Shaitan/Devil

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Allah has warned mankind that Satan/Shaitan is their open enemy and that Satan will eventually be able to lead a majority of mankind to delusion and destruction. Therefore it is imperative for us to be able to identify the attacks of Satan in order to save ourselves from these attacks. Especially so, that Satan is relentless in his attacks and he is sitting at the ‘Sirate-Mustaqim’ (Straight Path). Quran gives us a lot of information about Satan for our protection. In this post we will review the Ayahs related to the story of Adam and his pair and the tree from which they ate and lost their place in Janna. Also, we will analyze the personality of Satan and his delusion tactics.

The post is coming soon on this page, please stay tuned and check the webpage for updates shortly.

Ayat un Noor/The verse of the light

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

24:35  اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ ۖ الْمِصْبَاحُ فِي زُجَاجَةٍ ۖ الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ زَيْتُونَةٍ لَّا شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلَا غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِيءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ ۚ نُّورٌ عَلَىٰ نُورٍ ۗ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

Allah is the Light/reflection of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His light is of a niche and in it is a lamp. The lamp enclosed in glass. the glass as it were a brilliant planet. Lit from a blessed olive tree, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil is about to light up, though fire did not touch it. Light upon Light! Allah guides whom He wills to His light. Allah sets forth parables for people, and Allah  knows all things.

Light is a parable of knowledge and reflection while darkness is a parable of ignorance. Everything in the Universe reflects upon an intelligent design with which it has been created. Every single thing and its place in the perfect grand scheme of the Universe, helps us reflect on the Creator’s wisdom. From the grandest to the most minute part of the Universe including living beings, these complex intricate systems, working harmoniously together, speaks volumes about the intelligent design of the Creator. Science is making every day new discoveries about what has been created by the Creator. The discoveries are mind boggling and still we know that we know so little.  We don’t have any idea about the farthest frontier of the Universe, nor about the smallest particle on the micro scale. All systems within living organisms and the universe are so meticulously designed to work in harmony, it is unthinkable for a believer to consider it coming together as an act of random chance without the intervention of an intelligent designer. This is what the Ayat states that Allah is the light/reflection of the skies and the earth, i.e every thing in the Universe bears the signature of the Creator and Allah’s design is reflected from everything in the Universe.

This light and reflection of Allah is in something which is a parable of a niche, i.e some people may not be able to reflect upon it.  The unbelievers and atheists assume that the intricately balanced system of the Universe came into existence by random act of chance and is running without the intervention of an intelligent Designer. So they are unable to see the reflection or light of Allah in the Universe. The believers however are able to perceive this light in the niche. For them, this light and wisdom is the example of a lamp which is a source of light. The fuel of this light bearing lamp is their faith, which is the example of a blessed beneficial olive tree. They see the light through the parable of bright glass i.e not directly exposed to it, but they are able to perceive the light by inference. The light of Allah is knowledge/wisdom and reflection which is not dependent upon worldly source of knowledge. It’s fuel is the blessed faith, focused on the Creator and does not waiver to East or West side. Pure faith is able to manifest without the need of a  trigger or ignition every time. The faith leads to the light of Wisdom. Allah increases the light of Wisdom for those who strive to see this light and keeps on increasing it for their guidance. Allah teaches with the help of examples and He is the knower of all things.

 

Evolution

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

32-7-9  الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ ۖ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الْإِنسَانِ مِن طِينٍ  ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِن سُلَالَةٍ مِّن مَّاءٍ مَّهِينٍ  ثُمَّ سَوَّاهُ وَنَفَخَ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِهِ ۖ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ ۚ قَلِيلًا مَّا تَشْكُرُونَ

He Who has perfected everything which He has created and He began the creation of man from clay/dust. Then He made his progeny from an extract of an insignificant fluid. Then He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him from His Spirit. And He gave you (the faculties of) hearing and sight and heart (feelings), little thanks do ye give

The above Ayat informs us that the creation of man started from clay/dust. Dust or clay is in-organic material. From in-organic matter to organic matter and then into present form of human being, stage after stage of creations (71:14, 84:19) may span several hundred million years. What course did this stage by stage evolution took, we don’t know as yet. The famous Miller-Urey experiment gives some hint about the first step, i.e the possibility of creation of organic matter from in-organic matter.

The Miller–Urey experiment[1] (or Miller experiment)[2] was a chemical experiment conducted in 1952, that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions. The experiment supported the hypothesis that putative conditions on the primitive Earth favoured chemical reactions that synthesized more complex organic compounds from simpler inorganic precursors.

After Miller’s death in 2007, scientists examining sealed vials preserved from the original experiments were able to show that there were actually well over 20 different amino acids produced in Miller’s original experiments. That is considerably more than what Miller originally reported, and more than the 20 that naturally occur in life.[7] More-recent evidence suggests that Earth’s original atmosphere might have had a different composition from the gas used in the Miller experiment. But prebiotic experiments continue to produce racemic mixtures of simple to complex compounds under varying conditions.[8]

The experiments showed that simple organic compounds of building blocks of proteins and other macromolecules can be formed from gases with the addition of energy.

The living organisms undergo changes in their genes according to their environment and they change and adopt according to the changes in their environment. Genes are the codes of the program according to which the living organisms grow, age and die. How the evolution took place since the beginning of life on Earth, is still not understood properly and there are many theories about it. Quran tells us that Allah has created man from different stages and the first stage was dust. Dust and mud is in-organic material. So the beginning of evolution was from in-organic materials. Quran does not mention the time it took from mud to the formation of homo sapiens; it could have taken hundreds of millions of years in the making and we don’t know if it involved going through different animal stages or not. Science has also not found out for sure, as yet.

7:11    وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ صَوَّرْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ لَمْ يَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ

And We created you all, then We gave you (all), shapes; then We said to the angels to bow down to Adam, and they bowed down; except for Iblis; he was not to be of those who bowed down.

The above Ayat states that after creating us and figuring us, Allah gave the order to angels to bow down to Adam. So it means that mankind had existed physically when Allah breathed his Sprit into the Khalifa/vicegerent on Earth.

What we dont’ know, is the complete story of evolution. We don’t even find evidence of mid way species e.g lets say if a specie is changing from form A to B, it would undergo transition stages. What we find is fully transformed species and not sure if we have evidence of transition forms.

The main standoff between Darwinism and religion is not that religion excludes evolution. It is mainly that Darwinism wants to exclude God from evolution. It postulates that evolution takes place without intervention of God. While the Book tells us that evolution is the mechanism by which God creates. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pZyRgYZe6tM)

71-14  وَقَدْ خَلَقَكُمْ أَطْوَارًا

He (Allah) has created you in stages.

76:1  هَلْ أَتَىٰ عَلَى الْإِنسَانِ حِينٌ مِّنَ الدَّهْرِ لَمْ يَكُن شَيْئًا مَّذْكُورًا

 There surely came over man a period of time when he was a thing not worth mentioning.

71:17  وَاللَّهُ أَنبَتَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ نَبَاتًا

And God sprouted/grew you from the Earth (as) a growth

84:19 لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ

Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage.

29:20  قُلْ سِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَانظُرُوا كَيْفَ بَدَأَ الْخَلْقَ ۚ ثُمَّ اللَّهُ يُنشِئُ النَّشْأَةَ الْآخِرَةَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Say. “Travel through the earth and see how Allah did originate creation; so will Allah produce a later creation, for Allah has power over all things.

Allah ask us to explore the land to find out evidence of how the creation began on Earth.

22:5  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّنَ الْبَعْثِ فَإِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ عَلَقَةٍ ثُمَّ مِن مُّضْغَةٍ مُّخَلَّقَةٍ وَغَيْرِ مُخَلَّقَةٍ لِّنُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ ۚ وَنُقِرُّ فِي الْأَرْحَامِ مَا نَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ثُمَّ نُخْرِجُكُمْ طِفْلًا ثُمَّ لِتَبْلُغُوا أَشُدَّكُمْ ۖ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُتَوَفَّىٰ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰ أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ لِكَيْلَا يَعْلَمَ مِن بَعْدِ عِلْمٍ شَيْئًا ۚ وَتَرَى الْأَرْضَ هَامِدَةً فَإِذَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا الْمَاءَ اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ وَأَنبَتَتْ مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ

O’ Mankind! if you are in doubt about the raising, then surely We created you from dust, then from a sperm, then from a clot, then from a lump of flesh, complete in make and incomplete, that We may make clear to you; and We cause what We please to stay in the wombs till an appointed time, then We bring you forth as babies, then that you may attain your maturity; and of you is he, who is caused to die, and of you is he, who is brought back to the worst part of life, so that after having knowledge he does not know anything; and you see the earth sterile land, but when We send down on it the water, it stirs and swells and brings forth of every kind a beautiful herbage.

 

 

 

 

Movement of Mountains

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

27:88    وَتَرَى الْجِبَالَ تَحْسَبُهَا جَامِدَةً وَهِيَ تَمُرُّ مَرَّ السَّحَابِ ۚ صُنْعَ اللَّهِ الَّذِي أَتْقَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ ۚ إِنَّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَفْعَلُونَ

You see the mountains and think them as unmoving, but they move like the movement of clouds. The artistry of Allah, who perfected everything, for He is aware of what you do.

 

The above Ayat states that the mountains apparently look fixed, however their movement is similar to the movement of clouds.

 

The Earth as a sphere, comprises layers one over another. Mountains, and in general the Earth’s crust is part of the lithosphere. This lithosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth. It is a relatively non-dense, solid and rigid piece of rock. The lithosphere lies on top of the asthenosphere, which is a more ductile layer composed of the upper mantle. In a sense, the lithosphere “floats” on the asthenosphere. You can think of ice cubes floating on water, or a better comparison would be solid cold chocolate floating on warm (but still solid) chocolate.

Inside the Earth

The Earth’s interior is composed of several layers. The deepest layer is a solid iron ball, about 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometers) in diameter. Although this inner core is white hot, the pressure is so high the iron cannot melt.

Above the inner core is the outer core, a shell of liquid iron. This layer is cooler but still very hot, perhaps 4,000 to 5,000 degrees Celsius. It too is composed mostly of iron, plus substantial amounts of sulfur and nickel. It creates the Earth’s magnetic field and is about 1,400 miles (2,300 kilometers) thick.

River of Rock

The next layer is the mantle. Many people think of this as lava, but it’s actually rock. The rock is so hot, however, that it flows under pressure, like road tar. This creates very slow-moving currents as hot rock rises from the depths and cooler rock descends.

The mantle is about 1,800 miles (2,900 kilometers) thick and appears to be divided into two layers: the upper mantle and the lower mantle. The boundary between the two lies about 465 miles (750 kilometers) beneath the Earth’s surface.

The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth. It is the familiar landscape on which we live: rocks, soil, and seabed. It ranges from about five miles (eight kilometers) thick beneath the oceans to an average of 25 miles (40 kilometers) thick beneath the continents.

Currents within the mantle have broken the crust into blocks, called plates, which slowly move around, colliding to build mountains or rifting apart to form new seafloor.

Continents are composed of relatively light blocks that float high on the mantle, like gigantic, slow-moving icebergs. Seafloor is made of a denser rock called basalt, which presses deeper into the mantle, producing basins that can fill with water.

(https://www.geolsoc.org.uk/Education-and-Careers/Ask-a-Geologist/Continents-Supercontinents-and-the-Earths-Crust/Mountain-Roots)

 

Image result for Do mountains have roots

 

21:31  وَجَعَلْنَا فِي الْأَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِهِمْ وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا فِجَاجًا سُبُلًا لَّعَلَّهُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ

And We have set on the earth firmaments, so that it should sway with them, and We have made therein broad highways so that they may receive guidance.

The above Ayat is usually translated with an extra negation added while it may be a possibility that the Ayat is referring to the tilt of the Earth. We know that Earth is tilted on its axis and this tilt gives the seasons on Earth.

Without the extra negation added, the above Ayat states that Allah has put firmaments or pegs so that the Earth should sway with them. Could be some thing for further research to find out if the mountains have a role in keeping the tilt of Earth on its axis, something similar to shim pieces.

 

Notes:

Some relevant information and their links are given below:

Mountain ranges are the result of continental collision. When two plates carrying continental crust converge, crustal rocks are folded and faulted. The result is deformed, thickened crust. This thicker crust rests on the underlying mantle, floating on the denser mantle rocks just as an iceberg floats in water. Mountains also resemble icebergs in that the part you see is much smaller than the part hidden beneath the Earth’s surface. The high topography of mountain ranges is mirrored by a much larger crustal root beneath. The height of mountains depends on the thickness of the crust, and the difference in density between the crust and the mantle. These relationships are part of the principle of isostasy, which governs how icebergs, mountains, and all other objects float.
Mountains, exert less gravitational pull than they should do because they have roots. Their less dense material extends down into the earth, in whose denser interior they float like icebergs in water.
A link with useful information is given below;

Earth’s tectonic plates are in constant motion. Their movement is driven by heat within the Earth. The deep Earth is very hot, while its surface is quite cool. This causes hot material within the Earth to rise, until it reaches the surface where it moves sideways, cools, then sinks. This circular motion is called convection. Convection within the mantle drives the motion of the overlying plates.

‘Nafs’ as conscious mind

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The word ‘Nafs’ in Al-Quran is used in the meaning of ‘psyche’ or ‘consciousness’ which is accountable for its orders. What choices we make or what decisions we take consciously, are by our ‘Nafs/Psyche’ and we will be accountable for these actions. When we are asleep our Nafs/consciousness is dead. Anything we do, during your sleep or unconscious state, we will not be held accountable for it. The below Ayas 39:42 and 6:50, define the characteristics of Nafs as a conscious state of mind.

39:42  اللَّهُ يَتَوَفَّى الْأَنفُسَ حِينَ مَوْتِهَا وَالَّتِي لَمْ تَمُتْ فِي مَنَامِهَا ۖ فَيُمْسِكُ الَّتِي قَضَىٰ عَلَيْهَا الْمَوْتَ وَيُرْسِلُ الْأُخْرَىٰ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

It is Allah who cause to die/complete the nafs/phyche at the time of death; and those whose time of death has not come (He causes these Nafs to die/ be completed) during their sleep. Then those (Nafoos) on whom He has passed the decree of death, He prevents (from returning to life), but the rest He sends until a term appointed; Verily in this are Signs for those who ponder.

6:60  وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَتَوَفَّاكُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا جَرَحْتُم بِالنَّهَارِ ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُكُمْ فِيهِ لِيُقْضَىٰ أَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّى ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

It is He who makes you (your Nafs/psyche) to die by night, and He knows of all that you do by the day. He raises you up again in it; so that a term appointed is fulfilled; In the end unto Him will be your return; then will He inform you of all that you used to do.

Nafs is the psyche/psychology of a person. The nafs is capable of both corruption and obedience to God. The one who puts efforts in purifying the Nafs will be successful in the eyes of the Lord.

91:7-10  وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا  فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا  قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّاهَا  وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّاهَا

By the Nafs/pshyce, and what shapes it, So He transmitted (to) it its corruption, and its obedience, Truly he succeeds who purifies it (the Nafs), and he fails who corrupts it (nafs)

The Nafs/psyche is prone to give orders of evil and corruption, unless with the help of God. The help of God comes to he, who tries to purify his Nafs (91:9)

12:53  وَمَا أُبَرِّئُ نَفْسِي ۚ إِنَّ النَّفْسَ لَأَمَّارَةٌ بِالسُّوءِ إِلَّا مَا رَحِمَ رَبِّي ۚ إِنَّ رَبِّي غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

“Nor do I absolve my own nafs (of blame). the Nafs/psyche certainly orders (to do) evil, unless on whom my Lord bestows His Mercy,  but surely my Lord is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.”

A child Nafs/psyche is not fully matured, therefore its is not considered accountable for its deeds as it is not considered a (matured) Nafs in Quran.

18:74  فَانطَلَقَا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا لَقِيَا غُلَامًا فَقَتَلَهُ قَالَ أَقَتَلْتَ نَفْسًا زَكِيَّةً بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ لَّقَدْ جِئْتَ شَيْئًا نُّكْرًا

Then they proceeded, until, when they met a child, he slew him. Moses said. “Did you slay an innocent Nafs without a Nafs? Truly you came up with a strange thing”

The Nafs/psyche is reprimanding/reproaching, unless one purifies it to become contended by keeping a clean conscience.

75:2  وَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ

But nay! I call to witness the reproaching Nafs

89:27-30  يَا أَيَّتُهَا النَّفْسُ الْمُطْمَئِنَّةُ  ارْجِعِي إِلَىٰ رَبِّكِ رَاضِيَةً مَّرْضِيَّةً  فَادْخُلِي فِي عِبَادِي  وَادْخُلِي جَنَّتِي

“O you the satisfied Nafs/psyche! Come to your Lord,- well pleased (yourself), and well-pleasing unto Him! Enter, in My servants! and, enter in My gardens! “

To be overcome by powerful influences of one’s environment of corruption and disbelief  and not taking corrective actions to control one’s Nafs, shall be considered as being unjust to one’s nafs (phyche)

4:97  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنفُسِهِمْ قَالُوا فِيمَ كُنتُمْ ۖ قَالُوا كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ قَالُوا أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُوا فِيهَا ۚ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا

Verily, when angels are completing/taking lives of those who were unjust to their nafs (psyche), they say. “In what (plight) were you?” They reply. “We were weak in the earth.” They say. “Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to have migrated?” For such the abode is in Hell,- What an evil abode! –

To be killed in the way of Allah, means that our Nafs/psyche is killed by us following orders of Allah. For example, our Nafs could be fond of doing things forbidden by Allah, then after getting Spirit of Allahs Ayats, we abstain our self from them and kill our nafs and its internal desires abstaining from evil. After killing our own Nafs and with the help of Spirit of Ayas, we then fight an intellectual fight with the Nafoos of other people.

9:111  إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ ۚ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ ۖ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ ۚ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بَايَعْتُم بِهِ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

Surely Allah has purchased from the believers their Nafs and their wealth,  (in return) is gardens for them. They fight in the way of Allah thus they kill (their nafs) and get killed (their nafs). A promise on Him in truth in At-Taurah / The Law and Al-Injeel / The Good news and in Al-Quran / The Reading. And who can fulfill with his promise than Allah, thus rejoice with your deal that you bargained with Him, and that is the supreme achievement.

When one has killed his own Nafs with Haq/Truth, only then he would be able to kill others Nafs/psyche with truth. Believers strive to sell their Nafs to Allah. After this sale, only Allah’s Will should remain in the Nafs.  There is a difference between believers killing their Nafs and rejecters killing their Nafs. Believers are killing their Nafs so that it is purchased by Allah and their self is nullified. Rejecters do the opposite, their Nafoos are not purchased by Allah.  Their Nafoos are their desires. Allah does not purchase their Nafoos and their Nafoos are dead in the eyes of Allah. One indication for successful sale of Nafs, is that once you kill an evil in your Nafs/psyche, the desire of it should not re-occur. If this desire reoccurs, it is an indication that the evil was not killed properly and Allah has not purchased your Nafs and you still have to make more effort *

Notes:

Lecture by Scholar Mohammad Shaikh on killing of Nafs:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/11/06/killing-2008/

 

 

Maula

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

‘Maula’ (مَوْلَا) means helper/protector. Al-Kitab states Allah as Maula Haq (the Maula of Truth) for the people.  Allah has declared that He is the Maula Al-Haq for the people and the other maulas, the people call upon, are batil/false (31:30). Allah has declared upon the prophet to proclaim that he does not have authority for any benefit or harm for the people (72:21). Nor the prophet has the knowledge of Ghaib or unseen because of which he could hear people in his absence (7:188). Also Allah has informed people that the other people they call upon are only people like them (7:194).

3:150 بَلِ اللَّهُ مَوْلَاكُمْ ۖ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ النَّاصِرِينَ

Instead, Allah is your Maula/protector, and He is the best of helpers.

8:40  وَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَاكُمْ ۚ نِعْمَ الْمَوْلَىٰ وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ

If they refuse, be sure that Allah is your Maula/Protector – the best to protect and the best to help.

9:51  قُل لَّن يُصِيبَنَا إِلَّا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَنَا هُوَ مَوْلَانَا ۚ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ

Say. “Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us. He is our Maula/protector”,  and on Allah let the believers should put their trust.

10:30  هُنَالِكَ تَبْلُو كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا أَسْلَفَتْ ۚ وَرُدُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلَاهُمُ الْحَقِّ ۖ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ

There will every nafs/pshyche get (the fruits of) the deeds it sent before. They will be brought back to Allah their Maula Al-Haq/ Rightful Protector, and their invented falsehoods will leave them in the lurch.

Allah is the protector of those who believe that Allah is their Maula, and those who reject and may consider others as their Maulas, Allah is not the Maula/protector of them.

47:11  ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَأَنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ لَا مَوْلَىٰ لَهُمْ

That is because Allah is the Maula/protector of those who believe, but those who reject, have no protector.

44:41  يَوْمَ لَا يُغْنِي مَوْلًى عَن مَّوْلًى شَيْئًا وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

The Day when no protector can avail his client in aught, and no help can they receive.

Maulas other than Allah, can not really help.

3:79  مَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَن يُؤْتِيَهُ اللَّهُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ ثُمَّ يَقُولَ لِلنَّاسِ كُونُوا عِبَادًا لِّي مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِن كُونُوا رَبَّانِيِّينَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تُعَلِّمُونَ الْكِتَابَ وَبِمَا كُنتُمْ تَدْرُسُونَ

It is not for a man whom is given the Book, and Wisdom, and the Prophet-hood; should say to people. “Be you my servants rather than Allah’s”. on the contrary (He would say) “Be you the servants of the Lord. For you have taught the Book and you have studied it.”

A messenger of Allah, never would say to people to be his servants or to make him their Maula. He would direct the focus of the people to Allah, as this is what Allah’s Books is about.

7:188  قُل لَّا أَمْلِكُ لِنَفْسِي نَفْعًا وَلَا ضَرًّا إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَلَوْ كُنتُ أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ لَاسْتَكْثَرْتُ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ وَمَا مَسَّنِيَ السُّوءُ ۚ إِنْ أَنَا إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ وَبَشِيرٌ لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Say. “I have no power over any good or harm to myself except as Allah wills. If I had knowledge of the ghaib/unseen, I should have multiplied all goods, and no evil should have touched me. I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings to those who have faith.”

Allah asks the Messenger to declare that he does not possess power for any good or harm, nor he has the knowledge of unseen. Had he such knowledge he would have got a lot of goodies. The role of the Messenger is to be a bringer of glad tidings and warner to the people.

72:21  قُلْ إِنِّي لَا أَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ ضَرًّا وَلَا رَشَدًا

Say, “Behold, I do not own the power to harm or enforce enlightenment upon you.”

The prophet declared that it is not for him any harm or good for the people. When prophet does not have this power, is it imaginable that any other person can possess such power over other people?

18:44  هُنَالِكَ الْوَلَايَةُ لِلَّهِ الْحَقِّ ۚ هُوَ خَيْرٌ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ عُقْبًا

Here Al-Walayat/the protection is only Allah’s, the True One; He is best in (the giving of) reward and best in requiting.

7:194  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ عِبَادٌ أَمْثَالُكُمْ ۖ فَادْعُوهُمْ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Verily those whom you call upon besides Allah are servants like you. Call upon them, and let them respond to you, if you are (indeed) truthful!

Ummi Prophet and Ummi Nation

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Word ‘Ummi’ is from root ( ا م م ), the same root from which the word Umm/Mother is formed. Common perception is that this word means ‘un-lettered’ i.e someone who is ‘unable to read or write’. This word is not a common word in Arabic usage, therefore not well defined in dictionaries. We will see occurrences of this word in Al-Kitab, to see what could be the intended meanings of this word.

In Al-Kitab, the word ‘Ummi’ is used for a prophet and also for a nation in which the prophet was sent. The word is used in a positive sense for the prophet and in the negative sense for the nation. The traditional rendering of the word ‘Ummi’ is ‘un-lettered’. We will look into the Ayas to see if the ‘Un-lettered’ rendering of this word makes sense in light of Quran.

62:2  هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَإِن كَانُوا مِن قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ

It is He, Who sent amongst the Ummi people a messenger from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to purify them, and to instruct them in the Book and Wisdom,- although they had been, before, in manifest error;-

Allah sent down among the ‘Ummiyyin’, a messenger from among them who recites Ayas of Allah on them and teaches them Al-Kitab and Widsom and before that, they were in manifest error. In this Ayat, ‘un-lettered’ would not fit as meaning of ‘Ummiyyin’ because if the nation does not know how to read and write then what is the purpose of sending a book to them. Also, historically we know that, the whole community at that time was not unlettered. There were many people who knew how to read and write at that time. 

The word ‘Ummi’ is from the same root as of the word ‘Umm’ (mother). ‘Ummi’ could be referring to ‘motherly’ or ‘original’ state. ‘Ummiyyin’ in above Ayat seems to be those people who are at their original state of belief in which they were born. i.e they don’t get guidance from the Book. They just believe what their environment and people around them tell them to believe. They have not themselves studied the Book and gained knowledge from it. Does not necessarily mean that they don’t know how to read and write. It just implies that they did not change their direction of belief in the light of the Book (2:141) and remained on their original belief system on which they were born.

2:78  وَمِنْهُمْ أُمِّيُّونَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا أَمَانِيَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ

And there are among them Ummis, who donot know about the Book, but (see therein their own) desires, and they do nothing but conjecture.

Now what about Nabi Ummi mentioned in Al-Kitab?  Is there a prophet mentioned in Al-Kitab who also remained on his original belief system? When we study Al-Kitab, we find that, one prophet in Al-Quran is referred to by his mother i.e Essa ibne Mariam A.S. He is the one, who is prophet from birth as a sign of Allah, i.e he was not granted prophet-hood at a later stage in life, but was made prophet since birth and was able to talk to people since that time.

19:29-30  فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ ۖ قَالُوا كَيْفَ نُكَلِّمُ مَن كَانَ فِي الْمَهْدِ صَبِيًّا قَالَ إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ آتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلَنِي نَبِيًّا

But she (Mariam) pointed to the baby. They said. “How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?” Essa / Jesus said: “I am indeed a servant of Allah: He (Allah) has given me Al-Kitab / The Book and made me a prophet.

The Messenger of Allah  declares to all mankind to believe in that Ummi prophet, who believes in Allah and his Words. The Ummi prophet in Al-Kitab declares that he and his mother are no gods but they are only servants of God (5:72, 5:116-117)

7:158  قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا الَّذِي لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ ۖ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

Say. “O people! I am to you all, the messenger of Allah, to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. there is no god but He. It is He who gives life and death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the Ummi Prophet, who believes in Allah and His words. And follow him so that you may be guided.”

The Ummi prophet teaches them from Hikma, the Book (Al-kitab), Taurat and Injeel, informs them about lawful and unlawful things and removes un-necessary burdens on them (3:47-50)

7:157  الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِيَّ الْأُمِّيَّ الَّذِي يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِندَهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ يَأْمُرُهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَاهُمْ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبَائِثَ وَيَضَعُ عَنْهُمْ إِصْرَهُمْ وَالْأَغْلَالَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِهِ وَعَزَّرُوهُ وَنَصَرُوهُ وَاتَّبَعُوا النُّورَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ مَعَهُ ۙ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

“Those who follow the messenger, the Ummi Prophet, whom they find written in what is with them,- in the Taurat/law and the Injeel/Good News;- for he commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure); He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them. So it is those who believe in him, honor him, help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him,- it is they who will prosper.”

For clarity on Ahlal-Kitab please see previous post (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/26/who-are-ahlal-kitab/ ). The below Ayat mentions ‘Ahlal Kitab’ and ‘Ummiyyin’ as two groups. There can be some overlapping between the groups as well. Ahlal Kitab are those who have the Book. ‘Ummiyin’ are those who don’t change the direction of belief in which they were born, so they can be of any religion or sect. The below Ayat mentions a portion of Ahlal Kitab who are not very honest in financial dealings because they have made by themselves some rules of financial transactions based on religious beliefs. They have a tendency to treat people differently in financial transactions based on religion. Their rules are tilted disadvantageously to people belonging to different religion than theirs.

3:75  وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ مَنْ إِن تَأْمَنْهُ بِقِنطَارٍ يُؤَدِّهِ إِلَيْكَ وَمِنْهُم مَّنْ إِن تَأْمَنْهُ بِدِينَارٍ لَّا يُؤَدِّهِ إِلَيْكَ إِلَّا مَا دُمْتَ عَلَيْهِ قَائِمًا ۗ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا لَيْسَ عَلَيْنَا فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ سَبِيلٌ وَيَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

Among the People of the Book are some who, if entrusted with a hoard of gold, will pay it back; others, who, if entrusted with a single Dinar/silver coin, will not repay it unless you constantly stood demanding, because, they say, “there is no call on us with these Ummi people.” but they tell a lie against Allah, and they know it.

The message of the Messenger to Ahlal Kitab and Ummiyyin is  ‘submit to the Ayas of Al-Kitab. If they submit to Al-Kitab they get guidance, but if they deviate to other teachings, the duty of the Messenger is to convey the message only.

3:20  فَإِنْ حَاجُّوكَ فَقُلْ أَسْلَمْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّهِ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِ ۗ وَقُل لِّلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ وَالْأُمِّيِّينَ أَأَسْلَمْتُمْ ۚ فَإِنْ أَسْلَمُوا فَقَدِ اهْتَدَوا ۖ وَّإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَاغُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِالْعِبَادِ

So if they dispute with you, say. “I have submitted myself to Allah and so have those who follow me.” And say to the People of the Book and to Ummis. “Do you (also) submit yourselves?” If they do, they are in right guidance, but if they turn back, your duty is to convey the Message; and Allah is an observer of (all) His servants.

Notes:

3:47-50  قَالَتْ رَبِّ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لِي وَلَدٌ وَلَمْ يَمْسَسْنِي بَشَرٌ ۖ قَالَ كَذَٰلِكِ اللَّهُ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ ۚ إِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ  وَيُعَلِّمُهُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَالتَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ  وَرَسُولًا إِلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنِّي قَدْ جِئْتُكُم بِآيَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۖ أَنِّي أَخْلُقُ لَكُم مِّنَ الطِّينِ كَهَيْئَةِ الطَّيْرِ فَأَنفُخُ فِيهِ فَيَكُونُ طَيْرًا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَأُبْرِئُ الْأَكْمَهَ وَالْأَبْرَصَ وَأُحْيِي الْمَوْتَىٰ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَأُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا تَأْكُلُونَ وَمَا تَدَّخِرُونَ فِي بُيُوتِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ  وَمُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَلِأُحِلَّ لَكُم بَعْضَ الَّذِي حُرِّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَجِئْتُكُم بِآيَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُونِ

She (Mariam) said. ‘O my Lord how shall I have a son when no man has ever touched me?’ He (Allah)  said. ‘This is how Allah creates what He wills. When He has decreed an order, He says it to, `Be` and it is!’ And (Allah) will teach him(Essa), Al-Kitab (The Book) and Al-Hikma (The Wisdom)  And At-Taurah (The Law) and Al-Injeel (The Good News). And a messenger to the children of Israel, that is I have come to you, with  Ayat (Sign) from your Lord, in that I make for you out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird (flyer), and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird (flyer) by Allah`s leave. and I heal the blind , and the lepers, and I give life to the dead, by Allah’s leave. And I inform you in what you consume, and what you store in your houses. Surely it is an Ayat(sign) for you if you are the believers. “‘(I have come to you), to attest the Taurat/Law which is between the hands and to make lawful to you part of what was forbidden to you; I have come to you with a Sign/Ayat from your Lord. So take guard of Allah, and obey me.