بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
The word Islam means to attain peace. A believer has to chose the way towards peace and security in all situations encountered in life.
The word Qital is used as ‘fight’ in Al-Kitab, the fight can be physical or psychological. The word ‘Jihad’ means ‘to struggle’. The words ‘Harab’ in Arabic, translates to war. An interesting thing to note is that word ‘Sword’ is not mentioned even once in Al-Kitab.
Let us see some of the Ayas where fighting is mentioned to see if they really mean physical fighting or it means ideological fight:
47:4 فَإِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَضَرْبَ الرِّقَابِ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَثْخَنتُمُوهُمْ فَشُدُّوا الْوَثَاقَ فَإِمَّا مَنًّا بَعْدُ وَإِمَّا فِدَاءً حَتَّىٰ تَضَعَ الْحَرْبُ أَوْزَارَهَا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ وَلَوْ يَشَاءُ اللَّهُ لَانتَصَرَ مِنْهُمْ وَلَٰكِن لِّيَبْلُوَ بَعْضَكُم بِبَعْضٍ ۗ وَالَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَلَن يُضِلَّ أَعْمَالَهُمْ
When you meet the people who reject/cover, strike at the necks; until when you have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them). thereafter either generosity or ransom. Until the war lays down its burdens. Thus (are you commanded). but if it had been Allah’s Will, He could certainly have exacted retribution from them (Himself); but (He wants to) test you, some with others. But those who are slain in the Way of Allah,- He will never let their deeds be lost.
47:5-6 سَيَهْدِيهِمْ وَيُصْلِحُ بَالَهُمْ وَيُدْخِلُهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ عَرَّفَهَا لَهُمْ
Soon will He guide them and improve their condition, And admit them to the Gardens which He has made known to them.
For the people who are slain the way of the Lord, Allah informs that He will soon guide them and improve their condition, which would mean that its not physical death or fight that was being mentioned here.
The big Jihad/strive/struggle is the ideological fight which is done with Quran.
25:52 فَلَا تُطِعِ الْكَافِرِينَ وَجَاهِدْهُم بِهِ جِهَادًا كَبِيرًا
So you do not obey the rejecters and jahidhum / Strive against them with this (Al-Quran); that is the great jehad / Strive.
4:84 فَقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَا تُكَلَّفُ إِلَّا نَفْسَكَ ۚ وَحَرِّضِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ عَسَى اللَّهُ أَن يَكُفَّ بَأْسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ وَاللَّهُ أَشَدُّ بَأْسًا وَأَشَدُّ تَنكِيلًا
Then fight in Allah’s cause – There is no hardship in it for you except for your souls (nafs) – and rouse the believers. It may be that Allah will restrain the strength of the Unbelievers; for Allah is the severest in strength and severest in punishment.
From the above ayat it can be understood that for Qital/Fighting in the way of Allah, there is no hardship on you except for your nafs (psyche), It can only be possible if this is not physical Qital/fight.
28:83 تِلْكَ الدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ نَجْعَلُهَا لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُرِيدُونَ عُلُوًّا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فَسَادًا ۚ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ
That Home of the Hereafter We shall give to those who intend no high-handedness nor mischief on earth. and the end is (best) for the righteous.
Allah does not allow violence and blood shed on earth. The criminals do violence, mischief and blood shed on Earth. Allah is asking will We equate these criminals with those who believe in the peaceful message of Islam.
28:38 أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ كَالْمُفْسِدِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الْمُتَّقِينَ كَالْفُجَّارِ
Shall We make those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, the likes of those who do Fasad/violence/mischief on earth? Shall We make those who guard against evil, the same as those who turn aside from the right?
68:35 أَفَنَجْعَلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ كَالْمُجْرِمِينَ
Would We make the Muslim/submitters like the criminals?
2:84 وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ
And when We took a covenant with you, not to shed your blood and do not expel your souls/selves from your circles then you confirmed and you are witness to it.
Physical fighting and blood shed is not allowed in Allah’s covenant.
2:11-12 وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْمُفْسِدُونَ وَلَٰكِن لَّا يَشْعُرُونَ
When it is said to them. “Do not make mischief/violence on the earth,” they say. “Why, we are the reformers!” Of a surety, they are the ones who make mischief/violence, but they realise (it) not.
They order with violence on Earth and physical fighting and blood shed, in the name of Jihad. It is because they don’t take orders with Allah’s Book, which does not allow violence and blood shed but they take orders from other books than Allah’s, and these people have no reckoning that they are themselves the troublemakers. They are misleads by the partners/associaters.
68:36-41 مَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ أَمْ لَكُمْ كِتَابٌ فِيهِ تَدْرُسُونَ إِنَّ لَكُمْ فِيهِ لَمَا تَخَيَّرُونَ أَمْ لَكُمْ أَيْمَانٌ عَلَيْنَا بَالِغَةٌ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ ۙ إِنَّ لَكُمْ لَمَا تَحْكُمُونَ سَلْهُمْ أَيُّهُم بِذَٰلِكَ زَعِيمٌ أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ فَلْيَأْتُوا بِشُرَكَائِهِمْ إِن كَانُوا صَادِقِينَ
What is the matter with you? How do you judge? Or for you is a book through which you have taken lesson? In it (the other book), do you find anything you want? Or, have you received solemn assurances from us that grant you whatever you wish till the Day of Resurrection? Ask you of them, which of them is the guarantor of that! Or have they some “Partners” (in Allah)? Then let them come with their “partners”, if they are truthful!
These partners (in Allah) give orders of violence and mischief on earth and cloak these orders under the guise of Shariat and Jihad. The partners are those who make Shariat i.e write shriat/Fiqh books.
42:21 أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ شَرَعُوا لَهُم مِّنَ الدِّينِ مَا لَمْ يَأْذَن بِهِ اللَّهُ ۚ وَلَوْلَا كَلِمَةُ الْفَصْلِ لَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
Do they have partners, who have established for them ways in religion (Shariat) without the permission of Allah? Had it not been for the Decree of Judgment, the matter would have been decided between them (at once). But verily the Wrong-doers will have a grievous Penalty.
9:5 فَإِذَا انسَلَخَ الْأَشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ وَخُذُوهُمْ وَاحْصُرُوهُمْ وَاقْعُدُوا لَهُمْ كُلَّ مَرْصَدٍ ۚ فَإِن تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَخَلُّوا سَبِيلَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
So when the sacred / holy months are ended then fight / kill the associaters (with Allah) wherever you find them and catch them and confine them and sit for them at every place of ambush. So if they repent and establish salah/prayer and give zakah / justification so leave the way for them. Surely Allah is all forgiving, merciful.
If the above Ayat means physical fight/killing, and if the believers would have already killed the associaters then the associaters would not have the chance to turn back and establish Salat and give Zakat as the second part of the Ayat orders to leave their way if they do it. If it is not physical fighting then the scenario is that the Holy months are for preparation (with Quran Studies) and after these four Holy months pass then engage the associaters with Jihad e Akbar (The big struggle) with Quran.
5:27-28 وَاتْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ نَبَأَ ابْنَيْ آدَمَ بِالْحَقِّ إِذْ قَرَّبَا قُرْبَانًا فَتُقُبِّلَ مِنْ أَحَدِهِمَا وَلَمْ يُتَقَبَّلْ مِنَ الْآخَرِ قَالَ لَأَقْتُلَنَّكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ لَئِن بَسَطتَ إِلَيَّ يَدَكَ لِتَقْتُلَنِي مَا أَنَا بِبَاسِطٍ يَدِيَ إِلَيْكَ لِأَقْتُلَكَ ۖ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ
And recite over them the news in truth of the two sons of Adam. When they both gave sacrifice to be close (to Allah) then it was accepted from one of them and was not accepted from the other. “He said I will definitely kill you.” “He said surely Allah accepts (the sacrifice) from those who guard.” “If you will stretch out your hand towards me to kill me, I will not stretch out my hand towards you to kill you. Surely I fear Allah the Lord of the worlds.”
Those people who fear Allah, don’t stretch their hands to harm others.