Sunnate Rasool/Practice of the Messenger

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

33:21 لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا

Without doubt for you, in the Rasool/Messenger of Allah is most beautiful pattern, who has hope in Allah and the last day and frequently remembers Allah.

The confirmed sunnate rasool/practice of the messenger,  is what Allah ordered the messenger to do in Al-Quran and most definitely the messenger complied with the orders of Allah. Therefore Ayahs of Quran will tell us the most confirmed sunnate-rasool i.e the confirmed practice which the messenger pbuh followed. As Quran is the only book in the world, in which there is no doubt, therefore the practice of the Messenger as described in Quran is more authentic than in any other book.

We will review in Quran, the orders which were given to the messenger to know about the confirmed practice of the messenger from Quran. These Ayahs let us know that the Messenger always leads to the straight path and advises with Al-Quran and not without Al-Quran. So those who follow the true sunnat/practice of the messenger, should always guide and order with the Quran and not associating other orders with Quran. The personality and practice described in the Quran are the best practice of the messenger:

3:79  مَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَن يُؤْتِيَهُ اللَّهُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ ثُمَّ يَقُولَ لِلنَّاسِ كُونُوا عِبَادًا لِّي مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِن كُونُوا رَبَّانِيِّينَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تُعَلِّمُونَ الْكِتَابَ وَبِمَا كُنتُمْ تَدْرُسُونَ

It is not for a human who is given the Book, and Wisdom, and the Prophet-hood; to say to people. “Be you my servants rather than Allah’s”. On the contrary (he would say) “Be you the servants of the Lord. For you have taught the Book and you have studied it.”

The prophet would not say to people; that ‘You make me your Master/Aaqqa/Maula!’, instead he would say that you be the people belonging to God/Allah.

9:33  هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ

It is He, who has sent His messenger with the guidance and with the judgment of truth so that he may make it obvious on every (other) judgment and even if those who associate (with Him) dislike it.

The purpose of sending the Messenger is that, the Messenger, makes the true judgment obvious and over, all other prevailing judgments existing in the world. Messenger has the aid of the Spirit of the Book. With the aid of the Spirit of the Book, the true Din/Judgment that the messenger brings forth, prevails over all other contradictory man- made judgments.

7:2  كِتَابٌ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ فَلَا يَكُن فِي صَدْرِكَ حَرَجٌ مِّنْهُ لِتُنذِرَ بِهِ وَذِكْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

A Book revealed to you,- it should not cause any tightening in your breast,- that you warn (the people) with it, and it is remembrance for the believers.

The messenger always reminds and advises with the Book.

5:49  وَأَنِ احْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَن يَفْتِنُوكَ عَن بَعْضِ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ ۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَن يُصِيبَهُم بِبَعْضِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ لَفَاسِقُونَ

And Judge/order among them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their vain desires, but beware of them lest they beguile you from any of that (teaching) which Allah has sent down to you. And if they turn away, be assured that for some of their sins it is Allah’s intention to put them into difficulty. And certainly the majority of the people are Fasiqeen/evil doers.

The messenger always judges and orders among the people with what has been revealed by Allah (Quran) and does not follow the vain desires of people.

27:92  وَأَنْ أَتْلُوَ الْقُرْآنَ ۖ فَمَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدِي لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَن ضَلَّ فَقُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُنذِرِينَ

And that I  recite the Quran, and if any one accept guidance, he does it for the good of his own self, and if anyone goes astray, say “I am only a warner”.

The messenger always warns by reciting from the Quran.

5:99  مَّا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا تَكْتُمُونَ

The Messenger’s duty is but to convey (the message). But Allah knows all that you reveal and you conceal.

Messenger’s duty is to convey the message. What people hide and what they show is known by Allah.

6:161  قُلْ إِنَّنِي هَدَانِي رَبِّي إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ دِينًا قِيَمًا مِّلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۚ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Say,  Surely my Lord has guided me to a Straight way a Judgment established. The Millat (Religion) of true Ibrahim (Abraham) and he was not from the polytheists/associators.

The Messenger follows the religion of Ibrahim A.S.

6:19  قُلْ أَيُّ شَيْءٍ أَكْبَرُ شَهَادَةً ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۖ شَهِيدٌ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَأُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ لِأُنذِرَكُم بِهِ وَمَن بَلَغَ ۚ أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ مَعَ اللَّهِ آلِهَةً أُخْرَىٰ ۚ قُل لَّا أَشْهَدُ ۚ قُلْ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ وَإِنَّنِي بَرِيءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ

Say what thing is greatest evidence, say Allah is witness between me and you and this Quran is inspired to me to warn you with it and to whom it is delivered. Do you surely bear witness, that with Allah there are other gods, Say I do not bear witness, say surely He is one God and surely I am exempted from what you associate (with Him).

Messenger confirms that what is inspired to him, is the Quran and he reminds with it i.e the Quran.

6:50  قُل لَّا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ عِندِي خَزَائِنُ اللَّهِ وَلَا أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ وَلَا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ إِنِّي مَلَكٌ ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ ۚ قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الْأَعْمَىٰ وَالْبَصِيرُ ۚ أَفَلَا تَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Say. “I do not tell you that with me are the treasures of Allah, nor do I know what is Ghaib/hidden, nor do I tell you I am an angel. I only follow what is revealed to me.” Say. “can the blind be held equal to the seeing?” Will you then consider not?

The messenger confirms that he does not know the knowledge of Ghaib/unseen and he follows only what is inspired to him i.e Al-Quran (6:19)

43:43  فَاسْتَمْسِكْ بِالَّذِي أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ ۖ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

So hold thou fast to the Inspiration/Revelation sent down to you (the Messenger); verily you are on a Straight Way.

The messenger holds fast the inspiration i.e the Quran (6:19)

28:85  إِنَّ الَّذِي فَرَضَ عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ لَرَادُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ ۚ قُل رَّبِّي أَعْلَمُ مَن جَاءَ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَمَنْ هُوَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ

Surely He Who has ordained (as mandatory) the Qur’an for you, will definitely restore you to a Place of Return(To a place you are accustomed to). Say. “My Lord knows best who it is that brings true guidance, and who is in manifest error.”

Quran is mandatory/Faraz on the Messenger with all his do’s and don’ts and therfore in his Sunnah to all believers.

21:45  قُلْ إِنَّمَا أُنذِرُكُم بِالْوَحْيِ ۚ وَلَا يَسْمَعُ الصُّمُّ الدُّعَاءَ إِذَا مَا يُنذَرُونَ

Say, “I do but warn you with the revelation”. But the deaf will not hear the call, (even) when they are warned!

Again and again the Messenger confirms that he warns with the inspiration/revelation i.e the Quran (6:19), however, the people seems oblivious to this fact.

75:16  لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ

Move not your tongue concerning the (Qur’an) to make haste therewith.

There should not be any haste with the Quran. It comes gradually.

7:203  وَإِذَا لَمْ تَأْتِهِم بِآيَةٍ قَالُوا لَوْلَا اجْتَبَيْتَهَا ۚ قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَتَّبِعُ مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ مِن رَّبِّي ۚ هَٰذَا بَصَائِرُ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

If you don’t come to them with a revelation, they say. “Why don’t you yourself chose it be (a revelation)?” Say. “I but follow what is revealed to me from my Lord. this is (nothing but) enlightened perception from your Lord, and Guidance, and mercy, for those who have faith.”

If the messenger doesn’t come (bring to people) with an Ayat (probably in a given situation), people would say that why not you choose anything (that would then become a Sunnat for them to follow), however, the messenger would always says, follow the Wahi/Quran not anything else. Also, this Ayat is a confirmation that everything that the prophet says or does is not Wahi/inspiration.

5:15  يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيرًا مِّمَّا كُنتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ ۚ قَدْ جَاءَكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ

O people of The Book! There has come to you our Messenger, revealing to you much that you used to hide in The Book, and passing over much: There has come to you from Allah a light and a perspicuous Book

Sunnate/Practice of the Messenger is to reveal clearly what people try to hide from The Book.

16:64  وَمَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ ۙ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

And We sent down the Book to you (the messenger) for the express purpose, that you should make clear to them those things in which they differ, and that it should be a guide and a mercy to those who believe.

Another practice of the Messenger is to clarify from the Book,  to the people who differ in it’s various matters.

10:15  وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ ۙ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا ائْتِ بِقُرْآنٍ غَيْرِ هَٰذَا أَوْ بَدِّلْهُ ۚ قُلْ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أُبَدِّلَهُ مِن تِلْقَاءِ نَفْسِي ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ ۖ إِنِّي أَخَافُ إِنْ عَصَيْتُ رَبِّي عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ

But when Our Clear Ayats are rehearsed unto them, those who rest not their hope on their meeting with Us, Say. “Bring us a Quran/Reading other than this, or change this,” Say. “It is not for me, of my own accord, to change it. I follow naught but what is revealed unto me. if I were to disobey my Lord, I should myself fear the penalty of a Great Day (to come).

The Messenger does not change what is sent down on his Nafs (i.e the inspiration/Wahi/Quran). He follows the inspiration and is afraid of the penalty of the great day.

18:28  وَاصْبِرْ نَفْسَكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُم بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ ۖ وَلَا تَعْدُ عَيْنَاكَ عَنْهُمْ تُرِيدُ زِينَةَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَا تُطِعْ مَنْ أَغْفَلْنَا قَلْبَهُ عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ وَكَانَ أَمْرُهُ فُرُطًا

And persevere yourself (the Messenger) with those who call on their Lord morning and evening, seeking His Presence; and let not your eyes pass beyond them, seeking the pomp and glitter of this Life;  and Don’t obey the one whose heart We have permitted to neglect the remembrance of Us, one who follows his own desires, and whose case has gone beyond all bounds.

The Messenger perseveres in the company of devout people, he does not long for worldly life’s glitter, and he does not obey ones who are oblivious to the remembrance of Allah.

39:11  قُلْ إِنِّي أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصًا لَّهُ الدِّينَ

Say. “Verily, I am commanded to serve Allah with judgment exclusively for Him.

The practice of the Messenger is to serve Allah in judgment purely and exclusively for Allah.

46:35  فَاصْبِرْ كَمَا صَبَرَ أُولُو الْعَزْمِ مِنَ الرُّسُلِ وَلَا تَسْتَعْجِل لَّهُمْ ۚ كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ مَا يُوعَدُونَ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا سَاعَةً مِّن نَّهَارٍ ۚ بَلَاغٌ ۚ فَهَلْ يُهْلَكُ إِلَّا الْقَوْمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

Therefore patiently persevere, as stead fast Messengers did earlier; and be in no haste about the (Unbelievers). On the Day that they see the (Punishment) promised to them, (it will be) as if they had not tarried more than an hour of a day. (You are but) to proclaim the Message, thus shall any be destroyed except those who transgress?

The Messenger patiently persevere against the adversities and does not make haste with the unbelievers.

50:45  نَّحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَقُولُونَ ۖ وَمَا أَنتَ عَلَيْهِم بِجَبَّارٍ ۖ فَذَكِّرْ بِالْقُرْآنِ مَن يَخَافُ وَعِيدِ

We know better what they say; and you are not a compeller over them. So remind (them) with the Qur’an those who fear My warning!

The Messenger does not forcefully compel people to believe or to do something. He only reminds with Quran.

9:73  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

‘O’ Prophet! Strive with the rejecters and the hypocrites and be strict over them. And their refuge is hell and a bad destination.

The prophet engages the rejectors and hypocrites for their false interpretations about Allah, and is not lenient on them in this matter. The prophet instructs with the Ayahs of Quran. If the Ayahs increase the rejecters and hypocrites in rejection, the prophet deals them with firmness.

8:64  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ حَسْبُكَ اللَّهُ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

O Prophet! Sufficient for you is Allah,-  and unto those who follow you among the believers.

The prophet’s support is basically Allah and after Him the believers who follow him. He is indifferent to worldly powers to support him in his mission.

33:28  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ إِن كُنتُنَّ تُرِدْنَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا وَزِينَتَهَا فَتَعَالَيْنَ أُمَتِّعْكُنَّ وَأُسَرِّحْكُنَّ سَرَاحًا جَمِيلًا

O Prophet! Say to your wives. “If you desire the life of this World, and its adornment,- then come! I will provide it to you and set you free in a beautiful manner.”

33:59  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَن يُعْرَفْنَ فَلَا يُؤْذَيْنَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

O Prophet! say to your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers that they let down upon them their over-garments; this will be more proper, that they may be known, and thus they will not be given trouble; and God is Forgiving, Merciful.

Prophet asks the women of his family and the believing ones to draw an over-garment over their dresses for their safety.

The above are some of Ayahs presented here as an example. All orders in Al-Kitab are basically the practice of the messengers and prophets.

45:6  تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَ اللَّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Such are the Ayats/Signs of Allah, which We rehearse to you in Truth; then in what Hadith/narration they will believe after Allah and His Ayahs?

These are the Ayahs of Allah which are revealed in truth by Allah. Allah then asks on which Hadith/narration, they will believe after Allah and His Ayahs?

Satan/Shaitan/Devil

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

16:98  فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

When you read the Quran/the Reading, seek Allah’s protection from Satan the stoned one.

Allah has warned mankind that Satan is their open enemy and that Satan will eventually be able to lead a majority of mankind to delusion and destruction. Therefore it is imperative for us to be able to identify the attacks of Satan in order to protect ourselves  Especially so, as Satan is relentless in his attacks and he is sitting at the ‘Sirate-Mustaqim’ (Straight Path). Quran gives us a lot of information about Satan for our protection. In this post we will review the Ayahs related to the story of Adam and his pair and the tree from which they ate and lost their place in Janna. Also, we will analyze various aspects of the personality of Satan and his delusion tactics.

38-71-76  إِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي خَالِقٌ بَشَرًا مِّن طِينٍ  فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ  فَسَجَدَ الْمَلَائِكَةُ كُلُّهُمْ أَجْمَعُونَ  إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ اسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ  قَالَ يَا إِبْلِيسُ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَن تَسْجُدَ لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ ۖ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ أَمْ كُنتَ مِنَ الْعَالِينَ  قَالَ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ ۖ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ

When your Lord said to the angels; ‘Surely I am creating a human from clay. When I have made him even and breathed into him from My spirit, then you all fall down prostrating for him.” So the angels prostrated, all of them together, except Iblis who showed arrogance and became from the rejecters. He (Allah) said: O’ Iblis, what prevented you to prostrate for what I have created with my hands. Did you show arrogance or are you from the higher class? He (Iblis) said. “I am better than him. You have created me from fire, and created him from clay.”

In the above Ayahs, we come to know about one aspect of the personality of Satan; The personality called ‘Iblis’. The root word of ‘Iblis’ is (ب ل س ) which means ‘in grief and hurts’. Iblis is the personality who considers himself superior based on criteria not given by Allah. Allah ordered the angels that you all prostrate to human when He breathes into the ‘human/bashar’ from His Sprit. The criteria which Iblis makes to compare, is made by himself for example fire is better than clay. While making the criteria he focuses on the body form and misses the essence/spirit. When he perceives injustice being done to him from things beyond his control, he rebels against Allah and thinks he is justified in doing so because he has been dealt unjustly. The lesson to recognize this aspect of Iblis is that, not to follow in his footsteps and be dejected and complexed in matters on which we have no control.  Creation is only from Allah so there should be no complexes and grudges from Allah, in people in what has been created or provided by Allah.

17:62  قَالَ أَرَأَيْتَكَ هَٰذَا الَّذِي كَرَّمْتَ عَلَيَّ لَئِنْ أَخَّرْتَنِ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَأَحْتَنِكَنَّ ذُرِّيَّتَهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

He (Iblis) said: “Do you see! this is the one you have honored over me! Definitely If you will give me respite till the day of resurrection, I will bring his descendants under my control except a few”.

The word  لَأَحْتَنِكَنَّ  is from root (ح ن ك ) which also means to make worldly experienced. The plan of Iblis/devil is to bring the descendent of Adam under his control by making them going after the worldly life. While Allah has always emphasized upon the Hereafter/Akhira over worldly life.

7:19  وَيَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ فَكُلَا مِنْ حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلَا تَقْرَبَا هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ

And “O Adam You and your pair stay in the garden, thus both of you eat from wherever you wish and do not go near this tree so you will become from the oppressors.

20:117-119  فَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ إِنَّ هَٰذَا عَدُوٌّ لَّكَ وَلِزَوْجِكَ فَلَا يُخْرِجَنَّكُمَا مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ فَتَشْقَىٰ إِنَّ لَكَ أَلَّا تَجُوعَ فِيهَا وَلَا تَعْرَىٰ  وَأَنَّكَ لَا تَظْمَأُ فِيهَا وَلَا تَضْحَىٰ

Then We said. “O Adam! verily, this is an enemy to thee and your pair. So let him not get you both out of the Garden, so that you land in misery. Surely you are not to be hungry and naked in it, and surely you are not to be thirsty and victimized in it.

Adam and his pair were in Al-Janna/the garden. Quran says that what is described as Jannat in Quran is an example (13:35 مَّثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ ۖ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ أُكُلُهَا دَائِمٌ وَظِلُّهَا ۚ تِلْكَ عُقْبَى الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا ۖ وَّعُقْبَى الْكَافِرِينَ النَّارُ ). The example of the Janna in which they were in, had the following characteristics as per Ayahs 20:117-119:

  1. Free from hunger as there is no shortage of food.  Hunger is also associated with the hunger for power, prestige and excelling others. In Janna there is no competition with any one, there-fore there is no desire for man to excel, exceed or compare with any one.
  2. No Nakedness. Nakedness is associated with covering one’s blemishes and weaknesses. In Janna, there is no need to cover ones’ shortcomings as again no comparison with others.
  3. No thirst. Thirst is also associated with ones thirst for knowledge to excel and compete with others. There is no desire in Janna for that.
  4. No victimization. In the example of Janna, people are not victimized as there is no  desire to leave others behind.

As Janna is an example, the tree of Janna is also an example. The example of the exit tree in Janna is something that when you experience it, you lose the Janna and along with it the characteristics mentioned above of Janna.  So this tree. which they were asked to avoid is associated with worldly life. Once they taste it, the protection of Janna which they were enjoying is withdrawn and they are exposed to worldly life. Worldly life is associated with competition with others to excel. They have to strive to compete with others to do better than others. They have to have the hunger and thirst to do better for themselves and get materials things for making their worldly life better. They have to cover themselves for their blemishes and shortcomings from people’s eyes. So, this tree is the tree of worldly life and competition, and after getting the taste of this tree all rigors of worldly life were exposed for them.

20:120  فَوَسْوَسَ إِلَيْهِ الشَّيْطَانُ قَالَ يَا آدَمُ هَلْ أَدُلُّكَ عَلَىٰ شَجَرَةِ الْخُلْدِ وَمُلْكٍ لَّا يَبْلَىٰ

Then Satan tempted him by saying: “O Adam, should I show you the tree of immortality, and a kingdom that will never know any wane?”

Satan tempted Adam and his pair, by suggesting them they should work for their worldly life, so that they become immortals. We often hear similar statements, that we should do something so that world would remember us even after our death. Similarly people have an inclination to leave their progeny behind so that their lineage would continue. However, God advises that what ever is in the world will be left here when you leave the world.

7:20 فَوَسْوَسَ لَهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ لِيُبْدِيَ لَهُمَا مَا وُورِيَ عَنْهُمَا مِن سَوْآتِهِمَا وَقَالَ مَا نَهَاكُمَا رَبُّكُمَا عَنْ هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةِ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَا مَلَكَيْنِ أَوْ تَكُونَا مِنَ الْخَالِدِينَ

Then Shaitan/Satan whispered so that he made for them appear from their ills which were behind them and said “that Your Lord has forbidden from this tree so that you become angels or you become eternal.

Sometimes we hear similar rhetoric that there is no hereafter and those who target hereafter are left behind in the World and this is just an illusion that religions creates to restrain mankind from development.

20:121  أَكَلَا مِنْهَا فَبَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْآتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ الْجَنَّةِ ۚ وَعَصَىٰ آدَمُ رَبَّهُ فَغَوَىٰ

And both ate of (its fruit), and their hidden evils were exposed to one another, and they patched the leaves of the garden (to hide them). Adam disobeyed his Lord, and went astray.

After eating from that tree, Adam and his pair, lost the protections of Janna as mentioned above. When they were exposed to the world and competition with others, they realized their short comings in comparison with others, and like all others started covering their short comings and blemishes from the world. Once they are exposed to the worldly life, they have to endure the hardships therein, and live the worldly life.

2:36  فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ ۖ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۖ وَلَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ

Then did Satan make them slip and got them out of the state (of felicity) in which they had been. We said. “Get down, all,  for you are enemies to one another. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood – for an appointed time.”

After getting out of Jannat, Adam had to live his life on Earth, which is associated with struggle and strife for the worldly life.

36:60  أَلَمْ أَعْهَدْ إِلَيْكُمْ يَا بَنِي آدَمَ أَن لَّا تَعْبُدُوا الشَّيْطَانَ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

“Did I not covenant to you, O Children of Adam, that you will not serve the Satan; for that he is a clear enemy to you?

7:27  يَا بَنِي آدَمَ لَا يَفْتِنَنَّكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ كَمَا أَخْرَجَ أَبَوَيْكُم مِّنَ الْجَنَّةِ يَنزِعُ عَنْهُمَا لِبَاسَهُمَا لِيُرِيَهُمَا سَوْآتِهِمَا ۗ إِنَّهُ يَرَاكُمْ هُوَ وَقَبِيلُهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا تَرَوْنَهُمْ ۗ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

O children of Adam, do not let the Satan dupe you as he did when he caused the eviction of your parents from the Garden, and the removal of their garments to expose their ills. He and his tribe see you, while you do not see them. We appoint the satans as companions of those who do not believe.

In the above Ayat, Allah advises us to be cautious of arguments from Satan to keep us involved in worldly life to the maximum. We are under constant scrutiny from him and the likes of him. Those who don’t believe in Allah’s advise, invariably become companions of Satan.

2:268  الشَّيْطَانُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُم بِالْفَحْشَاءِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَعِدُكُم مَّغْفِرَةً مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلًا ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Satan promises you of poverty and orders you with shameful acts. Allah promises you His forgiveness and bounties. And Allah  is bounteous for all and He knows all things.

Satan tries to scare you of poverty and keeps us involved in worldly affairs so that we are continuously working for this life. He makes doing shameful acts, alluring. While Allah promises forgiveness and bounties for the believers.

Means give to Satan to delude people in the world:

17:63-64  قَالَ اذْهَبْ فَمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ فَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ جَزَاؤُكُمْ جَزَاءً مَّوْفُورًا  وَاسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ مِنْهُم بِصَوْتِكَ وَأَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِم بِخَيْلِكَ وَرَجِلِكَ وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَوْلَادِ وَعِدْهُمْ ۚ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا

He (Allah) said (to Satan): “Go away, whosoever follows you from them, surely Hell is your reward, an abundant reward. And you can excite, with your sound; whosoever you can from them, and bring over them your horses and infantry (i.e overwhelm them with your ideologies), and be their partner in wealth and children. And make promises with them, and Satan promises them nothing except delusion.

The tools by which Satan delude, are the sounds which stirs up emotions, his ideologies, wealth and children i.e the worldly life adornments.

17:65  إِنَّ عِبَادِي لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانٌ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِرَبِّكَ وَكِيلًا

“Surely My servants, over them, you will never have any authority and sufficient advocate is your Lord.

7:16-17  قَالَ فَبِمَا أَغْوَيْتَنِي لَأَقْعُدَنَّ لَهُمْ صِرَاطَكَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ  ثُمَّ لَآتِيَنَّهُم مِّن بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ وَعَنْ أَيْمَانِهِمْ وَعَن شَمَائِلِهِمْ ۖ وَلَا تَجِدُ أَكْثَرَهُمْ شَاكِرِينَ

He (Satan) said. “so with what you have tempted me, definitely I will sit on Your straight path for them. Then definitely I will come to them from between their front and from their behind and about their right and about their left and you will not find the majority of them thankful.”

Satan sits on Allah’s ‘Sirate Mustaqim’/straight path. He is not sitting in places of shameful and criminal acts as there are others substituting him at those places.  As soon as one starts inclining towards the right path, Satan’s relentless attacks shall target him. Satan will give argument from both left and right side in order to sway him from the right path. The only way to guard off is to recognize Satan and his schemes is through the Ayahs of Allah.

4:19  وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمْ وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمْ وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ آذَانَ الْأَنْعَامِ وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ الشَّيْطَانَ وَلِيًّا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ خَسِرَ خُسْرَانًا مُّبِينًا

“And I will lead them astray, and I will make them wishful and I will order them so definitely they will cut off the ears of cattle, and I will order them so definitely they will alter the creation of Allah. And who takes the Satan a protector from other than Allah then without doubt he is at loss, a clear loss.

Satan promised that he will definitely make people desirous in the world. He will order them to make changes in the creations of Allah. The reference of phrase about ‘cutting ears of cattle’,  is metaphorical. In some languages this phrase means to ‘exceed in mischievous antics in a negative sense. On Satan’s instigation, people would exceed in carnal behaviors which can even put animals to shame.

7:18  قَالَ اخْرُجْ مِنْهَا مَذْءُومًا مَّدْحُورًا ۖ لَّمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

(Allah) said. “Get out from this, disgraced and expelled. I will fill Hell with all of you, whoever follows you from them,-

16:63  تَاللَّهِ لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمَمٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمُ الْيَوْمَ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

By Allah, We sent (Our messengers) to nations before you; but Satan made, their own acts seem alluring. He is also their patron today, but they shall have a most grievous penalty.

Satan provides justification to people in order to make their bad acts alluring in their eyes.

5:90  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

The works of Satan are Intoxicants and gambling, stones, statues and arrows; an abomination,- of Satan’s handwork. eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper.

The touch of Satan causes psychological problems. Satan is not physical.

2:275  الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا ۗ وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا ۚ فَمَن جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىٰ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Those who eat Ar-Riba/the increase  do not take a stand except like that he stands to madness from the touch of Satan. That is because they say that Al-Bai/the deal  is the example of Ar-Riba . And Allah has made Al-Bai/the deal  lawful and has made Ar-Riba/the increase unlawful so he to whom comes the sermon from his lord then forbids, that is past for him. And his affair is towards Allah, and whosoever returns , then they are the companions of the fire. They will live forever in it.

17:27  إِنَّ الْمُبَذِّرِينَ كَانُوا إِخْوَانَ الشَّيَاطِينِ ۖ وَكَانَ الشَّيْطَانُ لِرَبِّهِ كَفُورًا

Squanderers are the brothers of satans, and the Satan is to his Lord, a rejecter.

3:175  إِنَّمَا ذَٰلِكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

Verily it is the Satan who make you fear his protectors so do not be afraid of them, but fear Me, if you are the believers.

5:91  إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاءَ فِي الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلَاةِ ۖ فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ

Satan intends to create among you enmity and hatred through intoxicants and gambling, and to divert you from the remembrance of Allah and the prayer. Will you therefore not desist?

58:19  اسْتَحْوَذَ عَلَيْهِمُ الشَّيْطَانُ فَأَنسَاهُمْ ذِكْرَ اللَّهِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ حِزْبُ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ أَلَا إِنَّ حِزْبَ الشَّيْطَانِ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

Satan has got the better of them so he has made them forget the remembrance of Allah. They are the Party of the Satan. Truly, it is the Party of the Satan that will perish!

7:30  فَرِيقًا هَدَىٰ وَفَرِيقًا حَقَّ عَلَيْهِمُ الضَّلَالَةُ ۗ إِنَّهُمُ اتَّخَذُوا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ

One party He (Allah) has guided, others, on them the loss of the way has been established; as they took the satans, not Allah, for their protectors, and assume that they are the guided ones.

34:20  وَلَقَدْ صَدَّقَ عَلَيْهِمْ إِبْلِيسُ ظَنَّهُ فَاتَّبَعُوهُ إِلَّا فَرِيقًا مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

And without doubt Iblis/Devil made true his conjecture over them, so they followed him except a division from the believers.

16:98-99 فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ  إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ سُلْطَانٌ عَلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ  إِنَّمَا سُلْطَانُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَوَلَّوْنَهُ وَالَّذِينَ هُم بِهِ مُشْرِكُونَ

When you read the Quran/the Reading, seek Allah’s protection from Satan the stoned one. No authority has he over those who believe and put their trust in their Lord. His authority is over those only, who take him as protector and who join partners with Allah.

7:200-202  وَإِمَّا يَنزَغَنَّكَ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ نَزْغٌ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا إِذَا مَسَّهُمْ طَائِفٌ مِّنَ الشَّيْطَانِ تَذَكَّرُوا فَإِذَا هُم مُّبْصِرُونَ  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا إِذَا مَسَّهُمْ طَائِفٌ مِّنَ الشَّيْطَانِ تَذَكَّرُوا فَإِذَا هُم مُّبْصِرُونَ

And if you are incited from the Satan to incitement, so seek refuge with Allah, surely He is all hearing, all knowing. Those who are pious/take guard, when any evil from the Satan touches them, they remember (Allah), then they get the insight. Their (Satan’s) brothers keep on expanding them in the wrong and they do not relax.

If any evil thought comes across your mind, remember Allah at that moment.

Satan efforts with prophets and messengers and Golden words:

22:52  وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ وَلَا نَبِيٍّ إِلَّا إِذَا تَمَنَّىٰ أَلْقَى الشَّيْطَانُ فِي أُمْنِيَّتِهِ فَيَنسَخُ اللَّهُ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ ثُمَّ يُحْكِمُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ  لِّيَجْعَلَ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ فِتْنَةً لِّلَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَفِي شِقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ

And We have not sent  before you a Messenger nor a Prophet except when he wishes, Satan encounters in his wishes. So Allah cancels what Satan encounters, then Allah confirms His Ayahs/Signs and Allah is knowing, wise. That He may make the suggestions thrown in by Satan, a captivation for those in whose hearts is a disease and who are hardened of heart. verily the wrong-doers are in a schism far (from the Truth).

6:112-113  وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ عَدُوًّا شَيَاطِينَ الْإِنسِ وَالْجِنِّ يُوحِي بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ زُخْرُفَ الْقَوْلِ غُرُورًا ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ مَا فَعَلُوهُ ۖ فَذَرْهُمْ وَمَا يَفْتَرُونَ  وَلِتَصْغَىٰ إِلَيْهِ أَفْئِدَةُ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ وَلِيَرْضَوْهُ وَلِيَقْتَرِفُوا مَا هُم مُّقْتَرِفُونَ

And likewise ,We have made for every Prophet the satans of mankind and the satans of jin-kind an enemy, some of them inspire golden words (as sayings of prophets) on some, for the purpose of delusion, and if your Lord had willed they would have not done it, so leave them and what they have invented. To such (deceit) let the hearts of those incline (towards those golden words), who have no faith in the hereafter. let them delight in it, and let them earn from it what they may.

43:36-37  وَمَن يَعْشُ عَن ذِكْرِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ نُقَيِّضْ لَهُ شَيْطَانًا فَهُوَ لَهُ قَرِينٌ  وَإِنَّهُمْ لَيَصُدُّونَهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ

And whosoever turns away from the remembrance of the most Merciful, We appoint for him a Satan to be his constant companion. And they will definitely oppose  about the way (of Allah) and they will think that they are the guided ones.

Any one, who is not in constant touch with God remembrance/Quran, Satan will become his companion and he will be assuming that he is the guided one. The way to  Allah is through His Book. The obstacles creators in the way of Allah are termed as satans/shiateen. Recognize, what are these obstacles; Are there some who say that you cannot understand this Book unless you get this knowledge or that degree or you know about situation when the Aya was revealed or you get knowledge of history books etc.

23:96-98  ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ السَّيِّئَةَ ۚ نَحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَصِفُونَ  وَقُل رَّبِّ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ هَمَزَاتِ الشَّيَاطِينِ  وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ رَبِّ أَن يَحْضُرُونِ

Repel the ills with that which is good. We know very well with what they describe. And say O my Lord I seek refuge with you from the spurs/impulsive action of satans. And I seek refuge with you O my Lord! that they (satans) attend me.

Impulses from Satan, do much damage as people normally act impulsively on them. It is advisable to ask Allah’s refuge from Satan’s impulses.

Khannas:

Khuannas is one who withdraws and leaves you in a lurch. This is another aspect of the personality of Satan.

114-4-6  مِن شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ  الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ  مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ

(say I seek refuge) from the mischief of the Whisperer (of Evil), who withdraws (after his whisper), who whispers into the hearts of Mankind, Among Jinns and among men.

He (khunnas) can be both from Jinns (hidden/covered) and Inns (people)

14:22  وَقَالَ الشَّيْطَانُ لَمَّا قُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَعَدَكُمْ وَعْدَ الْحَقِّ وَوَعَدتُّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ ۖ وَمَا كَانَ لِيَ عَلَيْكُم مِّن سُلْطَانٍ إِلَّا أَن دَعَوْتُكُمْ فَاسْتَجَبْتُمْ لِي ۖ فَلَا تَلُومُونِي وَلُومُوا أَنفُسَكُم ۖ مَّا أَنَا بِمُصْرِخِكُمْ وَمَا أَنتُم بِمُصْرِخِيَّ ۖ إِنِّي كَفَرْتُ بِمَا أَشْرَكْتُمُونِ مِن قَبْلُ ۗ إِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

And Satan says when the order is complete,  “Surely Allah promised you the promise of truth and I also made promise with you then I turned back on my promise to you,  and I did not have any authority over you except to invite you, so you accepted my invitation, so you do not blame me and blame your self. My complaining cannot help you, nor can your complaining help me. Surely I reject with what you have been associating me from before. Surely for the oppressors is a grievous punishment.

When you have acted upon Satan’s advise then he will go back at once and will make you repent over your misdeed.

59:16  كَمَثَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِذْ قَالَ لِلْإِنسَانِ اكْفُرْ فَلَمَّا كَفَرَ قَالَ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّنكَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Like the Satan, when he says to man, “reject”. but when (man) rejects, (Satan) says, “I am free of you. I do fear Allah, the Lord of the Worlds!”

2:208  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

O’ People who believe, Enter into Peace completely; and follow not the footsteps of Satan for he is an open enemy to you.

Allah ordered the angels to prostrate when he invoked His Sprit in Adam, but Iblis did not look at the sprit (of the message), instead he saw only the body form of Adam, and in his later conversation with Allah he mentioned only the body form and not the Sprit. This is exactly what happens  now , whenever the message of Allah is delivered to people, they don’t look at the message (which is Ayats of Allah) instead they start looking at the person who is delivering the message and find faults in him. This happened with all the prophets mentioned in Quran. That’s why Allah forbids that don’t follow the footsteps of Satan.

2:169  إِنَّمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِالسُّوءِ وَالْفَحْشَاءِ وَأَن تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

For he commands you what is evil and shameful, and that you should say about Allah that of which you have no knowledge.

6:43  فَلَوْلَا إِذْ جَاءَهُم بَأْسُنَا تَضَرَّعُوا وَلَٰكِن قَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

Then why it was not that when Our suffering reached them they did not show humility? On the contrary their hearts became hardened, and Satan made their acts seem alluring to them.

36:60-62  أَلَمْ أَعْهَدْ إِلَيْكُمْ يَا بَنِي آدَمَ أَن لَّا تَعْبُدُوا الشَّيْطَانَ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ  وَأَنِ اعْبُدُونِي ۚ هَٰذَا صِرَاطٌ مُّسْتَقِيمٌ  وَلَقَدْ أَضَلَّ مِنكُمْ جِبِلًّا كَثِيرًا ۖ أَفَلَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْقِلُونَ

“Did I not covenant to you, O Children of Adam, that you will not serve the Satan; for that he is a clear enemy to you? and that you serve me, this is a straight path and without doubt he led astray the temperament of  majority from you, so will you not at all use your intellect?”

Sometimes a person does a bad act for experiment sake and gets hooked on it. After sometimes the bad act would become second nature to him i.e ingrained in him and then will be very difficult to get rid of.

Was Iblis a Jinn or Angel?

2:34  وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ

And when, We said to the angels. “Bow down to Adam” and they all bowed down except for Iblis, he refused and was arrogant. He was from the Kafireen/rejecters.

Allah ordered the angels to bow down to Adam so they all bowed down except for Iblis. The order to bow down was to angels and they all did so except for one of them who was Iblis. After that he was termed as a rejecter.

18:50  وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ كَانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ….

And when! We said to the angels, “Bow down for Adam:” they bowed down except Iblis. He was/became from the jinns…..

So Iblis, after he disobeyed the order of the Lord he was termed as rejecter in 2:34  and a Jinn in 18:50. He is termed a Jinn, because his personality is hidden from man and he poses himself as his well wisher while suggesting evil to man.

Notes:

Link to a lecture on Satan/Devil from scholar brother Mohammad Shaikh:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/09/09/satan-devil-2004/

https://www.iipccanada.com/category/urdu-video-lectures/page/8/

Ayat un Noor/The verse of the light

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

24:35  اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ ۖ الْمِصْبَاحُ فِي زُجَاجَةٍ ۖ الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ زَيْتُونَةٍ لَّا شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلَا غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِيءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ ۚ نُّورٌ عَلَىٰ نُورٍ ۗ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

Allah is the Light/reflection of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His light is of a niche and in it is a lamp. The lamp enclosed in glass. the glass as it were a brilliant planet. Lit from a blessed olive tree, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil is about to light up, though fire did not touch it. Light upon Light! Allah guides whom He wills to His light. Allah sets forth parables for people, and Allah  knows all things.

Light is a parable of knowledge and reflection while darkness is a parable of ignorance. Everything in the Universe reflects upon an intelligent design with which it has been created. Every single thing and its place in the perfect grand scheme of the Universe, helps us reflect on the Creator’s wisdom. From the grandest to the most minute part of the Universe including living beings, these complex intricate systems, working harmoniously together, speaks volumes about the intelligent design of the Creator. Science is making every day new discoveries about what has been created by the Creator. The discoveries are mind boggling and still we know that we know so little.  We don’t have any idea about the farthest frontier of the Universe, nor about the smallest particle on the micro scale. All systems within living organisms and the universe are so meticulously designed to work in harmony, it is unthinkable for a believer to consider it coming together as an act of random chance without the intervention of an intelligent designer. This is what the Ayat states that Allah is the light/reflection of the skies and the earth, i.e every thing in the Universe bears the signature of the Creator and Allah’s design is reflected from everything in the Universe.

This light and reflection of Allah is in something which is a parable of a niche, i.e some people may not be able to reflect upon it.  The unbelievers and atheists assume that the intricately balanced system of the Universe came into existence by random act of chance and is running without the intervention of an intelligent Designer. So they are unable to see the reflection or light of Allah in the Universe. The believers however are able to perceive this light in the niche. For them, this light and wisdom is the example of a lamp which is a source of light. The fuel of this light bearing lamp is their faith, which is the example of a blessed beneficial olive tree. They see the light through the parable of bright glass i.e not directly exposed to it, but they are able to perceive the light by inference. The light of Allah is knowledge/wisdom and reflection which is not dependent upon worldly source of knowledge. It’s fuel is the blessed faith, focused on the Creator and does not waiver to East or West side. Pure faith is able to manifest without the need of a  trigger or ignition every time. The faith leads to the light of Wisdom. Allah increases the light of Wisdom for those who strive to see this light and keeps on increasing it for their guidance. Allah teaches with the help of examples and He is the knower of all things.

 

Evolution

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

32-7-9  الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ ۖ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الْإِنسَانِ مِن طِينٍ  ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِن سُلَالَةٍ مِّن مَّاءٍ مَّهِينٍ  ثُمَّ سَوَّاهُ وَنَفَخَ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِهِ ۖ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ ۚ قَلِيلًا مَّا تَشْكُرُونَ

He Who has perfected everything which He has created and He began the creation of man from clay/dust. Then He made his progeny from an extract of an insignificant fluid. Then He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him from His Spirit. And He gave you (the faculties of) hearing and sight and heart (feelings), little thanks do ye give

The above Ayat informs us that the creation of man started from clay/dust. Dust or clay is in-organic material. From in-organic matter to organic matter and then into present form of human being, stage after stage of creations (71:14, 84:19) may span several hundred million years. What course did this stage by stage evolution took, we don’t know as yet. The famous Miller-Urey experiment gives some hint about the first step, i.e the possibility of creation of organic matter from in-organic matter.

The Miller–Urey experiment[1] (or Miller experiment)[2] was a chemical experiment conducted in 1952, that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions. The experiment supported the hypothesis that putative conditions on the primitive Earth favoured chemical reactions that synthesized more complex organic compounds from simpler inorganic precursors.

After Miller’s death in 2007, scientists examining sealed vials preserved from the original experiments were able to show that there were actually well over 20 different amino acids produced in Miller’s original experiments. That is considerably more than what Miller originally reported, and more than the 20 that naturally occur in life.[7] More-recent evidence suggests that Earth’s original atmosphere might have had a different composition from the gas used in the Miller experiment. But prebiotic experiments continue to produce racemic mixtures of simple to complex compounds under varying conditions.[8]

The experiments showed that simple organic compounds of building blocks of proteins and other macromolecules can be formed from gases with the addition of energy.

The living organisms undergo changes in their genes according to their environment and they change and adopt according to the changes in their environment. Genes are the codes of the program according to which the living organisms grow, age and die. How the evolution took place since the beginning of life on Earth, is still not understood properly and there are many theories about it. Quran tells us that Allah has created man from different stages and the first stage was dust. Dust and mud is in-organic material. So the beginning of evolution was from in-organic materials. Quran does not mention the time it took from mud to the formation of homo sapiens; it could have taken hundreds of millions of years in the making and we don’t know if it involved going through different animal stages or not. Science has also not found out for sure, as yet.

7:11    وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ صَوَّرْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ لَمْ يَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ

And We created you all, then We gave you (all), shapes; then We said to the angels to bow down to Adam, and they bowed down; except for Iblis; he was not to be of those who bowed down.

The above Ayat states that after creating us and figuring us, Allah gave the order to angels to bow down to Adam. So it means that mankind had existed physically when Allah breathed his Sprit into the Khalifa/vicegerent on Earth.

What we dont’ know, is the complete story of evolution. We don’t even find evidence of mid way species e.g lets say if a specie is changing from form A to B, it would undergo transition stages. What we find is fully transformed species and not sure if we have evidence of transition forms.

The main standoff between Darwinism and religion is not that religion excludes evolution. It is mainly that Darwinism wants to exclude God from evolution. It postulates that evolution takes place without intervention of God. While the Book tells us that evolution is the mechanism by which God creates. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pZyRgYZe6tM)

71-14  وَقَدْ خَلَقَكُمْ أَطْوَارًا

He (Allah) has created you in stages.

76:1  هَلْ أَتَىٰ عَلَى الْإِنسَانِ حِينٌ مِّنَ الدَّهْرِ لَمْ يَكُن شَيْئًا مَّذْكُورًا

 There surely came over man a period of time when he was a thing not worth mentioning.

71:17  وَاللَّهُ أَنبَتَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ نَبَاتًا

And God sprouted/grew you from the Earth (as) a growth

84:19 لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ

Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage.

29:20  قُلْ سِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَانظُرُوا كَيْفَ بَدَأَ الْخَلْقَ ۚ ثُمَّ اللَّهُ يُنشِئُ النَّشْأَةَ الْآخِرَةَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Say. “Travel through the earth and see how Allah did originate creation; so will Allah produce a later creation, for Allah has power over all things.

Allah ask us to explore the land to find out evidence of how the creation began on Earth.

22:5  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّنَ الْبَعْثِ فَإِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ عَلَقَةٍ ثُمَّ مِن مُّضْغَةٍ مُّخَلَّقَةٍ وَغَيْرِ مُخَلَّقَةٍ لِّنُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ ۚ وَنُقِرُّ فِي الْأَرْحَامِ مَا نَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ثُمَّ نُخْرِجُكُمْ طِفْلًا ثُمَّ لِتَبْلُغُوا أَشُدَّكُمْ ۖ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُتَوَفَّىٰ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰ أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ لِكَيْلَا يَعْلَمَ مِن بَعْدِ عِلْمٍ شَيْئًا ۚ وَتَرَى الْأَرْضَ هَامِدَةً فَإِذَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا الْمَاءَ اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ وَأَنبَتَتْ مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ

O’ Mankind! if you are in doubt about the raising, then surely We created you from dust, then from a sperm, then from a clot, then from a lump of flesh, complete in make and incomplete, that We may make clear to you; and We cause what We please to stay in the wombs till an appointed time, then We bring you forth as babies, then that you may attain your maturity; and of you is he, who is caused to die, and of you is he, who is brought back to the worst part of life, so that after having knowledge he does not know anything; and you see the earth sterile land, but when We send down on it the water, it stirs and swells and brings forth of every kind a beautiful herbage.

 

 

 

 

Movement of Mountains

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

27:88    وَتَرَى الْجِبَالَ تَحْسَبُهَا جَامِدَةً وَهِيَ تَمُرُّ مَرَّ السَّحَابِ ۚ صُنْعَ اللَّهِ الَّذِي أَتْقَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ ۚ إِنَّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَفْعَلُونَ

You see the mountains and think them as unmoving, but they move like the movement of clouds. The artistry of Allah, who perfected everything, for He is aware of what you do.

 

The above Ayat states that the mountains apparently look fixed, however their movement is similar to the movement of clouds.

 

The Earth as a sphere, comprises layers one over another. Mountains, and in general the Earth’s crust is part of the lithosphere. This lithosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth. It is a relatively non-dense, solid and rigid piece of rock. The lithosphere lies on top of the asthenosphere, which is a more ductile layer composed of the upper mantle. In a sense, the lithosphere “floats” on the asthenosphere. You can think of ice cubes floating on water, or a better comparison would be solid cold chocolate floating on warm (but still solid) chocolate.

Inside the Earth

The Earth’s interior is composed of several layers. The deepest layer is a solid iron ball, about 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometers) in diameter. Although this inner core is white hot, the pressure is so high the iron cannot melt.

Above the inner core is the outer core, a shell of liquid iron. This layer is cooler but still very hot, perhaps 4,000 to 5,000 degrees Celsius. It too is composed mostly of iron, plus substantial amounts of sulfur and nickel. It creates the Earth’s magnetic field and is about 1,400 miles (2,300 kilometers) thick.

River of Rock

The next layer is the mantle. Many people think of this as lava, but it’s actually rock. The rock is so hot, however, that it flows under pressure, like road tar. This creates very slow-moving currents as hot rock rises from the depths and cooler rock descends.

The mantle is about 1,800 miles (2,900 kilometers) thick and appears to be divided into two layers: the upper mantle and the lower mantle. The boundary between the two lies about 465 miles (750 kilometers) beneath the Earth’s surface.

The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth. It is the familiar landscape on which we live: rocks, soil, and seabed. It ranges from about five miles (eight kilometers) thick beneath the oceans to an average of 25 miles (40 kilometers) thick beneath the continents.

Currents within the mantle have broken the crust into blocks, called plates, which slowly move around, colliding to build mountains or rifting apart to form new seafloor.

Continents are composed of relatively light blocks that float high on the mantle, like gigantic, slow-moving icebergs. Seafloor is made of a denser rock called basalt, which presses deeper into the mantle, producing basins that can fill with water.

(https://www.geolsoc.org.uk/Education-and-Careers/Ask-a-Geologist/Continents-Supercontinents-and-the-Earths-Crust/Mountain-Roots)

 

Image result for Do mountains have roots

 

21:31  وَجَعَلْنَا فِي الْأَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِهِمْ وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا فِجَاجًا سُبُلًا لَّعَلَّهُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ

And We have set on the earth firmaments, so that it should sway with them, and We have made therein broad highways so that they may receive guidance.

The above Ayat is usually translated with an extra negation added while it may be a possibility that the Ayat is referring to the tilt of the Earth. We know that Earth is tilted on its axis and this tilt gives the seasons on Earth.

Without the extra negation added, the above Ayat states that Allah has put firmaments or pegs so that the Earth should sway with them. Could be some thing for further research to find out if the mountains have a role in keeping the tilt of Earth on its axis, something similar to shim pieces.

 

Notes:

Some relevant information and their links are given below:

Mountain ranges are the result of continental collision. When two plates carrying continental crust converge, crustal rocks are folded and faulted. The result is deformed, thickened crust. This thicker crust rests on the underlying mantle, floating on the denser mantle rocks just as an iceberg floats in water. Mountains also resemble icebergs in that the part you see is much smaller than the part hidden beneath the Earth’s surface. The high topography of mountain ranges is mirrored by a much larger crustal root beneath. The height of mountains depends on the thickness of the crust, and the difference in density between the crust and the mantle. These relationships are part of the principle of isostasy, which governs how icebergs, mountains, and all other objects float.
Mountains, exert less gravitational pull than they should do because they have roots. Their less dense material extends down into the earth, in whose denser interior they float like icebergs in water.
A link with useful information is given below;

Earth’s tectonic plates are in constant motion. Their movement is driven by heat within the Earth. The deep Earth is very hot, while its surface is quite cool. This causes hot material within the Earth to rise, until it reaches the surface where it moves sideways, cools, then sinks. This circular motion is called convection. Convection within the mantle drives the motion of the overlying plates.

‘Nafs’ as conscious mind

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The word ‘Nafs’ in Al-Quran is used in the meaning of ‘psyche’ or ‘consciousness’ which is accountable for its orders. What choices we make or what decisions we take consciously, are by our ‘Nafs/Psyche’ and we will be accountable for these actions. When we are asleep our Nafs/consciousness is dead. Anything we do, during your sleep or unconscious state, we will not be held accountable for it. The below Ayas 39:42 and 6:50, define the characteristics of Nafs as a conscious state of mind.

39:42  اللَّهُ يَتَوَفَّى الْأَنفُسَ حِينَ مَوْتِهَا وَالَّتِي لَمْ تَمُتْ فِي مَنَامِهَا ۖ فَيُمْسِكُ الَّتِي قَضَىٰ عَلَيْهَا الْمَوْتَ وَيُرْسِلُ الْأُخْرَىٰ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

It is Allah who cause to die/complete the nafs/phyche at the time of death; and those whose time of death has not come (He causes these Nafs to die/ be completed) during their sleep. Then those (Nafoos) on whom He has passed the decree of death, He prevents (from returning to life), but the rest He sends until a term appointed; Verily in this are Signs for those who ponder.

6:60  وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَتَوَفَّاكُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا جَرَحْتُم بِالنَّهَارِ ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُكُمْ فِيهِ لِيُقْضَىٰ أَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّى ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

It is He who makes you (your Nafs/psyche) to die by night, and He knows of all that you do by the day. He raises you up again in it; so that a term appointed is fulfilled; In the end unto Him will be your return; then will He inform you of all that you used to do.

Nafs is the psyche/psychology of a person. The nafs is capable of both corruption and obedience to God. The one who puts efforts in purifying the Nafs will be successful in the eyes of the Lord.

91:7-10  وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا  فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا  قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّاهَا  وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّاهَا

By the Nafs/pshyce, and what shapes it, So He transmitted (to) it its corruption, and its obedience, Truly he succeeds who purifies it (the Nafs), and he fails who corrupts it (nafs)

The Nafs/psyche is prone to give orders of evil and corruption, unless with the help of God. The help of God comes to he, who tries to purify his Nafs (91:9)

12:53  وَمَا أُبَرِّئُ نَفْسِي ۚ إِنَّ النَّفْسَ لَأَمَّارَةٌ بِالسُّوءِ إِلَّا مَا رَحِمَ رَبِّي ۚ إِنَّ رَبِّي غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

“Nor do I absolve my own nafs (of blame). the Nafs/psyche certainly orders (to do) evil, unless on whom my Lord bestows His Mercy,  but surely my Lord is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.”

A child Nafs/psyche is not fully matured, therefore its is not considered accountable for its deeds as it is not considered a (matured) Nafs in Quran.

18:74  فَانطَلَقَا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا لَقِيَا غُلَامًا فَقَتَلَهُ قَالَ أَقَتَلْتَ نَفْسًا زَكِيَّةً بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ لَّقَدْ جِئْتَ شَيْئًا نُّكْرًا

Then they proceeded, until, when they met a child, he slew him. Moses said. “Did you slay an innocent Nafs without a Nafs? Truly you came up with a strange thing”

The Nafs/psyche is reprimanding/reproaching, unless one purifies it to become contended by keeping a clean conscience.

75:2  وَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ

But nay! I call to witness the reproaching Nafs

89:27-30  يَا أَيَّتُهَا النَّفْسُ الْمُطْمَئِنَّةُ  ارْجِعِي إِلَىٰ رَبِّكِ رَاضِيَةً مَّرْضِيَّةً  فَادْخُلِي فِي عِبَادِي  وَادْخُلِي جَنَّتِي

“O you the satisfied Nafs/psyche! Come to your Lord,- well pleased (yourself), and well-pleasing unto Him! Enter, in My servants! and, enter in My gardens! “

To be overcome by powerful influences of one’s environment of corruption and disbelief  and not taking corrective actions to control one’s Nafs, shall be considered as being unjust to one’s nafs (phyche)

4:97  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنفُسِهِمْ قَالُوا فِيمَ كُنتُمْ ۖ قَالُوا كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ قَالُوا أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُوا فِيهَا ۚ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا

Verily, when angels are completing/taking lives of those who were unjust to their nafs (psyche), they say. “In what (plight) were you?” They reply. “We were weak in the earth.” They say. “Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to have migrated?” For such the abode is in Hell,- What an evil abode! –

To be killed in the way of Allah, means that our Nafs/psyche is killed by us following orders of Allah. For example, our Nafs could be fond of doing things forbidden by Allah, then after getting Spirit of Allahs Ayats, we abstain our self from them and kill our nafs and its internal desires abstaining from evil. After killing our own Nafs and with the help of Spirit of Ayas, we then fight an intellectual fight with the Nafoos of other people.

9:111  إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ ۚ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ ۖ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ ۚ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بَايَعْتُم بِهِ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

Surely Allah has purchased from the believers their Nafs and their wealth,  (in return) is gardens for them. They fight in the way of Allah thus they kill (their nafs) and get killed (their nafs). A promise on Him in truth in At-Taurah / The Law and Al-Injeel / The Good news and in Al-Quran / The Reading. And who can fulfill with his promise than Allah, thus rejoice with your deal that you bargained with Him, and that is the supreme achievement.

When one has killed his own Nafs with Haq/Truth, only then he would be able to kill others Nafs/psyche with truth. Believers strive to sell their Nafs to Allah. After this sale, only Allah’s Will should remain in the Nafs.  There is a difference between believers killing their Nafs and rejecters killing their Nafs. Believers are killing their Nafs so that it is purchased by Allah and their self is nullified. Rejecters do the opposite, their Nafoos are not purchased by Allah.  Their Nafoos are their desires. Allah does not purchase their Nafoos and their Nafoos are dead in the eyes of Allah. One indication for successful sale of Nafs, is that once you kill an evil in your Nafs/psyche, the desire of it should not re-occur. If this desire reoccurs, it is an indication that the evil was not killed properly and Allah has not purchased your Nafs and you still have to make more effort *

Notes:

Lecture by Scholar Mohammad Shaikh on killing of Nafs:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/11/06/killing-2008/

 

 

Maula

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

‘Maula’ (مَوْلَا) means helper/protector. Al-Kitab states Allah as Maula Haq (the Maula of Truth) for the people.  Allah has declared that He is the Maula Al-Haq for the people and the other maulas, the people call upon, are batil/false (31:30). Allah has declared upon the prophet to proclaim that he does not have authority for any benefit or harm for the people (72:21). Nor the prophet has the knowledge of Ghaib or unseen because of which he could hear people in his absence (7:188). Also Allah has informed people that the other people they call upon are only people like them (7:194).

3:150 بَلِ اللَّهُ مَوْلَاكُمْ ۖ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ النَّاصِرِينَ

Instead, Allah is your Maula/protector, and He is the best of helpers.

8:40  وَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَاكُمْ ۚ نِعْمَ الْمَوْلَىٰ وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ

If they refuse, be sure that Allah is your Maula/Protector – the best to protect and the best to help.

9:51  قُل لَّن يُصِيبَنَا إِلَّا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَنَا هُوَ مَوْلَانَا ۚ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ

Say. “Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us. He is our Maula/protector”,  and on Allah let the believers should put their trust.

10:30  هُنَالِكَ تَبْلُو كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا أَسْلَفَتْ ۚ وَرُدُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلَاهُمُ الْحَقِّ ۖ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ

There will every nafs/pshyche get (the fruits of) the deeds it sent before. They will be brought back to Allah their Maula Al-Haq/ Rightful Protector, and their invented falsehoods will leave them in the lurch.

Allah is the protector of those who believe that Allah is their Maula, and those who reject and may consider others as their Maulas, Allah is not the Maula/protector of them.

47:11  ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَأَنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ لَا مَوْلَىٰ لَهُمْ

That is because Allah is the Maula/protector of those who believe, but those who reject, have no protector.

44:41  يَوْمَ لَا يُغْنِي مَوْلًى عَن مَّوْلًى شَيْئًا وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

The Day when no protector can avail his client in aught, and no help can they receive.

Maulas other than Allah, can not really help.

3:79  مَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَن يُؤْتِيَهُ اللَّهُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ ثُمَّ يَقُولَ لِلنَّاسِ كُونُوا عِبَادًا لِّي مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِن كُونُوا رَبَّانِيِّينَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تُعَلِّمُونَ الْكِتَابَ وَبِمَا كُنتُمْ تَدْرُسُونَ

It is not for a man whom is given the Book, and Wisdom, and the Prophet-hood; should say to people. “Be you my servants rather than Allah’s”. on the contrary (He would say) “Be you the servants of the Lord. For you have taught the Book and you have studied it.”

A messenger of Allah, never would say to people to be his servants or to make him their Maula. He would direct the focus of the people to Allah, as this is what Allah’s Books is about.

7:188  قُل لَّا أَمْلِكُ لِنَفْسِي نَفْعًا وَلَا ضَرًّا إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَلَوْ كُنتُ أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ لَاسْتَكْثَرْتُ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ وَمَا مَسَّنِيَ السُّوءُ ۚ إِنْ أَنَا إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ وَبَشِيرٌ لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Say. “I have no power over any good or harm to myself except as Allah wills. If I had knowledge of the ghaib/unseen, I should have multiplied all goods, and no evil should have touched me. I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings to those who have faith.”

Allah asks the Messenger to declare that he does not possess power for any good or harm, nor he has the knowledge of unseen. Had he such knowledge he would have got a lot of goodies. The role of the Messenger is to be a bringer of glad tidings and warner to the people.

72:21  قُلْ إِنِّي لَا أَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ ضَرًّا وَلَا رَشَدًا

Say, “Behold, I do not own the power to harm or enforce enlightenment upon you.”

The prophet declared that it is not for him any harm or good for the people. When prophet does not have this power, is it imaginable that any other person can possess such power over other people?

18:44  هُنَالِكَ الْوَلَايَةُ لِلَّهِ الْحَقِّ ۚ هُوَ خَيْرٌ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ عُقْبًا

Here Al-Walayat/the protection is only Allah’s, the True One; He is best in (the giving of) reward and best in requiting.

7:194  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ عِبَادٌ أَمْثَالُكُمْ ۖ فَادْعُوهُمْ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Verily those whom you call upon besides Allah are servants like you. Call upon them, and let them respond to you, if you are (indeed) truthful!