Quranic Duas/Supplications

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

As we saw in the last post of As-Salat, Allah taught Adam ‘words’ to ask forgiveness and when Adam prayed with these words, Allah accepted his supplication (2:37). In this post we will see some duas/prayers in Quran which we can use in various situations normally encountered in life. By identifying our situation and appropriate prayer/dua in Quran for the situation, we can pray to Allah in Quran Words. We should honestly mean these Words, and repeat these Words/Ayas in As-Salat.

7:55 ادْعُوا رَبَّكُمْ تَضَرُّعًا وَخُفْيَةً ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ

Call on your Lord with humility and privately, for Allah does not like those who trespass beyond bounds.

Supplication to Allah to increase our knowledge:

20:114   رَّبِّ زِدْنِي عِلْمًا

“O my Lord! Advance me in knowledge.”

Prayers to make us and our offspring steadfast in As-Salat and asking forgiveness for ourselves and our parents:

14:40-41  رَبِّ اجْعَلْنِي مُقِيمَ الصَّلَاةِ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۚ رَبَّنَا وَتَقَبَّلْ دُعَاءِ  رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الْحِسَابُ

“O’ my Lord! Make me the one who establish As-salah/the prayer and also from my offspring and O my Lord! You accept my call.”

Asking for betterment in this world and hereafter:

2:201   رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ

Our Lord! give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and save us from the torment of the fire!”

When engulfed in problems in life, the below supplication makes us realize that the problems will not exceed our capacity to handle them and we supplicate to Allah to lessen our burden and grant us His forgiveness, blessings and help.

2:286  لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ ۗ رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْرًا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ ۖ وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا ۚ أَنتَ مَوْلَانَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

Allah does not put to task a nafs/soul except to his capacity;  what he earns is for him, and what he has earned is on him.  O’ our Lord, do not catch us if we forget and we make a mistake , O’ our Lord, do not load a burden on us like you burdened on those from before us ,  O’ our Lord, do not burden us with that we do not have the strength to bear, pardon us, and forgive us and have mercy on us! ,  You are our protector, so help us over the nation of rejecters.

On realization of a committed blunder and honestly seeking forgiveness and turning back to the Lord:

7:23  رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

O Our Lord! We have oppressed our nafs/pshyce and if You do not have forgiveness for us and mercy for us, definitely we will be from the losers.”

On seeking Allah’s intervention for providing right guidance in an affair:

18:10  رَبَّنَا آتِنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً وَهَيِّئْ لَنَا مِنْ أَمْرِنَا رَشَدًا

“Our Lord! bestow on us Mercy from Yourself, and dispose of our affair for us in the right way!”

Supplication  to keep us steadfast after we receive guidance from our Lord:

3:8  رَبَّنَا لَا تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ

“Our Lord!, Let not our hearts be crooked after You have guided us, and grant us mercy from Your nearness; for You are the Grantor.”

When persecuted by rejectors, prayers to Allah to grant patience, perseverance and help against the oppressors.

2:250  رَبَّنَا أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَنَا وَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

“Our Lord! Pour out patience on us and make our steps firm. Help us against the nation of rejecters.”

Prayers asking for authority and joining with the righteous people:

26:83  رَبِّ هَبْ لِي حُكْمًا وَأَلْحِقْنِي بِالصَّالِحِينَ

“O my Lord! Grant me authority, and join me with the righteous/reformers

Prayers to make one’s family a source of pride and for one to become a guide to  righteous people.

25:74  وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا هَبْ لَنَا مِنْ أَزْوَاجِنَا وَذُرِّيَّاتِنَا قُرَّةَ أَعْيُنٍ وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ إِمَامًا

And those who say, “O’ our Lord, grant for us the cooling of eyes from our pairs and our offspring and make us an Imam / Leader for those who guard.”

Prayers on start of travel:

43:13-14   سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي سَخَّرَ لَنَا هَٰذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لَهُ مُقْرِنِينَ وَإِنَّا إِلَىٰ رَبِّنَا لَمُنقَلِبُونَ

Glory to Him, Who has subjected these to our (use), for we could never have accomplished this (by ourselves), “And to our Lord, surely, we are to go back!”

When taking up a challenging task or speaknig to a formidable audience:

20:25-28   رَبِّ اشْرَحْ لِي صَدْرِي  وَيَسِّرْ لِي أَمْرِي  وَاحْلُلْ عُقْدَةً مِّن لِّسَانِي  يَفْقَهُوا قَوْلِي

“O! my Lord expand my chest for me and make my task easy and open the knot from my tongue So they may understand what I say.”

For lessening of parents’ difficulties in their old age:

17:24  رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي صَغِيرًا

“My Lord! bestow on them your Mercy as they cherished me in childhood.”

To become grateful for the blessings that Allah bestowed on us and our parents:

27:19   رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِي أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ وَعَلَىٰ وَالِدَيَّ وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَالِحًا تَرْضَاهُ وَأَدْخِلْنِي بِرَحْمَتِكَ فِي عِبَادِكَ الصَّالِحِينَ

“O my Lord! direct me that I should be grateful for your favours, which thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may work the righteousness that will please Thee. And admit me, by your Grace, to the ranks of your righteous Servants.”

After getting blessings from the Lord:

27:40   هَٰذَا مِن فَضْلِ رَبِّي لِيَبْلُوَنِي أَأَشْكُرُ أَمْ أَكْفُرُ ۖ وَمَن شَكَرَ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ رَبِّي غَنِيٌّ كَرِيمٌ

“This is by the Grace of my Lord!- to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And if any is grateful, truly his gratitude is (a gain) for his own self; but if any is ungrateful, truly my Lord is Free of all needs and is Gracious !”

Seeking guidance from the Lord:

37:99   إِنِّي ذَاهِبٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّي سَيَهْدِينِ

“I am a goer towards my Lord! He will surely guide me!

Seeking help from oppressive surroundings and country:

4:75   رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هَٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ وَلِيًّا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ نَصِيرًا

Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and appoint from your nearness a wali/protector/guardian for us; and appoint  from your nearness a helper for us!”

10:85   عَلَى اللَّهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا رَبَّنَا لَا تَجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً لِّلْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ

“In Allah do we put out trust. Our Lord! make us not a trial for those who practise oppression;

When being ousted of the circles of faith because of one’s beliefs:

7:89   وَسِعَ رَبُّنَا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا ۚ عَلَى اللَّهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا افْتَحْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ قَوْمِنَا بِالْحَقِّ وَأَنتَ خَيْرُ الْفَاتِحِينَ

Our Lord can reach out to the utmost recesses of things by His knowledge. In Allah is our trust. our Lord! decide Thou between us and our people in truth, for You are the best to decide.”

After getting out of a sad and painful situation in life:

35:34   الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَذْهَبَ عَنَّا الْحَزَنَ ۖ إِنَّ رَبَّنَا لَغَفُورٌ شَكُورٌ

And they will say. “Praise be to Allah, Who has removed from us (all) sorrow. for our Lord is indeed Oft-Forgiving, Appreciative.

For recovery from illness:

26:80  وَإِذَا مَرِضْتُ فَهُوَ يَشْفِينِ

“And when I am ill, it is He Who cures me;

Childless couples desiring children can make below supplication:

21:89 رَبِّ لَا تَذَرْنِي فَرْدًا وَأَنتَ خَيْرُ الْوَارِثِينَ

O my Lord! leave me not without offspring, though thou art the best of inheritors.”

After making the prayers/supplications we may ask for acceptance.

2:124  رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

Our Lord! Accept from us for you are All hearing, All knowing.”

 

As-Salat / The Prayers

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

‘Salat’ in Arabic is translated as ‘Prayer’. Any one, irrespective of what religion he follows, when he wants to connect to God, uses some sort of prayers. In His Book, Allah teaches believers how to establish communication with Allah. A great way to establish communication with Allah is As-Salat (The Prayer). In As-Salat, believers communicate to Allah in words which are taught by Allah in a specific format which is established in the House of Allah in Makkah. This House of Allah is made a guidance for all worlds and Prophet Ibraheem A.S and Prophet Ismaeel A.S were ordered to keep the House of the Lord clean for people who do rukoo(bowing down), sujjood (prostrating) and tawaf/Hajj.

To make As-Salat/the prayer an effective communication tool, it is imperative that we understand what the words mean which we recite. Allah has taught many supplications in His Book for various situations which a person encounters in life. It is important that we recognize the proper supplication, know the meanings, and repeat the supplication in our prayers in order to ensure response from Allah. As prayers are enjoined on believers several times a day, it is an excellent tool, to enhance familiarity with Quran.  We can learn and grow in our understanding Ayas, and repeat them in As-Salat. If we learn and repeat even a few new verses of Quran in prayers, our understanding of Quran Insha Allah will grow rapidly.  By learning more Ayas, understanding them and repeating them in As-Salat, prayers will not be a burden but can become an interesting experience. Quran warns that As-Salat is a burden on Munafiqeen/hypocrites.

In As-Salat we have to pray in words taught by Allah. For example Allah taught Adam some words to ask forgiveness. When Adam made the supplication in these words, Allah responded to him.

2:37  فَتَلَقَّىٰ آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

Thus Adam received ‘Words’ from his Lord, and his Lord turned towards him; for He is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.

7:23  قَالَا رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

They both said. “O Our Lord! We have oppressed our nafs/pshyce and if You do not have forgiveness for us and mercy for us, definitely we will be from the losers.”

Format of Prayers:

There is also a specific format for As-Salat/the prayers, enjoined in Quran. In this format, Ayas/Kalamat of Allah are recited while standing, then the believer bows down and prostrate, symbolizing bowing and submitting to the Ayas that he just recited. This system of prayers is established in Allah’s house in Bakka/Makka. The House of Allah is declared to be for the guidance of the entire World.

3:96  إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِي بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكًا وَهُدًى لِّلْعَالَمِينَ

The first House appointed for mankind is that at Bakka/Makkah: full of blessings and of guidance for all Worlds.

What guidance can the World take from the House of Lord? Allah has established place of Ibrahim at the House/Kaaba and ordered mankind to take their ‘mussala’ from the place of Ibrahim, who is the Imam for mankind. See earlier post about procedure of As-Salat from Quran (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/21/salat-procedure/ ).

Allah has also ordered Ibrahim A.S and Ismaeel A.S to purify His house for people. The system of As-Salat is established in this House (2: 125  وَاتَّخِذُوا مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى   ), however in many people’s mind, the House is highjacked by impure people and they have established their incorrect format of As-Salat in the House (8:34). Allah declares that the protectors of Majid Ul-Haram are Muttaqeen and those people who adhere to a different format of As-Salat and oppose the Masjid ul Haram, their salat near Masjid is tantamount to clapping and whistling (8:35). Some people say the Messenger (pbuh) established As-Salat in different formats/ways, (which are followed by different sectarian Muslims). Had it been a true statement, then the Sunnat/practice of the Messenger (pbuh) is to establish Salat in all different formats, instead of sticking to one way according to one’s sect. The sectarian muslims should establish salat in all sectarian formats if they are true followers of the Messenger. But they are actually followers of the Imams of their sect therefore they will not do that. We see that as per Quran, there is only one format of As-Salat/the prayer which is established in Masjidul Haram.

7:29  قُلْ أَمَرَ رَبِّي بِالْقِسْطِ ۖ وَأَقِيمُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ عِندَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ وَادْعُوهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ ۚ كَمَا بَدَأَكُمْ تَعُودُونَ

Say; “My lord has ordered with justice; and you establish your faces/souls near every mosque and call Him, making your judgment pure for Him. As He originated you, so you will return”.

In the above Ayat, Allah orders to establish yourselves in all mosques. What we practically see that people who go to mosques for prayers they normally prefer to go in the mosques of their sects and subsects. When you know the format of As-Salat from Quran then you can go to mosques of all sects and pray there. In case there is a discussion and engagement about the particular format of As-Salat, you can provide your justification of praying according to the format of As-Salat as per Quran.

Salat is not a new phenomena brought by the beloved Messenger Mohammad (PBUH), all messengers and prophets of Allah since day one, have been performing the same As-Salat. Some examples of mention of As-Salat with prophets and people of earlier times in Quran is given below:

Prophet Ibrahim’s supplication:

14:37  رَّبَّنَا إِنِّي أَسْكَنتُ مِن ذُرِّيَّتِي بِوَادٍ غَيْرِ ذِي زَرْعٍ عِندَ بَيْتِكَ الْمُحَرَّمِ رَبَّنَا لِيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ فَاجْعَلْ أَفْئِدَةً مِّنَ النَّاسِ تَهْوِي إِلَيْهِمْ وَارْزُقْهُم مِّنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَشْكُرُونَ

“O’ our Lord surely I have settled from my offsprings within the valley without cultivation/agriculture near your Sacred House, O’ Our Lord, so that they establish As-Salat/The prayer, so make the hearts of people loving towards them and provide them with fruits so that they will be thankful.”

Ibrahim, Ishaq, Yaqub are the Imams:

21:73  وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْرَاتِ وَإِقَامَ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاءَ الزَّكَاةِ ۖ وَكَانُوا لَنَا عَابِدِينَ

And We made them the Imams/leaders that they guide with Our order and We inspired towards them to do good deeds and establish As-Salat/the prayer and give zakat/justification and to Us they served.

Prophet Ismail:

19:54-55  وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صَادِقَ الْوَعْدِ وَكَانَ رَسُولًا نَّبِيًّا  وَكَانَ يَأْمُرُ أَهْلَهُ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَكَانَ عِندَ رَبِّهِ مَرْضِيًّا

Also mention in the Book, Ismail: He was true to what he promised, and he was a messenger (and) a prophet. He enjoined on his people As-Salat/the prayer and Az-Zakat, and he was most acceptable in the sight of his Lord.

Salat is enjoined on Bani-Israeel:

2:83  وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ لَا تَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَقُولُوا لِلنَّاسِ حُسْنًا وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنكُمْ وَأَنتُم مُّعْرِضُونَ

When We took a covenant with the Bani-Israeel/Children of Israel that you will serve none but Allah and be good with your parents and with relatives and the orphan and the needy and say to mankind good words and establish As-Salat/the prayer and give Az-Zakat/the Justification then except few from you, turn away avoiding it.

Salat of Prophet Shoaib A.S:

11:87  قَالُوا يَا شُعَيْبُ أَصَلَاتُكَ تَأْمُرُكَ أَن نَّتْرُكَ مَا يَعْبُدُ آبَاؤُنَا أَوْ أَن نَّفْعَلَ فِي أَمْوَالِنَا مَا نَشَاءُ ۖ إِنَّكَ لَأَنتَ الْحَلِيمُ الرَّشِيدُ

They said, “O Shoaib, does your salat/prayer dictates upon you that we must abandon what our forefathers served, or running our businesses in any manner we choose? Surely, you are known for being clement, wise.”

Prophet Zakarya’s Hadith:

3:38  فَنَادَتْهُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَهُوَ قَائِمٌ يُصَلِّي فِي الْمِحْرَابِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُبَشِّرُكَ بِيَحْيَىٰ مُصَدِّقًا بِكَلِمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَسَيِّدًا وَحَصُورًا وَنَبِيًّا مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ

Thus the angels called unto him while he was establishing prayer in the chamber, . “Allah gives you glad tidings of Yahya, confirming the truth of a Word from Allah, and Syed (Leader), chaste, and a prophet,- of the company of the righteous.”

Prophet Moosa and Haroon’s Salat:

10:87  وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ مُوسَىٰ وَأَخِيهِ أَن تَبَوَّآ لِقَوْمِكُمَا بِمِصْرَ بُيُوتًا وَاجْعَلُوا بُيُوتَكُمْ قِبْلَةً وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

And We inspired to Moosa and his brother that you appoint for your people, houses in Egypt and make your houses a Qiblah. And establish As-Salat/the prayer and give good news to the believers.

Group prayers for women:

3:43 يَا مَرْيَمُ اقْنُتِي لِرَبِّكِ وَاسْجُدِي وَارْكَعِي مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ

“O Maryam! Be obedient to your Lord devoutly. Prostrate yourself, and bow down (in prayer) with those who bow down.”

Prophet Essa/Jesus words:

3:31  وَجَعَلَنِي مُبَارَكًا أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُ وَأَوْصَانِي بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيًّا

And he has made me blessed where-ever I be, And has enjoined on me As-Salat(the prayer) and Az-zakat as long as I live.

Wise man Luqman’s advise to his son in Quran:

31:17  يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا أَصَابَكَ ۖ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ

“O my son! establish As-Salat/the prayer, enjoin what is just, and forbid what is wrong. and bear with patience whatever befalls on you; for this is firmness (of purpose) in (the conduct of) affairs.

Also, in 19:58-59, it is stated that those who came after the blessed people from the children of Adam, Nooh and Ibrahim and Isreael, wasted their salat.

24:41  أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالطَّيْرُ صَافَّاتٍ ۖ كُلٌّ قَدْ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَهُ وَتَسْبِيحَهُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَفْعَلُونَ

Have you not seen that whatsoever is in the skies and in the earth, praises for Allah and the birds in the rows. Everyone knows his salat/prayers and his praise. And Allah knows with what they do.

Even the birds and other creatures in the Universe know their prayers. We humans don’t know their prayers, Allah has instilled their prayers into them and He knows their prayers. We should be concerned with our prayers which Allah has taught us in His Book.

Timings of Prayers:

4:103  فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُمُ الصَّلَاةَ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ قِيَامًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِكُمْ ۚ فَإِذَا اطْمَأْنَنتُمْ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ ۚ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَابًا مَّوْقُوتًا

So when you complete the (shortened) As-Salat then remember Allah in standing and sitting and on your sides, so when you are in tranquility then establish As-Salat/prayer, surely As-salat is written over the believers on appointed times.

Every person has a biological clock built in him, which is tuned to a 24 hours day. According to this clock we get up in the morning, eat food, do work, take rest and finally go back to sleep. If a person for example  goes to a place where the Sun last for 6 month at a strech, he will still be following his 24 hour internal clock for sleeping, working and eating food.

30:17-18  فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَعَشِيًّا وَحِينَ تُظْهِرُونَ

So gloryify Allah’s praises, when you make your evenings and when you make your mornings; and the night and when you make your noons, and for him is the praise in the heavens and the earth.

The above Ayas states that when ever you do you mornings, evenings, days and nights, glorify Allah’s praise. Even if you are at a place where the time is different than 24 hours day, you are to follow your biological clock inside you, which follows the 24 hours day system.

The 24 hours day is according to the movement of Sun. We experience different times in it, a reference of which we can find in different Ayas of Quran; some given as below:

89:1 وَالْفَجْرِ

(FAJR) By the day when it breaks.

81:18 وَالصُّبْحِ إِذَا تَنَفَّسَ

And the Dawn as it breathes

92:2 وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّىٰ

By the day when it shines.

103:1  وَالْعَصْرِ

By the (time of) squeeze/summary

92: 1  وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَىٰ

By the night when it envelopes

93:2  وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا سَجَىٰ

By the night when it darkens

74:33  وَاللَّيْلِ إِذْ أَدْبَرَ

By the night when it retreats

 

11:114  وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ طَرَفَيِ النَّهَارِ وَزُلَفًا مِّنَ اللَّيْلِ ۚ إِنَّ الْحَسَنَاتِ يُذْهِبْنَ السَّيِّئَاتِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ ذِكْرَىٰ لِلذَّاكِرِينَ

And establish As-Salat/the prayer,the two sides of the day and in the advances of the night. Surely the goodness will take away the badness. That is the remembrance for those who remember.

We had previously seen that the Mussla i.e the system of Salat is to be taken from Masjidul Haram. That system  comprises 5 mandatory prayers  during 24 hours cycle. There are different interpretations for the timings of Salat in the above Ayat. One interpretation could be that this Ayat is referring to the three out of 5 salats which are Fajr, Maghrib and Isha.   

17:78  أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا

Establish As-salat by the sun’s decline till the darkening of the night and the reading (of Quran) at dawn, (Fajr) surely the reading (of the Quran) at the dawn is witnessed.

The above Ayat further states that the Salat to be established from the decline of the Sun to the darkening of the night. During day time when the sun reaches its peak and begins to decline from the peak until the beginning of darkness, This is the time of the two day prayers Zuhar and Asar.

17:79  وَمِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَتَهَجَّدْ بِهِ نَافِلَةً لَّكَ عَسَىٰ أَن يَبْعَثَكَ رَبُّكَ مَقَامًا مَّحْمُودًا

And in some hours of the night, strive with it (Quran), This is additional for you, so it may be that your Lord will raise you to a standing position of praise.

Nafal is optional. Night time is a peaceful time without expected disturbance, to strive with Quran.

Conditions when one is not to establish As-Salat:

4:43  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلَا جُنُبًا إِلَّا عَابِرِي سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىٰ تَغْتَسِلُوا ۚ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰ أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِّنكُم مِّنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا

“O’ you who believe, you do not go near to As-Salat/the prayer with a mind befogged, until you can understand what you say; and nor in a state of stranger except you are crossing the way until you have washed yourselves, if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you come from offices of nature, or you have been in contact with women, and you find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand, and therewith rub your faces and hands, for Allah does blot out sins and forgive again and again.”

Sukara is a condition of either intoxication, or confusion, when your mind is not focused and you are not able to understand  and focus on what you are saying. In this state it is not permissible to establish Salat.

Purpose of Salat:

20:14  إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِي وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِي

“Surely I am Allah, there is no god except Me, so serve Me and establish As-Salat/the prayer for My remembrance”.

As-Salat is for remembering Allah and his Kalamat/Words.

29:45  اتْلُ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ ۖ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ تَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنكَرِ ۗ وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ

Recite what is inspired to you from The Book and establish As-Salat/the prayer. Surely As-Salat/the prayer stops from obscenity and that which is disguised. and definitely remembrance of Allah is great. And Allah knows what you fabricate.

Salat is about getting the spirit of Ayas of Allah. The below Ayat states that the people who are rewarded, when they hear what is recited in Ayas of Allah they fall in prostration, crying. You can only get the feel of the Ayas of Quran when you understand the spirit of the Ayas. Without understanding them, is like being deaf and dumb to the Ayas. So the rewarded people don’t fall upon the Ayas of Quran like deaf and dumb people.

19:58  أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِن ذُرِّيَّةِ آدَمَ وَمِمَّنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْرَائِيلَ وَمِمَّنْ هَدَيْنَا وَاجْتَبَيْنَا ۚ إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ خَرُّوا سُجَّدًا وَبُكِيًّا ۩

Those were among the prophets for whom Allah has blessed from the offspring of Adam and from those whom We carried with Nooh and from the offspring of Ibraheem and Israel and from those whom We guided and We chose, when the ayats/signs of the Most Gracious were recited on them they fall down prostrating, weeping. ۩(Sajda)

25:73  وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِّرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ لَمْ يَخِرُّوا عَلَيْهَا صُمًّا وَعُمْيَانًا

And when they are reminded with the ayas / signs of their Lord they do not fall down over them, deaf and blind.

How can one waste his Salat/prayer? by not understanding the spirit of the Ayas, he is reciting and not using Ayas to correct one’s mistakes by acting on them. Just doing as ritual to desire ‘Sawab’ from prayers will have little benefit.

19:59  فَخَلَفَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ أَضَاعُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّبَعُوا الشَّهَوَاتِ ۖ فَسَوْفَ يَلْقَوْنَ غَيًّا

From after them, then succeeded successors who wasted the As-Salat/the prayer and followed the desires, so soon they shall encounter wrong.

If As-salat is getting burdensome, it is a characteristic trait of hypocrites. If it is performed as a ritual with rote repletion of few suras, and is not being used to increase awareness of Allah’s Aays, it is likely to become burdensome.

4:152  إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ وَإِذَا قَامُوا إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ قَامُوا كُسَالَىٰ يُرَاءُونَ النَّاسَ وَلَا يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

The hypocrites (think that they) are deceiving Allah, but He deceives them. When they stand for As-salat/the prayer they stand without earnestness/sluggishly, to be seen by men, but little do they hold Allah in remembrance.

The mention of funeral prayers is in Sura 9: Funeral prayers are not for hypocrites but for believers.

9:84 وَلَا تُصَلِّ عَلَىٰ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُم مَّاتَ أَبَدًا وَلَا تَقُمْ عَلَىٰ قَبْرِهِ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ

Nor do you ever pray for any of them who dies, nor stand at his grave; for they rejected Allah and His Messenger, and died in a state of perverse rebellion.

Shortened Prayer:

4:101  وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَقْصُرُوا مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ إِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَن يَفْتِنَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ إِنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ كَانُوا لَكُمْ عَدُوًّا مُّبِينًا

When you strike in the earth, there is no blame on you if you shorten your prayers, if you fear that those people who disbelieved would inflict you with Fitna/temptation. Verily the Unbelievers are for you, open enemies.

When you are striving on earth i.e at work in offices or sites (does not necessarily mean travelling 2:273), where management is mainly non-muslim or establishing As-Salat may not be looked upon favorably or interfere with work/site work/meeting etc, then it is permissible to shorten the prayers. The shortened prayer will follow the practice established during Hajj in Makkah. In offices or work places there is usually a lunch break. During that break the Zuhar prayer and Asar prayers may be combined with 2 rakas each. If the work has extended time in the evening, then you may combine Maghrib and Isha prayers when you come back home from work, offering Maghrib prayers at Isha’s time with Maghrib 3 Raka and Isha as 2 rakas.

2:239  فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ فَرِجَالًا أَوْ رُكْبَانًا ۖ فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَمَا عَلَّمَكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ

So if you are in fear, then (pray) on foot or riding. So when you are in security remember Allah as He taught you, which you knew not.

If you are travelling and you fear or are concerned that you may not be able to establish As-Salat in time, then you may do As-salat mentally while on a vehicle or walking during your travel. This is an exception for travelers. However, safety first therefore if you are driving your self then better to stop at the side for a break and do prayers in the car.

The prophet Ibraheem’s prayers:

14:40-41  رَبِّ اجْعَلْنِي مُقِيمَ الصَّلَاةِ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۚ رَبَّنَا وَتَقَبَّلْ دُعَاءِ  رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الْحِسَابُ

“O’ my Lord! make me one who establishes As-Salah/the prayer and also from my offspring and O my Lord! you accept my call. O’ our Lord! have forgiveness for me, for my parents and for the believers when the day of account is established!”.

Notes:

A detailed lecture explaining, Salat, timing of Salat, procedure of Salat in Quran by Scholar Mohammad Shaikh in in below link. This post is mainly an excerpt of this lecture:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/11/06/salah-namaz-prayer-2008/

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/12/12/salah-namaz-2011/    (in Urdu)

Giving Witness of the Messenger

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

When we give witness of the Messenger as in Shahada, ‘I bear Witness that Mohammad (pbuh) is a messenger of Allah’, do we give the witness of the Messenger of Allah as Allah described him in Al-Quran or are we giving witness of a historical figure of Mohammad pbuh from sources other than Quran?, there are no sources as reliable as Quran and also Quran warns in 23:69, that do they not recognize their Messenger?. If we are holding on to a personality of the Messenger which is different from what is described in Al-Quran, then we are not witnessing for the Messenger of Allah but to a different personality of Messenger which is a historical figure. In order to believe in the correct personality of Mohammad PBUH, we need to believe that personality of Messenger which is depicted in Quran. Some people are so much into the other personality of the Messenger of history, that when Ayas of Quran are presented to them about true personality of Messenger Pbuh, they just refuse to believe in those Ayas.

Sura Munafiqun 63:1 informs that when Munafiqs/Hypocrites come to the Messenger, they witness that he is the Messenger of Allah. However, Allah witnesses that indeed he is the Messenger of Allah but indeed the Munafiqs/hypocrites are liars.

It is possible that a person is not telling a lie but what he is saying is not true. This could be because of his incomplete knowledge about the subject. Similarly it is also possible that a person is telling a lie but what he is saying is actually true, that could also be because of the person’s incomplete knowledge of the subject. For example an atheist believing there is no God, states that ‘Bible is not the book of God’. What he is saying is true that Bible is not a Book of God, however, he is lying as in his perception there is no Book sent by God as God does not exists and He cannot send a book therefore.

63:1  إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ قَالُوا نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُهُ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَكَاذِبُونَ

When the Hypocrites come to you, they say, “We bear witness that you are indeed the Messenger of Allah.”  And, Allah knows that you are indeed His Messenger, and Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are indeed liars.

13:43  وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَسْتَ مُرْسَلًا ۚ قُلْ كَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ وَمَنْ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ الْكِتَابِ

The Unbelievers say. “You are not sent (by Allah).” Say. “Enough for a witness between me and you is Allah, and the one with knowledge of the Book.”

The above Ayat states that in order to give witness of the Messenger, one must have knowledge of the Book.

Giving witness of the Messenger without the knowledge of the Book will be tantamount to giving witness of wrong personality of Messenger which is not described by Allah in his Book, but rather which is developed through historical accounts and heresay.

21:107  وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِينَ

We sent you not, but as a Mercy for all worlds.

The Messenger of Allah is mercy for all the people. Therefore he would not be attacking or killing people in Holy wars, or committing genocides of a particular community. If any books give such account they must be false.

68:4  وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَىٰ خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ

And you are on an exalted standard of behaviour/character.

The Messenger is on an extremely high level of character. One way of assassinating the character of the Messenger is to ascribe him to be fond of marrying under-aged girls. A person on a high standard of character for all times (whose character is exemplary for all times not restricted to particular time in history) will not be marrying under aged girls as any reasonable person can tell. Those who believe in these accounts attributed to the Messenger are true should reflect, will they like to follow this practice in their families and communities?

23:69  أَمْ لَمْ يَعْرِفُوا رَسُولَهُمْ فَهُمْ لَهُ مُنكِرُونَ

Or do they not recognize Their Messenger, that they deny him?

The personality of the Messenger is not to be recognized and witnessed from historical accounts of his words and practice. His personality should be recognized from the Book. Those people who take great inspiration from the ‘Golden Words’/ Aqwal e Zarrin/ Zukhrufal Qaul, are stated to be actually enemy of the Prophet.

6:112  وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ عَدُوًّا شَيَاطِينَ الْإِنسِ وَالْجِنِّ يُوحِي بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ زُخْرُفَ الْقَوْلِ غُرُورًا ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ مَا فَعَلُوهُ ۖ فَذَرْهُمْ وَمَا يَفْتَرُونَ

And likewise ,We have made for every Prophet the shayateen/satans of mankind and the shayateen/satans of jinkind an enemy, some of them inspire golden words (as sayings of prophets) on some, for the purpose of delusion, and if your Lord had willed they would have not done it, so leave them and what they have invented.

Below are some of the Ayas which describe aspects of the Messenger’s personality which is the true personality of the Messenger as per Al-Kitab. However, the Shiateen who want to disguise the personality of the Messenger of the Book, with another personality (Historical Messenger) normally would not propagate these Ayas as they want to present a different (surrogate) personality of the Messenger. Some of these Ayats are given below:

5:115  يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيرًا مِّمَّا كُنتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ ۚ قَدْ جَاءَكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ

O people of The Book! There has come to you our Messenger, revealing to you much that you used to hide in The Book, and passing over much: There has come to you from Allah a light and a perspicuous Book,

The Messenger exposes from the Book, which people usually try to hide.

Please consider these Ayas, which gives true personality of the Messenger from the Book. If you reject any of these personality trait and believe in other personality traits of the Messenger than instead of believing in the Messenger of God you may be believing in the Messenger of ‘other’ books:

7:188  قُل لَّا أَمْلِكُ لِنَفْسِي نَفْعًا وَلَا ضَرًّا إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَلَوْ كُنتُ أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ لَاسْتَكْثَرْتُ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ وَمَا مَسَّنِيَ السُّوءُ ۚ إِنْ أَنَا إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ وَبَشِيرٌ لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Say. “I have no power over any good or harm to myself except as Allah willeth. If I had knowledge of the unseen, I should have multiplied all good, and no evil should have touched me. I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings to those who have faith.”

The Messenger does not possess the power to bring good or bad fortune for himself. He does not have the knowledge of the unseen. He is a warner and bringer of good tidings for the believers.

18:110  قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ مِّثْلُكُمْ يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ أَنَّمَا إِلَٰهُكُمْ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا

Say. “I am but a human like yourselves, (but) the inspiration has come to me, that your God is one God. whoever expects to meet his Lord, let him work righteousness, and, in the service of his Lord, admit no one as partner.

The messenger is a bashar/human being like other human beings with all Bashari/human implications. This fact should not be painful to the believers that he is not a super human. Believers should work for good deeds for their salvation instead of expecting intercession by Messenger.

12:3  نَحْنُ نَقُصُّ عَلَيْكَ أَحْسَنَ الْقَصَصِ بِمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ وَإِن كُنتَ مِن قَبْلِهِ لَمِنَ الْغَافِلِينَ

We relate to you the most beautiful of stories, in that We inspire to you this Qur’an,  before this, you were among those who are in Ghaflat (ignorance).

Before the inspiration of the Quran, the Messenger was among the Ghafleen/ people who are in ignorance.

42:52  وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ رُوحًا مِّنْ أَمْرِنَا ۚ مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِي مَا الْكِتَابُ وَلَا الْإِيمَانُ وَلَٰكِن جَعَلْنَاهُ نُورًا نَّهْدِي بِهِ مَن نَّشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا ۚ وَإِنَّكَ لَتَهْدِي إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

And Likewise, We have inspired you the ROOH/THE SPIRIT from our order, you did not have the perception, what is THE BOOK and the BELIEF, but We have made it light, We guide with it whom We will from Our servants. And surely you guide towards the straight path.

Allah inspired the Rooh/the Spirit (of the Words of Quran). Before this inspiration of the Spirit, the Messenger did not know what Al-Kitab and what Iman/belief is.

28:86  وَمَا كُنتَ تَرْجُو أَن يُلْقَىٰ إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابُ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً مِّن رَّبِّكَ ۖ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ ظَهِيرًا لِّلْكَافِرِينَ

And you did not expected that the Book will be delivered towards you except as a mercy from your Lord so you do not back those who reject.

The Messenger did not expect that he will be given the Al-Kitab from the Lord.

10:94  فَإِن كُنتَ فِي شَكٍّ مِّمَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ فَاسْأَلِ الَّذِينَ يَقْرَءُونَ الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكَ ۚ لَقَدْ جَاءَكَ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ

so, if you (Mohammad) are in doubt from what We have revealed to you, then ask those who are reading AL-KITAB/THE BOOK from before you, definitely there has come to you the truth from your Lord, so do not become from the doubtful ones.

People have been reading Al-Kitab from before as this Al-Kitab was given to all prophets. It is the spirit of the Book that the Messenger transfers into the people.

11:12  فَلَعَلَّكَ تَارِكٌ بَعْضَ مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيْكَ وَضَائِقٌ بِهِ صَدْرُكَ أَن يَقُولُوا لَوْلَا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْهِ كَنزٌ أَوْ جَاءَ مَعَهُ مَلَكٌ ۚ إِنَّمَا أَنتَ نَذِيرٌ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَكِيلٌ

Then, it may be that you (the Messenger) will give up part of what is revealed to you and your breast will become straitened by it because they say: Why has not a treasure been sent down upon him or an angel come with him? You are only a warner; and Allah is custodian over all things.

Messenger feels human emotions and his heart feels constrained and somewhat inclined to leave part of the Wahi/inspiration because of the silly things unbelievers say to him. However, Allah strengthen his heart with His Kalamats/words to remain steadfast with the revelation.

6:91  وَمَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ إِذْ قَالُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ بَشَرٍ مِّن شَيْءٍ ۗ قُلْ مَنْ أَنزَلَ الْكِتَابَ الَّذِي جَاءَ بِهِ مُوسَىٰ نُورًا وَهُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ ۖ تَجْعَلُونَهُ قَرَاطِيسَ تُبْدُونَهَا وَتُخْفُونَ كَثِيرًا ۖ وَعُلِّمْتُم مَّا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا أَنتُمْ وَلَا آبَاؤُكُمْ ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۖ ثُمَّ ذَرْهُمْ فِي خَوْضِهِمْ يَلْعَبُونَ

They did not value ALLAH as He should be valued. When they said, “ALLAH did not reveal anything to a person.” Say, “Who then sent down THE BOOK which Moses brought, with light and guidance for the people?” You made it to pieces of paper, you show something while concealing a lot of it. You were taught what you never knew-you and your parents. Say, “ALLAH (revealed it),” then leave them in their heedlessness, playing

Some people complain that certain personalities deserve more valuation than people value them. This they say according to their sectarian beliefs. However, Allah here declares that they don’t value Allah as He should be valued, when they do not consider the Messenger as Bashar/human. Many people consider the Messenger as a super Bashar, not like any other Human/Bashar with all human strengths and weaknesses that humans have. Some even consider the Messenger as incapable of committing any mistake. So, this Ayat exposes these beliefs.

93:7  وَوَجَدَكَ ضَالًّا فَهَدَىٰ

And He found thee misguided, and He gave thee guidance.

God found the Messenger as wandering and then He guided him.

46:9  قُلْ مَا كُنتُ بِدْعًا مِّنَ الرُّسُلِ وَمَا أَدْرِي مَا يُفْعَلُ بِي وَلَا بِكُمْ ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ وَمَا أَنَا إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ

Say (O’ Mohammad) “I am no bringer of new doctrine among the Messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or with you. I follow but that which is revealed to me by inspiration; I am but a Warner open and clear.”

The messenger does not give glad tidings of Jannat to his companions. Instead he says that he does not know what will be done with me or with you. He only follows the inspiration to him.

53:3-4  وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ  إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَىٰ

Nor does he say of (his own) desire. It is only the Wahi/inspiration sent to him.

Messenger does not add from his desire any thing to the Wahi/inspiration. He only conveys the Message which is inspired to him.

69:43-46  تَنزِيلٌ مِّن رَّبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ  وَلَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ الْأَقَاوِيلِ  لَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِينِ  ثُمَّ لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ

This (Quran) sent down from the Lord of the Worlds. And if the Messenger were to invent any sayings in Our name, We should certainly seize him by his right hand, And We should certainly then cut off the artery of his heart:

Messenger only states what is Wahi/inspired on him, i.e Quran (as mentioned in 12:3), if he were to say other Aqwal/sayings about Allah, Allah would catch him and cut his jugular vein.

9:43  عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنكَ لِمَ أَذِنتَ لَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَتَعْلَمَ الْكَاذِبِينَ

Allah forgave thee! Why didst thou grant them until those who told the truth were seen by thee in a clear light, and thou hadst proved the liars

In his normal life the messenger is like a normal human being that is he is not being controlled by Wahi in all matters. He may make mistakes in decision making about normal life for which Allah may admonish him as in 9:43. However, in matters of conveying Wahi/Quran and its Spirit, Messenger does not make a mistake.

47:19  فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مُتَقَلَّبَكُمْ وَمَثْوَاكُمْ

Know, therefore, that there is no god but Allah, and ask forgiveness for your sin (O Prophet), and for the men and women who believe. for Allah knows how you move about and how you dwell.

Allah asks the prophet to ask forgiveness for his sin.

48:1-2  إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُّبِينًا  لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكَ وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا

 We opened/disclosed for you a clear/evident opening/victory. So, that Allah may forgive you (the Messenger) of your sin of the past and that to follow; fulfil His favour to you ; and guide you to the straight way.

Messenger can do mistakes and sin, which Allah will forgives after showing him a clear/evident opening/victory and guiding him to the straight path.

6:68  وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ يَخُوضُونَ فِي آيَاتِنَا فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ ۚ وَإِمَّا يُنسِيَنَّكَ الشَّيْطَانُ فَلَا تَقْعُدْ بَعْدَ الذِّكْرَىٰ مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ

When you (the Messenger) see people engaged in vain discourse about Our Ayats/signs, turn away from them unless they engage in a different discourse. And If Satan makes you forget, then after remembering, do not sit  in the company of Zalimeen/those who do wrong.

Satan can have effect on the Messenger can make him forget things.

17:73-75  وَإِن كَادُوا لَيَفْتِنُونَكَ عَنِ الَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ لِتَفْتَرِيَ عَلَيْنَا غَيْرَهُ ۖ وَإِذًا لَّاتَّخَذُوكَ خَلِيلًا  وَلَوْلَا أَن ثَبَّتْنَاكَ لَقَدْ كِدتَّ تَرْكَنُ إِلَيْهِمْ شَيْئًا قَلِيلًا  إِذًا لَّأَذَقْنَاكَ ضِعْفَ الْحَيَاةِ وَضِعْفَ الْمَمَاتِ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُ لَكَ عَلَيْنَا نَصِيرًا

They had almost led you (the Prophet) away from what has been revealed to you, that you may invent things about Us besides those revealed, then they would have taken you as friend. And If We had not kept you steadfast you had almost leaned towards them. In that case We would have made you taste a double punishment of life and a double of death, and then you would not have been able to find a helper against Us for yourself. 

People also with their constant persuasion may have caused the Prophet to incline towards their preferences if Allah had not made him steadfast in what has been revealed to him.

66:1  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكَ ۖ تَبْتَغِي مَرْضَاتَ أَزْوَاجِكَ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

O Prophet! Why do you make forbidden for yourself which Allah has made lawful to you? You seek to please your wives. But Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

The Prophet in order to please his wives was not perusing a thing which was made halal for him.

 80:1-12  عَبَسَ وَتَوَلَّىٰ  أَن جَاءَهُ الْأَعْمَىٰ  وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّهُ يَزَّكَّىٰ  أَوْ يَذَّكَّرُ فَتَنفَعَهُ الذِّكْرَىٰ  أَمَّا مَنِ اسْتَغْنَىٰ  فَأَنتَ لَهُ تَصَدَّىٰ  وَمَا عَلَيْكَ أَلَّا يَزَّكَّىٰ  وَأَمَّا مَن جَاءَكَ يَسْعَىٰ  وَهُوَ يَخْشَىٰ  فَأَنتَ عَنْهُ تَلَهَّىٰ  كَلَّا إِنَّهَا تَذْكِرَةٌفَمَن شَاءَ ذَكَرَهُ

(The Prophet) frowned and turned away. Because there came to him blind one (in perception). But how would you know that perchance he may purify himself. Or that he remembers/takes heed, and the remembrance might profit him? As to one who regards himself as self-sufficient (does not care much), you give him attention, though no blame on you if he would not purify himself. But as to him who came to you striving earnestly, and with fear (in his heart), to him you were unmindful. By no means (should it be so)! For it is indeed a reminder/advisory, for any one who desires to bear it in mind.

The prophet may falter in his judgment of giving attention to the right persons for delivering remembrance.

25:30  وَقَالَ الرَّسُولُ يَا رَبِّ إِنَّ قَوْمِي اتَّخَذُوا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ مَهْجُورًا

And the Messenger will say, O my Lord! Surely, my people took this AL-QURAN and abandoned it.

If we believe on the personality of the Messenger from other books, we will believe him to be intercessing for us on the day of Judgment. However, if we believe in the personality of the Messenger from Quran, than we will be aware that the Messenger will be complaining to Allah, about his Ummat holding the Quran as if like abandoning it.

4:80  مَّن يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللَّهَ ۖ وَمَن تَوَلَّىٰ فَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا

He who obeys the messenger, obeys Allah. But if any turn away, then We have not sent you as a watcher over them.

To follow the messenger means to follow Allah. Allah has made the Quran mandatory on messenger (28:85 إِنَّ الَّذِي فَرَضَ عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ لَرَادُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ  ). Messenger is acting on all dos and don’ts in Quran. To follow the messenger of Allah is to follow the Quran and not to follow what other books tell about what messenger used to do. (Remember, Quran is protected by Allah by divine intervention, not history)

3:31  قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Say. If you love Allah thus follow me (the messenger), Allah will love you and forgive your sins. For Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most merciful.

Again Allah will love you when you follow the messenger whose actions and personality is described by Allah.

The Sacred/Forbidden Months

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The Haram, sacred or forbidden months are called haram or forbidden as some lawful things are made temporarily unlawful during these months. These months are not named in Quran therefore with the help of Ayas of Quran we will identify which months are the sacred months, in this post.

The Islamic calendar is lunar, therefore these sacred months are also lunar months. The lunar calendar is important with respect to the months of Ramadan and Hajj. Because of the lunar calendar, these months don’t always come in the same season but the seasons keep on changing, thus giving us the opportunity to experience the blessing of these months in all seasons.

2:217  يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ قِتَالٍ فِيهِ ۖ قُلْ قِتَالٌ فِيهِ كَبِيرٌ ۖ وَصَدٌّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَكُفْرٌ بِهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِخْرَاجُ أَهْلِهِ مِنْهُ أَكْبَرُ عِندَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ ۗ وَلَا يَزَالُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَرُدُّوكُمْ عَن دِينِكُمْ إِنِ اسْتَطَاعُوا ۚ وَمَن يَرْتَدِدْ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَيَمُتْ وَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فَأُولَٰئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

They ask you about fighting in the sacred / holy month. Say fighting in it is great (offence) and to oppose from the way of Allah and from the sacred Mosque and to reject with it and to expel its people from it is greater (offence) in the nearness of Allah and Fitna/temptation is greater (offence) than killing. If they have the capability, they will not cease to fight you until you return from your judgment (i.e. to establish Islam / Peace). And amongst you whosoever turns away from his judgment and he dies while he was a rejecter, then they are those whose works have failed in this World and in the last and they are the companions of fire, they will dwell in it.

The sacred/forbidden months are associated with a prohibition of fighting and temptation. We will further see below Ayas for identification of sacred months.

9:36  إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِندَ اللَّهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ ۚ فَلَا تَظْلِمُوا فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ ۚ وَقَاتِلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَافَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَافَّةً ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ

Surely in the nearness of Allah the number of the months are twelve months, in the book of Allah, the day He created the skies and the earth, from them four are sacred / forbidden.  That is the established judgment. So you do not oppress your nafs/psyche in them (by fighting) and you fight (in other than sacred months) the associaters entirely like how they fight you entirely. And know, Allah is with those who guard themselves.

The names of the twelve Islamic lunar months are given below.

01. Muharram,  02. Safar, 03. Rabi-ul-Awwal, 04. Rabi-ul-Thani, 05. Jumada-l-Ulawwal, 06. Jumada-th-Thaniyya,, 07. Rajab, 08. Shaaban, 09. Ramadhan , 10. Shawwal, 11. Dhul Qadah, 12. Dhul Hijja

Out of these 12 months, four are sacred/forbidden. Lets see which months are made sacred/forbidden in Quran:

2:185  شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَىٰ وَالْفُرْقَانِ ۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۗ يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Ramadan is the month in which Al-Quran/The Reading was sent down, a guide for mankind, and clarification from the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong), so whosoever is a witness amongst you of that month, then he should fast in it, but if any one is ill, or travelling, then the count (should be made up) in later days. Allah intends facility for you; He does not intend to put you to hardship. So that you to complete the prescribed period (of fasting), and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and you be grateful to Him.

From the above Ayat, we come to know about a month ‘Ramadan’ which is holy as Quran was revealed in this month and we are prescribed to do fasting in this month.

2:187  أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَىٰ نِسَائِكُمْ ۚ هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَّهُنَّ ۗ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ ۖ فَالْآنَ بَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَابْتَغُوا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۚ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ فَلَا تَقْرَبُوهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ

It is lawful for you to be intimate with your women in the night of fast, they are a covering for you and you are covering for them. Allah knows that you used to be dishonest with your nafs/psyche, so He returns over you and pardoned you about it. So now be in contact with them and seek what Allah has written for you, and eat and drink until from dawn the white thread clarifies for you from the black thread, then complete the fast towards the night and you do not be in contact with them (your women) when you are devoted/Aakif in the mosques. These are the boundaries of Allah so you do not go near them. Likewise Allah clarifies His Ayas / signs for people so that they may take guard.

During fasting, eating and drinking becomes temporarily unlawful from Dawn to Dusk. This is for training purpose of our ‘nafs’. We restrain our ‘nafs’ during this month from bad things. Therefore now we can identify  ‘Ramadan’ as one of the Sacred/Forbidden months.

Also, during Ramadan most men are reluctant to go to their women in the night as they are more into worship and sanctity of the month and thereby are declining their nafs/psychology. Allah addresses this point also in above Ayat.

2:194  الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَاتُ قِصَاصٌ ۚ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُوا عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ

The Sacred / Holy month is with the sacred / holy month and the sanctities are related (months and others) So whosoever aggresses against you so you aggress against him with the example of what he aggresses against you. And take guard of Allah and know that surely Allah is with those who guard them-selves.

The important point to note for identification of sacred months in the above Ayat, is that it states that a sacred month is with a sacred month. It means that we can deduce, all four sacred months are adjacent to one another. (The B/بِِ in above Ayat (بِالشَّهْرِ), means ‘with‘ in Arabic)

2:197  الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ ۚ فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلَا رَفَثَ وَلَا فُسُوقَ وَلَا جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللَّهُ ۗ وَتَزَوَّدُوا فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَىٰ ۚ وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ

The months of Hajj/Pilgrimage are known so whosoever imposes Hajj / Pilgrimage (on himself) in them so he should not commit obscenity nor commit immoralities and no bickering in the Hajj / Pilgrimage. And what you do from goodness, Allah knows it. And take provision, so surely the best of the provisions is to take guard and take guard from Me, O’ you who posses the core (to know the essence / spirit of anything).

One of the formality of Hajj is Ahram, which puts temporarily certain restrictions on pilgrims. Some normally lawful things become unlawful during Hajj and Ahram. Therefore the months associated with Hajj as also sacred and forbidden. The Ayat also informs that the months of Hajj are well known, because the system of Salat and Hajj is preserved in the Holy City of Makkah by divine intervention, please see previous post (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/21/salat-procedure/ ). We know that Hajj is performed in Dhul Hijja. First we had identified that Ramadan is a sacred month and ayat 2:194 informed us that sacred months are together, and then we know that Hajj is performed in Dhul Hijja. These facts lead us to identify the four sacred months as Ramadan, Shawwal, Dhul Qadah and Dhul Hijja. So we can highlight the sacred months from the list of names of 12 months as below:

01. Muharram,  02. Safar, 03. Rabi-ul-Awwal, 04. Rabi-ul-Thani, 05. Jumada-l-Ulawwal, 06. Jumada-th-Thaniyya,, 07. Rajab, 08. Shaaban, 09. Ramadhan , 10. Shawwal, 11. Dhul Qadah, 12. Dhul Hijja

9:5  فَإِذَا انسَلَخَ الْأَشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ وَخُذُوهُمْ وَاحْصُرُوهُمْ وَاقْعُدُوا لَهُمْ كُلَّ مَرْصَدٍ ۚ فَإِن تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَخَلُّوا سَبِيلَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

So when the sacred / holy months are ended then fight the mushrikeen/associaters  wherever you find them and catch them and confine them and sit for them at every place of ambush. So if they repent and establish salah/prayer and give zakah / justification so leave the way for them. Surely Allah is all forgiving, merciful.

After having identified the sacred months above,  what is for us to do in these sacred/forbidden months. The sacred months are for our training and killing of your own Nafs. After we have killed our own Nafs then only we are allowed to kill the Nafs of Mushrikeen/associaters. The sacred months are also for preparation i.e Jihad Akbar with Quran, in these months the associaters are not to be engaged in ideological fight. After the forbidden months are over then associaters are to be engaged in ideological fight with Quran, wherever they are encountered. It is ideological fighting only because physical fighting and bloodshed is not allowed.

2:84  وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ

And when We took a covenant with you, not to shed your blood and do not expel your souls/selves from your circles then you confirmed and you are witness to it.

9:37  إِنَّمَا النَّسِيءُ زِيَادَةٌ فِي الْكُفْرِ ۖ يُضَلُّ بِهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُحِلُّونَهُ عَامًا وَيُحَرِّمُونَهُ عَامًا لِّيُوَاطِئُوا عِدَّةَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ فَيُحِلُّوا مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ ۚ زُيِّنَ لَهُمْ سُوءُ أَعْمَالِهِمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ

Surely the postponing of the (sacred / holy month) is an increase in the rejection, those who reject are led astray with it. They make it (sacred month) un-lawful in a year and make it sacred in another year. So that they adjust the numbers (of the sacred  months) to what Allah has made forbidden. So they make it lawful what Allah has made forbidden. Their bad works are adornment for them. And Allah does not guide the people who are rejecters.

Exchanging sacred months with other months is not allowed. The prescribed sacred months are to be respected.

Notes:

A lecture by Scholar Mohammad Shaikh about Sacred/forbidden months:

https://www.iipccanada.com/category/english-video-lectures/direction-of-belief/

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/12/12/muhtarum-mahiney-2006/

 

 

 

Jihad, to strive/make efforts

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The word ‘Jihad’ means to strive i.e to make efforts. Allah wants the believers to make efforts in line with the Spirit of the His Book to understand and act upon Allah’s Ayas and spread His message in mankind. Commonly in the West, the word ‘Jihad’ is considered to be mainly referring to physical strive or war. In this post, we will review the Ayas related to ‘Jihad’ in Al-Quran to see its real meaning:

29:69  وَالَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا فِينَا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا ۚ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

And those who jahadoo / strive in Us, definitely We will guide them of Our ways and surely Allah is with those who are Mohsineen/who do good.

To strive / make Jihad in Allah’s way is to act upon Allah’s Ayas, i.e follow the do’s and don’t in Quran, that is Jihad. Those who make efforts in Allah’s way, are the Mohsineen, i.e the doers of good.

5:35  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَابْتَغُوا إِلَيْهِ الْوَسِيلَةَ وَجَاهِدُوا فِي سَبِيلِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

O’ you people who believe take guard of Allah and seek the means towards Him and you strive in His way so that you may succeed.

The ‘means’ towards Allah and His good pleasures is His Book. Please see previous post ‘Waseela’ (https://topicsfromquran.com/2018/09/08/waseela-facilitation-towards-approach-to-allah/). Allah wants the believers to seek means towards Allah and strive in His ways.

25:52  فَلَا تُطِعِ الْكَافِرِينَ وَجَاهِدْهُم بِهِ جِهَادًا كَبِيرًا

So you do not obey the rejecters and jahidhum / Strive against them with this (i.e. Al-Quran) that is the great jihad / Strive.

The big Jihad/strive is to strive with Quran. The people who reject the Sprit of Quran (or try to replace with a deviant spirit), with those people we have to stive/make efforts with Quran.

8:73 وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ إِلَّا تَفْعَلُوهُ تَكُن فِتْنَةٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَفَسَادٌ كَبِيرٌ

And those who reject (i.e. Islam/Peace) are protectors of one another, unless you do this (i.e. protect each other) there would be temptation and great corruption/violence on Earth.

The people who hold the opposite view i.e they think that Jihad is physical ware-fare, and they incite the people on war mongering activities, against these rejecters, the believers are asked to help each other in spreading the peaceful message of Islam. Otherwise, there will be great Fasad/corruption/war fare on Earth.

6:137  وَكَذَٰلِكَ زَيَّنَ لِكَثِيرٍ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ قَتْلَ أَوْلَادِهِمْ شُرَكَاؤُهُمْ لِيُرْدُوهُمْ وَلِيَلْبِسُوا عَلَيْهِمْ دِينَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا فَعَلُوهُ ۖ فَذَرْهُمْ وَمَا يَفْتَرُونَ

Likewise for many associators, their  partners (in Allah, who give orders other than Allah) have made alluring the killing of their children, to destroy them and to clothe this order with Din/judgement. If Allah had willed they would have not done so; so leave them alone and their inventions.

The mushrikeen are those who follow Allah’s orders and also the orders of others (6:137). The partners/Shuraka are those who make shariat for them (42:21). These Shurakas have ordered them to wage war and do violence on earth and they have termed these orders as Din/Judgment and make it appear as Holy war and they make dying for this cause as alluring to people.

3:142  أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا مِنكُمْ وَيَعْلَمَ الصَّابِرِينَ

Or do you assume that you will enter garden and whereas Allah knows  those who strive amongst you and knows who are the patient ones.

To strive/make efforts in way of Allah, and patience goes hand in hand, as you are bound to hear a lot of painful incriminations from associators and those who were reading the Book before you but without understanding the true Spirit of the Book.

3:186  لَتُبْلَوُنَّ فِي أَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنفُسِكُمْ وَلَتَسْمَعُنَّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا أَذًى كَثِيرًا ۚ وَإِن تَصْبِرُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ

Certainly you shall be tested in your wealth and in your nafs/selves (psyche); and you shall certainly hear  from those who were given the Book before you and from those who joined partners (with Allah) a lot of annyoying things. And if you persevere patiently, and take guard against evil,-then surely that is of the strengthened resolve.

9:20  الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً عِندَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ

Those who believe, and migrated (in belief) and strive , in Allah’s cause, with their wealth and their self/psyche, have the highest rank in the sight of Allah. they are the people who will achieve (salvation).

Those who show patience and strive/make efforts in the Way of Allah by spending their money and controlling their nafs/pshyche, they are held in a high rank with Allah.

29:6  وَمَن جَاهَدَ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَاهِدُ لِنَفْسِهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَغَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ

And whosoever strives (in the way of Allah) so surely he strives for his nafs/self/psyche. Surely Allah is free of any need from the worlds.

Who ever strives/ do Jihad, does so for his own Nafs/self, while Allah is not in need of anything in the universe.

22:78  وَجَاهِدُوا فِي اللَّهِ حَقَّ جِهَادِهِ ۚ هُوَ اجْتَبَاكُمْ وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ ۚ

And you strive in Allah as the right of striving in Him. He has chosen you and He has made no difficulty over you in the Din/Judgment……

Above is is a portion of Ayat 22:78 and it asks the submitters to strive/make efforts in Allah (i.e Allah’s ways) as is rightful to make these efforts and Allah has put no (physical) hardship in the judgment.

29:8  وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حُسْنًا ۖ وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ لِتُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا ۚ إِلَيَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

We have enjoined on Insan/human, kindness to parents, but if they strive/make efforts with thee to join with Me, anything of which thou hast no knowledge, obey them not. Ye have (all) to return to me, and I will tell you (the truth) of all that ye did.

If the parents or loved ones, strive with you to change your Deen/judgment about Allah for which Allah has not revealed any authority, then in this matter, they are not to be followed. However, other than this matter, our conduct with parents must be the best possible one.

9:24  قُلْ إِن كَانَ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَالٌ اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَارَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَاكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَجِهَادٍ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَتَرَبَّصُوا حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ

Say if your forefathers and your sons and your brothers and your pairs and your associates and the wealth to which you are committed and the business in which you fear a slump and the residences in which you are pleased. You have more love towards them than Allah and His messenger and jihad / to strive in His way then you wait until Allah comes with His order. And Allah does not guide the people who are dissolute / immoral.

If you have got the Spirit of Allah’s Ayas and His Book, and if striving in Allah’s way and spreading his Word in light of this Spirit, will put you in confrontation with your relatives/community or may harm you in your businesses then wait till Allah comes with His orders. Those who take liberty with Allah’s orders, they are not guided by Allah.

8:72  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ آوَوا وَّنَصَرُوا أُولَٰئِكَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَلَمْ يُهَاجِرُوا مَا لَكُم مِّن وَلَايَتِهِم مِّن شَيْءٍ حَتَّىٰ يُهَاجِرُوا ۚ وَإِنِ اسْتَنصَرُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ فَعَلَيْكُمُ النَّصْرُ إِلَّا عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

Surely those who believe and who migrate (in belief) and jahadoo / they strive with their wealth and with their self/psyche in the way of Allah and those who give shelter and help (them) they are protectors of one another. And those who believe and do not migrate it is not (a duty) for you to protect them from anything until they migrate (in belief). And if they seek your help in the judgment (i.e. Islam/peace) then (duty) over you is that you help them except over the people there is a covenant between you and them. And Allah has insight with what you do.

Hijrat/Migration is basically Hijrat in belief/Iman, when you make a hijrat/migration from your beliefs which you inherited from your environment and community to the beliefs according to Ayas of Allah. Please see previous post on migration in belief (https://topicsfromquran.wordpress.com/2018/08/04/migration-in-belief/ ). The believers strive in ways of Allah and those people who had migrated earlier help them in this cause. The people who have migrated in belief, have an obligation to protect the newly migrated believers as their community may be at odds with them over their change in beliefs. In some countries, however the law may not permit you to preach religious beliefs, in these countries you should not go against law of the land.

9:122  وَمَا كَانَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لِيَنفِرُوا كَافَّةً ۚ فَلَوْلَا نَفَرَ مِن كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ طَائِفَةٌ لِّيَتَفَقَّهُوا فِي الدِّينِ وَلِيُنذِرُوا قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُوا إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُونَ

It may not be (possible) that all Believers go forth together (in faith). if a contingent from every group  devote themselves to studies in religion, and admonish the people when they return to them,- thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).

The above Ayas towards the end of Sura Tuaba (Sura 9), indicate that striving and going out in the way of Allah, is about devoting to studies in matters of Din/Judgment.

Notes:

Link to a lecture by Scholar Mohammad Shaikh on Jihad:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/11/06/jihad-strive-2007/

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/12/13/jihad-2006/

 

 

Shuraka- Partners with Allah

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

In this post we will see the characteristic traits mentioned in Al-Kitab of ‘Shuraka’; those who are made partners in the Lordship of Allah. To assign partners with Allah, is a sin which will not be forgiven by Allah so it is important to recognize this sin and keep well clear of it. Many people take this issue lightly, believing that they can never fall into the trap of associating any one with Allah. However, lets review the below Ayat.

12:106  وَمَا يُؤْمِنُ أَكْثَرُهُم بِاللَّهِ إِلَّا وَهُم مُّشْرِكُونَ

And the majority of them, do not believe in Allah  without associating (other as partners) with Him!

The above Ayat states that majority of the people who believe in Allah, do not believe, but at the same time associating others with Allah. While most believers are under the assumption that they can never associate with Allah. So, is there a gap in our understanding of association of others with Allah and Allah’s expectation of us? Lets review below Ayas:

7:194  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ عِبَادٌ أَمْثَالُكُمْ ۖ فَادْعُوهُمْ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Verily those whom you call upon besides Allah are servants like you. Call upon them, and let them respond to you, if you are (indeed) truthful!

Allah forbids calling in divine matters none except Allah and He declares that those people you call upon are only people like you. In your eyes they may possess superhuman qualities, but in fact they are only humans with all humans constraints. Do they respond to you when you call them?

39:36  أَلَيْسَ اللَّهُ بِكَافٍ عَبْدَهُ ۖ وَيُخَوِّفُونَكَ بِالَّذِينَ مِن دُونِهِ ۚ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ هَادٍ

Is not Allah enough for his Servant? But they try to frighten you with others besides Him! for he who Allah leaves to stray, there can be no guide.

Allah is asking a question: isn’t Allah sufficient for His slaves, why then they have to make others, their masters  in religious matters? These people  try to frighten you from their self appointed human deities for whom you will not find any confirmation in the Book.

39:38  وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَّنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ ۚ قُلْ أَفَرَأَيْتُم مَّا تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ إِنْ أَرَادَنِيَ اللَّهُ بِضُرٍّ هَلْ هُنَّ كَاشِفَاتُ ضُرِّهِ أَوْ أَرَادَنِي بِرَحْمَةٍ هَلْ هُنَّ مُمْسِكَاتُ رَحْمَتِهِ ۚ قُلْ حَسْبِيَ اللَّهُ ۖ عَلَيْهِ يَتَوَكَّلُ الْمُتَوَكِّلُونَ

If indeed you ask them who created the heavens and the earth, they would be sure to say, “Allah”. Say. ” Do you see then? Those  you call besides Allah,- can they remove His harm on me, If Allah intends a harm on me?- Or if He wills some Grace for me, can they keep back his Grace?” Say. “Sufficient is Allah for me! In Him, trust those who put their trust.”

The people who assume that there are some personalities who can remove their harms or bring them nearer to Allah’s Rehmat/grace, they do believe in Allah. The Messenger tells them to have their trust in Allah alone, as He is sufficient to take care of them.  

39:3  أَلَا لِلَّهِ الدِّينُ الْخَالِصُ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ مَا نَعْبُدُهُمْ إِلَّا لِيُقَرِّبُونَا إِلَى اللَّهِ زُلْفَىٰ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ فِي مَا هُمْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي مَنْ هُوَ كَاذِبٌ كَفَّارٌ

Isn’t the Din (Judgment) purely for Allah alone? But those who take protectors (Walis) besides Him (say). “We donot serve them except that they are nearer to bring us closer to Allah.” Truly Allah will judge between them in what they differ. Verily Allah does not guide him who is a liar, kafir/rejector/coverer.

Allah provides identification of Shuraka. These are those, who people think are the chosen ones of Allah and by serving them, they will bring them nearer to Allah.

42:21  أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ شَرَعُوا لَهُم مِّنَ الدِّينِ مَا لَمْ يَأْذَن بِهِ اللَّهُ ۚ وَلَوْلَا كَلِمَةُ الْفَصْلِ لَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

Do they have partners, who have established for them ways in religion (Shariat)  without the permission of Allah? Had it not been for the decree of Judgment, the matter would have been decided between them (at once). But verily the Wrong-doers will have a grievous Penalty.

Further identification of these Shuraka. These are making Shariat of religion.Those people who make shariat/ways in Din (and cannot justify it with The Book) are identified as Partners in orders of Allah. Why are they termed as partners, because people take orders from Allah and also take orders from these people.

10:35  قُلْ هَلْ مِن شُرَكَائِكُم مَّن يَهْدِي إِلَى الْحَقِّ ۚ قُلِ اللَّهُ يَهْدِي لِلْحَقِّ ۗ أَفَمَن يَهْدِي إِلَى الْحَقِّ أَحَقُّ أَن يُتَّبَعَ أَمَّن لَّا يَهِدِّي إِلَّا أَن يُهْدَىٰ ۖ فَمَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ

Say. “Of your ‘partners’ is there any one who can give any guidance towards truth?” Say. “It is Allah Who gives guidance towards truth, is then He who gives guidance to truth more worthy to be followed, or he who finds not guidance (himself) unless he is guided? what then is the matter with you? How do you judge?”

A logical question, is any one is capable of providing guidance towards truth except Allah then why not follow the source of guidance.

31:30  ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ الْبَاطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ

That is because Allah is the Haq/Truth, and  whoever else they call other than Him is Falsehood; and indeed Allah,- He is the Most High, Most Great.

in some sects, it is common to call some personalities for help in divine matters or fate, which is prohibited by Allah.

72:18  وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلَّهِ فَلَا تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللَّهِ أَحَدًا

“And the mosques are for Allah. So do not call any one along with Allah;

The above Ayat prohibits calling any one with Allah as well, i.e calling others with or without Allah, both are prohibited.

6:114  أَفَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْتَغِي حَكَمًا وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْكِتَابَ مُفَصَّلًا ۚ وَالَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ مُنَزَّلٌ مِّن رَّبِّكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ

Say. “Shall I seek a judge other than Allah? – and He is Who has sent unto you (people) the Book, explained in detail.” The people whom we gave the Book, know fully well, that it has been sent down from your Lord in truth. Thus you, never be of those who doubt.

A direct question posed by Messenger and should be followed in his Sunnah by others; Why should I seek orders from others while Allah has sent down the Book explained in detail.

The partners/Shuraka in Allah are those whose orders are also followed in addition to Allah’s. So, if any orders something and does not give reference of the Ayat which is the source of his order, that would mean this order is not from Allah and should not be followed.

No shariat or order other than Allah’s to be accepted, as he has sent a Book containing all necessary details. When Allah has sent down a detailed book then why should people seek other’s orders? Allah is asking; do these people take their orders from some one other than Allah, while he has revealed the Book with details

39:45  وَإِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ اشْمَأَزَّتْ قُلُوبُ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ ۖ وَإِذَا ذُكِرَ الَّذِينَ مِن دُونِهِ إِذَا هُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ

When Allah, alone is remembered, the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter are filled with aversion; but when others than Him, are rememembered, behold, they are filled with joy!

Further identification of unwanted behavior of people holding on to others as partners of Allah: When Allah alone is mentioned in a group, these people don’t feel comfortable, however when the names of their favorites are mentioned, they become happy.

2:165  وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَندَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللَّهِ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِّلَّهِ ۗ وَلَوْ يَرَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا إِذْ يَرَوْنَ الْعَذَابَ أَنَّ الْقُوَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعَذَابِ

Yet there are people who take others besides Allah, as equals. They love them as they should love Allah. But the believers have great love for Allah. If only the opressors could see the penalty, that to Allah belongs all power, and Allah is severe in punishment.

Identification of true believers; They love Allah more than any one else.

12:40  مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِهِ إِلَّا أَسْمَاءً سَمَّيْتُمُوهَا أَنتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُم مَّا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَانٍ ۚ إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلَّا لِلَّهِ ۚ أَمَرَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

You do serve beside Him certain names invented by you and your forefathers, Allah has not revealed any authority for them. The Command (hukum) is for none but Allah and He has commanded that you shall not serve except Him. This is the established Din/Judgement, but most people do not know.

This Ayat needs soul searching as many believers may be revering some list of names against which  Allah has not revealed any authority in His Book.

7:70  قَالُوا أَجِئْتَنَا لِنَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ وَحْدَهُ وَنَذَرَ مَا كَانَ يَعْبُدُ آبَاؤُنَا ۖ فَأْتِنَا بِمَا تَعِدُنَا إِن كُنتَ مِنَ الصَّادِقِينَ

They said, “Did you come to make us serve Allah alone, and abandon what our forefathers used to serve? We challenge you to bring (the doom), you threaten us with, if you are truthful.”

The above is the reply all messenger get when they convey the message of Allah to their nations. ‘How can we forsake, what our forefathers were serving all their lives and what they instilled in us?’

10:18  وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنفَعُهُمْ وَيَقُولُونَ هَٰؤُلَاءِ شُفَعَاؤُنَا عِندَ اللَّهِ ۚ قُلْ أَتُنَبِّئُونَ اللَّهَ بِمَا لَا يَعْلَمُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

They serve, besides Allah, those who cannot either harm them nor profit them, and they say. “These are our intercessors with Allah.” Say. “Do you indeed inform Allah of something He doenot know, in the heavens or on earth?- Glory to Him! and  He is far above the partners they ascribe (to Him)!”

Those who people hold on to, and boast as their intercessors with Allah, for which Allah has not revealed any authority, He asks them that do they inform Allah of their decision, while He knows everything. Were they really to be intercessors with Allah, He would have revealed authority for them in His Book.  

39:36  أَلَيْسَ اللَّهُ بِكَافٍ عَبْدَهُ ۖ وَيُخَوِّفُونَكَ بِالَّذِينَ مِن دُونِهِ ۚ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ هَادٍ

Is not Allah enough for his Servant? But they try to frighten you with others besides Him! for he who, Allah leaves to stray, there can be no guide.

Allah is asking a question: Isn’t Allah sufficient for His slaves, why then they have to make others their masters?

16:56  وَيَجْعَلُونَ لِمَا لَا يَعْلَمُونَ نَصِيبًا مِّمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ ۗ تَاللَّهِ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ عَمَّا كُنتُمْ تَفْتَرُونَ

And they (even) assign, to those they do not know, a portion of their sustenance! bestowed by Allah. You shall certainly be called to account for your false inventions.

Those people are mentioned who assign portion of their Riza/sustenance for those they don’t even know such as Nazr/Niaz for others. They will certainly be called to account for this invention.

7:197  وَالَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ نَصْرَكُمْ وَلَا أَنفُسَهُمْ يَنصُرُونَ

“But those people you call upon besides Him, are unable to help you, and indeed to help even themselves.”

The people who are normally called upon as helpers in divine matters, are incapable of helping.

17:56  قُلِ ادْعُوا الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُم مِّن دُونِهِ فَلَا يَمْلِكُونَ كَشْفَ الضُّرِّ عَنكُمْ وَلَا تَحْوِيلًا

Say. “Call on those – besides Him – whom do you assume with pride. They have neither the power to remove your troubles from you nor to change them.”

2:141  تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ ۖ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُمْ ۖ وَلَا تُسْأَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

Those were the people who has passed away. They shall reap the fruit of what they did, and you of what you do! and you will not be questioned of what they used to do.

Pay heed to this Allah’s advise. You will not be questioned about what previous people used to do, as you cannot be witness over them except what Allah tells in his Book.

10:66 أَلَا إِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَن فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَمَا يَتَّبِعُ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ شُرَكَاءَ ۚ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَخْرُصُونَ

Behold! to Allah belong all what is in the heavens and in the earth. What do they follow who call upon “partners” other than Allah? They follow nothing but conjecture, and they do nothing but guesswork.

Holding on to partners with Allah, is a system of conjecture and guesswork by people.

43:15  وَجَعَلُوا لَهُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ جُزْءًا ۚ إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَكَفُورٌ مُّبِينٌ

And they have made some of His servants an (integral) part of Him ! truly man is a clear rejecter.

29:51  أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِهِمْ أَنَّا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَرَحْمَةً وَذِكْرَىٰ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

And is it not enough for them that we have sent down to you the Book which is rehearsed to them? Verily, in it is Mercy and a Reminder to those who believe.

Is it not enough for them the Book is revealed by Allah, which is recited to them. What else are they waiting for?

9:17  مَا كَانَ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ أَن يَعْمُرُوا مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ شَاهِدِينَ عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِم بِالْكُفْرِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ وَفِي النَّارِ هُمْ خَالِدُونَ

It is not for the mushriks / associaters to spend time in mosques of Allah, while they are witness over their nafs/psyche to rejection. They are those whose Aamal/works are wasted and in the fire they will live forever

The associators time spent in mosques and their worships will all be in vain. They themselves will tell and will be witness to what they say and associate with Allah while they are in the mosques.

6:22-23  وَيَوْمَ نَحْشُرُهُمْ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ نَقُولُ لِلَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا أَيْنَ شُرَكَاؤُكُمُ الَّذِينَ كُنتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ  ثُمَّ لَمْ تَكُن فِتْنَتُهُمْ إِلَّا أَن قَالُوا وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ

One day shall We gather them all together. We shall say to those who ascribed partners (to Us). “Where are the partners whom you assumed with so much pride?”There will then be no temptation for them but to say. “By Allah our Lord, we were not those who took partners (with Allah).”

The people who associate do not realize that they are the associating with Allah. Even on the day of Judgment before Allah, they will be repeating the same and will swear that they are not the mushrikeen/associaters.

4:48  إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَىٰ إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا

Verily Allah does not forgive that partners should be set up with Him; but He may forgive anything other than that, according to His wishes; Whoever set partner with Allah indeed invented a most grevious sin.

However, the sin of associating partners with Allah is not going to be forgiven by Allah.

Non Physical Fighting- 3

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

This post is in continuation of the series with the same title. In this series we review Ayas related to Qital/fighting and see if they mean ideological fighting or physical fighting. Let us review below Ayas in Quran about physical fighting:

5:27-29  وَاتْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ نَبَأَ ابْنَيْ آدَمَ بِالْحَقِّ إِذْ قَرَّبَا قُرْبَانًا فَتُقُبِّلَ مِنْ أَحَدِهِمَا وَلَمْ يُتَقَبَّلْ مِنَ الْآخَرِ قَالَ لَأَقْتُلَنَّكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ  لَئِن بَسَطتَ إِلَيَّ يَدَكَ لِتَقْتُلَنِي مَا أَنَا بِبَاسِطٍ يَدِيَ إِلَيْكَ لِأَقْتُلَكَ ۖ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ  إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَن تَبُوءَ بِإِثْمِي وَإِثْمِكَ فَتَكُونَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّارِ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الظَّالِمِينَ

And recite over them the news in truth of the two sons of Adam. When they both gave sacrifice to be close (to Allah) then it was accepted from one of them and was not accepted from the other. “He said I will definitely kill you.” “He said surely Allah accepts (the sacrifice)from those who guard.” “If you will stretch out your hand towards me to kill me, I will not stretch out my hand towards you to kill you. Surely I fear Allah the Lord of the Worlds.” “Surely I intend that you reside with my sin (in killing me ) and with your sin. So you will be from the companion of fire. And that is the reward of the oppressors.”

What is the lesson we get from the above Ayas? When some one attacks you physically you are not to strike back, why? because Allah is there to recompense fully the evil doers? (See related post of Qasas : https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/06/04/qasas/)A grave evil act like murder will stay in the psyche of the perpetrator and will haunt him and eventually destroy his psychology. A person doing bad acts can not live peacefully like a person  with clean conscience who does not have to fear everyday getting recompensed for his evil actions. If there is a choice, it is always better to leave the scene where some one attacks you to cause bodily harm.

2:84  وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ

And when We took a covenant with you, not to shed your blood and do not expel your souls/selves from your circles then you confirmed and you are witness to it.

This is the covenant Allah took with Bani Israeel, that they will not shed their blood. So the fighting/Qital which is ordained in Quran is an ideological fight i.e a fight in which you are not allowed to shed your blood.

From the above two sets of Ayas we come to know that with regards to Qital/fighting, if we fear Allah, we cannot not extend our hand towards the one who extends his hand towards us for causing harm. And Allah had taken a covenant from before that we are not to shed our blood. Also in 2:195 Allah orders (لَا تُلْقُوا بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ) i.e not to put your self to destruction with your own hands. Keeping in view these conditions, now we can see, how and with whom to do Qital/fighting in the way of Allah.

9:29  قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَلَا يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حَتَّىٰ يُعْطُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَن يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ

Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which has been made forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor they decide by the judegment of Truth, from the People who has been given the Book, until they pay tribute with their hands while being belittled.

Allah’s order to engage in ideological fight, is with those who don’t make it forbidden on them, what has been made forbidden by Allah. We will shortly see what is made forbidden by Allah in below Ayas. This ideological fight is to be done with the People of the Book (not labeled Jews and Christians) but with those who have the Book (Al-Quran) however who do not really believe in Allah and accountability and do not act on its injunctions of haram/forbidden acts.

6:151  قُلْ تَعَالَوْا أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ ۖ أَلَّا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا ۖ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا ۖ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلَادَكُم مِّنْ إِمْلَاقٍ ۖ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُكُمْ وَإِيَّاهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ ۖ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُم بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

Say. “Come, I will rehearse what Allah has prohibited on you ” Do not join anything in partnership with Him; Do good deeds to your parents; Do not kill your children for fear of poverty;- We provide sustenance for you and for them;- do not come near shameful acts whether openly or secretly; and do not kill a nafs/life, which Allah has made forbidden, except with Haq/truth,  thus He enjoins you, so that you may use your intellect.

7:33  قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالْإِثْمَ وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَن تُشْرِكُوا بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَأَن تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Say. my Lord has indeed forbidden shameful acts, whether open or secret; sins and unjust trespassing; and that you associate partners with Allah, for whom He has sent down no authority; and that you say things about Allah that you do not know.

The above Ayat states what is made forbidden by Allah. The ideological fight ordained as per 9:29, is with those people who associate with Allah, do obscenity, say things about Allah which are not verified by Quran, and kill what is made forbidden by Allah. And remember, ideological fight is a non physical fight in which extending your hand and shedding blood is not allowed. If some one, rejects this peaceful message of Allah and do physical fighting then Allah says that no body can be a bigger oppressor than him, as he will then be tarnishing the image of peaceful Islam.

61:7 وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ وَهُوَ يُدْعَىٰ إِلَى الْإِسْلَامِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ

Who does greater wrong than one who invents falsehood against Allah, even as he is being invited to Islam/Peace? And Allah guides not those who do wrong.

The person who is invited towards Peace and then he belies this invitation and instead choose a way of violence, In the Lords words above, nobody can be a bigger oppressor than him.

Allah orders the believers to immerse themselves fully in Peace and security and donot follow Shaitan, as Shaitan tries to sow seeds of enmity among them.

2:208  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

O’ People who believe, Enter into peace completely; and follow not the footsteps of Satan for he is an open enemy to you.

In all situations of life, the believers are to choose the judgment/option of Peace and security. Judgments other than of Peace are not acceptable to Allah.

3:85  وَمَن يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الْإِسْلَامِ دِينًا فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

If anyone desire a Din/judgment other than Islam/Peace never will be accepted of him and in the hereafter he will be from those who are the losers.

That is the circle of Faith which is made for the believers who don’t want violence and war fare on the land.

28:83  تِلْكَ الدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ نَجْعَلُهَا لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُرِيدُونَ عُلُوًّا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فَسَادًا ۚ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ

That Home/circle of the Hereafter We shall give to those who intend no high-handedness nor mischief on earth. and the end is (best) for the righteous.

Those people who fight with the believers in their judgment/Din of Peace as mentioned above and caste them out of the circles of faith and instigate others to caste them out too, believers are prevented to make these people their patrons/guardians. Those people who don’t cast the believers out of their circles of faith (does not label them as infidels if their beliefs differ), Allah does not prevent believers to do good to them.

60:8-9  لَّا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ أَن تَبَرُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُوا إِلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ  إِنَّمَا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ قَاتَلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَأَخْرَجُوكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ وَظَاهَرُوا عَلَىٰ إِخْرَاجِكُمْ أَن تَوَلَّوْهُمْ ۚ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُمْ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ

Allah does not prevent you with regards to those who do not fight with you and do not drive you out of your circles, from dealing kindly and justly with them, for Allah loves those who are just. Verily, Allah prevents you, with regard to those who fight with you in Din/judgment, and drive you out of your circles, and support (others) in driving you out, from turning to them for patronage. If any turns to them for patronage, then those are the unjust ones.

There are however, some historical accounts of physical fighting. Traditionalist say that below Ayas in Quran mention an incident of war which is famous with the name of ‘Badr’.

3-121-123  وَإِذْ غَدَوْتَ مِنْ أَهْلِكَ تُبَوِّئُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَقَاعِدَ لِلْقِتَالِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ  إِذْ هَمَّت طَّائِفَتَانِ مِنكُمْ أَن تَفْشَلَا وَاللَّهُ وَلِيُّهُمَا ۗ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ  وَلَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ بِبَدْرٍ وَأَنتُمْ أَذِلَّةٌ ۖ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

And when in the morning you left your household, to post the faithful at their stations for fighting. And Allah hears and knows all things. When two of your parties meditated cowardice; but Allah was their protector, and in Allah should the faithful put their trust. Allah had helped you at Badr (Earlier), when you were a weak/lowly; thus take guard of Allah; so that you be thankful.

‘Badr’ denotes ‘early stage’. These Ayats 3:121-123 should actually be referring to early stage ideological fight of believers with those against whom is the order of fighting in Ayat 9:29. In the early stage when the believers are not as intellectually strong for ideological fight, Allah has helped them in their fighting. The stages of intellectual development of believers are described in below Ayat 48:29.

48:29  مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا ۖ سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ ۚ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ ۗ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Muhammad (PBUH) is the Messenger of Allah; and those who are with him are strong against unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other. You will see them bow and prostrate themselves seeking Grace from Allah and (His) good pleasure. On their faces/beings are their marks, the traces of their prostration. This is their similitude in the Taurat; and their similitude in the Injeel, like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, (filling) the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers with rage at them. Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds forgiveness, and a great reward.

‘Badr’ is the early stage of knowledge and maturity of the believers when they were not strong enough to stand on their intellectual footings of knowledge and at that time, in an intellectual fight imposed on them by unbelievers, they were helped by Allah.