atmosphere might have had a different composition from the gas used in the Miller experiment. But prebiotic experiments continue to produce racemic mixtures of simple to complex compounds under varying conditions.[8]

The experiments showed that simple organic compounds of building blocks of proteins and other macromolecules can be formed from gases with the addition of energy.

The living organisms undergo changes in their genes according to their environment and they change and adopt according to the changes in their environment. Genes are the codes of the program according to which the living organisms grow, age and die. How the evolution took place since the beginning of life on Earth, is still not understood properly and there are many theories about it. Quran tells us that Allah has created man from different stages and the first stage was dust. Dust and mud is in-organic material. So the beginning of evolution was from in-organic materials. Quran does not mention the time it took from mud to the formation of homo sapiens; it could have taken hundreds of millions of years in the making and we don’t know if it involved going through different animal stages or not. Science has also not found out for sure, as yet.

7:11    وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ صَوَّرْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ لَمْ يَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ

And We created you all, then We gave you (all), shapes; then We said to the angels to bow down to Adam, and they bowed down; except for Iblis; he was not to be of those who bowed down.

The above Ayat states that after creating us and figuring us, Allah gave the order to angels to bow down to Adam. So it means that mankind had existed physically when Allah breathed his Sprit into the Khalifa/vicegerent on Earth.

What we dont’ know, is the complete story of evolution. We don’t even find evidence of mid way species e.g lets say if a specie is changing from form A to B, it would undergo transition stages. What we find is fully transformed species and not sure if we have evidence of transition forms.

The main standoff between Darwinism and religion is not that religion excludes evolution. It is mainly that Darwinism wants to exclude God from evolution. It postulates that evolution takes place without intervention of God. While the Book tells us that evolution is the mechanism by which God creates. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pZyRgYZe6tM)

71-14  وَقَدْ خَلَقَكُمْ أَطْوَارًا

He (Allah) has created you in stages.

76:1  هَلْ أَتَىٰ عَلَى الْإِنسَانِ حِينٌ مِّنَ الدَّهْرِ لَمْ يَكُن شَيْئًا مَّذْكُورًا

 There surely came over man a period of time when he was a thing not worth mentioning.

71:17  وَاللَّهُ أَنبَتَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ نَبَاتًا

And God sprouted/grew you from the Earth (as) a growth

84:19 لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ

Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage.

29:20  قُلْ سِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَانظُرُوا كَيْفَ بَدَأَ الْخَلْقَ ۚ ثُمَّ اللَّهُ يُنشِئُ النَّشْأَةَ الْآخِرَةَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Say. “Travel through the earth and see how Allah did originate creation; so will Allah produce a later creation, for Allah has power over all things.

Allah ask us to explore the land to find out evidence of how the creation began on Earth.

22:5  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّنَ الْبَعْثِ فَإِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ عَلَقَةٍ ثُمَّ مِن مُّضْغَةٍ مُّخَلَّقَةٍ وَغَيْرِ مُخَلَّقَةٍ لِّنُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ ۚ وَنُقِرُّ فِي الْأَرْحَامِ مَا نَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ثُمَّ نُخْرِجُكُمْ طِفْلًا ثُمَّ لِتَبْلُغُوا أَشُدَّكُمْ ۖ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُتَوَفَّىٰ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰ أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ لِكَيْلَا يَعْلَمَ مِن بَعْدِ عِلْمٍ شَيْئًا ۚ وَتَرَى الْأَرْضَ هَامِدَةً فَإِذَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا الْمَاءَ اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ وَأَنبَتَتْ مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ

O’ Mankind! if you are in doubt about the raising, then surely We created you from dust, then from a sperm, then from a clot, then from a lump of flesh, complete in make and incomplete, that We may make clear to you; and We cause what We please to stay in the wombs till an appointed time, then We bring you forth as babies, then that you may attain your maturity; and of you is he, who is caused to die, and of you is he, who is brought back to the worst part of life, so that after having knowledge he does not know anything; and you see the earth sterile land, but when We send down on it the water, it stirs and swells and brings forth of every kind a beautiful herbage.