The story of Talut and Jalut

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Al-Quran gives an account of a group in Bani-Israeel. There was a prophet of Allah in this group. They asked the prophet to appoint a king/leader for them so that they fight in the cause of Allah. In previous posts we have seen that when Al-Quran mentions ‘fight in the cause of Allah’, it is never physical war or fighting. This fighting is always ideological fighting (please see posts ‘non-physical fighting 1-3). We can state in this case with confidence that the account of fighting in this story is ideological fight, on the basis of negation by Allah of speculation of angels that the khalifa of Allah promotes bloodshed on earth (2:30). These people who believed with the prophet, as usual, had been thrown out of their circles and even their families may have abandoned them, which is evident from their statement in below ayahs. This is a usual scenario, when people revert to the true teachings of the prophet and Allah’s book they are thrown out of their circles of faith and labeled ‘ infidels’.

2:246-247 أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الْمَلَإِ مِن بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مِن بَعْدِ مُوسَىٰ إِذْ قَالُوا لِنَبِيٍّ لَّهُمُ ابْعَثْ لَنَا مَلِكًا نُّقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۖ قَالَ هَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِن كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ أَلَّا تُقَاتِلُوا ۖ قَالُوا وَمَا لَنَا أَلَّا نُقَاتِلَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَقَدْ أُخْرِجْنَا مِن دِيَارِنَا وَأَبْنَائِنَا ۖ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقِتَالُ تَوَلَّوْا إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنْهُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ بَعَثَ لَكُمْ طَالُوتَ مَلِكًا ۚ قَالُوا أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ عَلَيْنَا وَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِالْمُلْكِ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يُؤْتَ سَعَةً مِّنَ الْمَالِ ۚ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَاهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزَادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يُؤْتِي مُلْكَهُ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Have you not turned your vision to the chiefs of the children of Israeel after Moosa? they said to a prophet of them. “Appoint for us a king, so that we may fight in the cause of Allah.” He said. “Is it not possible, if it is written for you to fight, that you will not fight?” They said. “How could we not fight in the cause of Allah, seeing that we were casted out of our circles and our sons?” thus when it was written on them to fight, they turned back, except a few of them and Allah has full knowledge of those who do wrong.

Their prophet said to them, “Allah has appointed Talut as king for you.” They said. “How can he has authority over us when we are better fitted than he to exercise authority, and he is not gifted abundance in wealth?” He said. “Allah has chosen him over you, and has gifted him abundantly with knowledge and bodily prowess. Allah grants His kingdom to whom He pleases. Allah is encompassing in knowledge.”
This group of Bani-Israeel who were believers, they asked their prophet to appoint a leader for them in order to be organized in their ideological fight with their nation who had casted them out of their circles of faith. They were surprised when their prophet informed them of the appointment of ‘Talut’ as their King as Talut was not endowed with wealth. In the eyes of Allah, knowledge and good health are more important criteria for the leader who can lead the believers in their ideological fighting.

2:248 وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ آيَةَ مُلْكِهِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ التَّابُوتُ فِيهِ سَكِينَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَبَقِيَّةٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ آلُ مُوسَىٰ وَآلُ هَارُونَ تَحْمِلُهُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

And their prophet said to them. “A sign of his kingdom is that there shall come to you the box, therein security from your Lord, and the relics left by the people of Moosa and the people of Haroon, carried by angels. In this is an ayat/sign for you if you indeed are the believers.”
The ayat/sign for these people was a box within which was safety and security from the Lord and the relics from the people of Moosa (a.s) and Haroon (a.s). A probable manifestation of this sign of a box could be the cover of Hajre Aswad which is affixed at Kaaba, the house of Allah. This box contains some pieces of stone which could be relics of the stone from Moosa’s (a.s) time. (2:60  وَإِذِ اسْتَسْقَىٰ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ فَقُلْنَا اضْرِب بِّعَصَاكَ الْحَجَرَ ۖ فَانفَجَرَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا ۖ قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَّشْرَبَهُمْ ۖ كُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا مِن رِّزْقِ اللَّهِ وَلَا تَعْثَوْا فِي الْأَرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ). This box is affixed at a most blessed place on Earth. If the fixing details of this box with the Kaaba walls become known and it is found that this box is affixed with Kaaba wall without the need of any screws or nails, then the above hypothesis will become much more certain supported by the statement in above ayat that the box is carried by angels.

2:249 فَلَمَّا فَصَلَ طَالُوتُ بِالْجُنُودِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مُبْتَلِيكُم بِنَهَرٍ فَمَن شَرِبَ مِنْهُ فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي وَمَن لَّمْ يَطْعَمْهُ فَإِنَّهُ مِنِّي إِلَّا مَنِ اغْتَرَفَ غُرْفَةً بِيَدِهِ ۚ فَشَرِبُوا مِنْهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنْهُمْ ۚ فَلَمَّا جَاوَزَهُ هُوَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ قَالُوا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا الْيَوْمَ بِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ ۚ قَالَ الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُم مُّلَاقُو اللَّهِ كَم مِّن فِئَةٍ قَلِيلَةٍ غَلَبَتْ فِئَةً كَثِيرَةً بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ

When Talut set forth with the armies, he said. “Allah will test you with a stream, if anyone drinks from it, he does not belongs to me. Only the one who does not feed on it belongs to me except that he takes a handful with his hand.” Then they all drank of it, except a few. When they crossed it,- he and the faithful ones with him,- they said. “This day we don’t have the strength for us (to face) Jalut and his forces.” Those who were convinced that they would meet Allah, said. “How often, by Allah’s will, has a small force vanquished a big one? Allah is with those who are with patience.”
The stream mentioned in above ayat seems to be a symbolical one. It is unlikely to be a supernatural stream of water, which saps out strength from people. Those who would indulge deeply in this symbolical stream will find themselves to be overwhelmed and not be able to fight. This stream most probably is the stream of false logic and deviant religious system that Jalut and his followers have mastered and they are very well versed in it. The believers when they set out to fight ideologically with the unbeliever leaders, they were advised to just indulge superficially in their knowledge base (symbolically the stream) and not delve deep into it.

14:46  وَقَدْ مَكَرُوا مَكْرَهُمْ وَعِندَ اللَّهِ مَكْرُهُمْ وَإِن كَانَ مَكْرُهُمْ لِتَزُولَ مِنْهُ الْجِبَالُ

Indeed they made their plots/trickeries , but their trickeries were (well) in the sight of Allah, even though they were such (mighty ones) as to shake the mountains

The trickeries which the leaders of those who reject and cover the truth have devised, are of such huge magnitude, that if one indulges in them to get mastery of it, he may get overwhelmed. The false logic system of unbelievers should responded by the logic and ayahs of Allah which engulfs the falsehood. This is symbolically akin to Moosa’s (a.s) encounter with the magicians. Moosa (a.s) did not confront the magicians with the likes of their magic. He instead countered them with what was given by Allah.

2:250-251 وَلَمَّا بَرَزُوا لِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ قَالُوا رَبَّنَا أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَنَا وَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ فَهَزَمُوهُم بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَقَتَلَ دَاوُودُ جَالُوتَ وَآتَاهُ اللَّهُ الْمُلْكَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَهُ مِمَّا يَشَاءُ ۗ وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ لَّفَسَدَتِ الْأَرْضُ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ ذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ

When they advanced to meet Jalut and his forces, they said “Our Lord! Pour out patience on us and make our steps firm and help us against the nation of rejecters.” By Allah’s will they routed them; and Dawood (a.s) slew Jalut; and Allah gave him authority and wisdom and taught him whatever He willed. And had Allah not checked one set of people by means of another, there would be violence on earth but Allah is full of bounty to all the worlds.
Dawood (a.s) destroyed Jalut in this fight. Allah made Dawood the Khalifa/successor on earth. A question arise in some people’s mind that when in Quran, Allah told the angles about His intention of making khalifa on earth they objected that the khalifa would do bloodshed and violence but Allah told them that their concern was false. The rejection of the concern of violence and bloodshed by Allah strongly suggests that the fight between Dawood (a.s) and Jalut was not a physical fight, but rather an ideological fight. Also, the same ayat suggests that actually Jalut was the violence monger and since Dawood (a.s) destroyed him and his false system of belief, in this way Allah checked violence on earth.

2:30 وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً ۖ قَالُوا أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

And when your Lord said to the angels. “I will create a khalifa on earth.” They said. “Will You place therein one who will make violence therein and shed blood?- while we do celebrate Your praises and glorify Your holy (name)?” He said. “I know what you know not.”

A question comes to mind that how could angels say that the Khalifa would do bloodshed and violence on earth, while they did not have knowledge of the future. This actually replicates the assumption of many people, who say that religion causes wars and blood shed while mankind does not need divine guidance to know what is goodness. Then there is another group who justifies physical fighting and violence in the cause of Allah in the name of ‘Holy war’. Allah dismisses the notion that the khalifa does physical killing. Khalifa of Allah destroys the false hood in ideological fight with the leaders of falsehood.

2:31-33  وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلَائِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاءِ هَٰؤُلَاءِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ  قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ  قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا أَنبَأَهُم بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

And He (Allah) taught Adam the names of all things; then He placed them before the angels, and said. “Tell me the names of these if you are truthful.” They said. “Glory to You, We don’t have any knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, it is You who have perfect knowledge and wisdom.” He said. “O Adam! Tell them their names.” When he had told them, Allah said. “Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heavens and earth, and I know what you reveal and what you conceal?”

Adam is representative of mankind. The names and nouns in Quran also have attributes associated with them which represent their properties. Allah created Adam and mankind with the capability of learning about all the names in the universe and properties of the same. This knowledge is constantly granted by Allah to man and due to which man progresses in knowledge as much as God wishes. This capability of progressing in knowledge is not with the angels. Allah exposes those who hide in the garb of angels expressing outwardly that we keep on glorifying God’s praises while the ‘Adam’ does violence and blood-shed on earth. While they themselves are the violence mongers and are jealous of ‘Adam’ progressing in knowledge. Allah exposes these evil beings and grants his vicegerency/khilaft to his ‘khalifa’ who does not promote violence and blood-shed and progresses in knowledge with the help of Allah.

38:26 يَا دَاوُودُ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاكَ خَلِيفَةً فِي الْأَرْضِ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا تَتَّبِعِ الْهَوَىٰ فَيُضِلَّكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَضِلُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ بِمَا نَسُوا يَوْمَ الْحِسَابِ

O Dawood! We did indeed make you a khalifa/vicegerent on earth, thus judge between people in truth and don’t follow the desire, for it will mislead you from the path of Allah. For those who wander astray from the path of Allah, for them is a grievous penalty as they forget the day of account.

24:55 وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارْتَضَىٰ لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُم مِّن بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْنًا ۚ يَعْبُدُونَنِي لَا يُشْرِكُونَ بِي شَيْئًا ۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

Allah has promised, to those among you who believe and work righteous deeds, that He will, of a surety, make them vicegerents in earth, as He granted it to those before them; that He will establish in authority their judgement – that which He likes for them; and that He will change (their state), after the fear in which they were to one of security and peace. ‘They will worship Me (alone) and not associate any with Me and If any do reject after this, they are rebellious ones.’

Prophet Essa (A.S)- Jesus in Quran- 1

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Prophet and messenger Essa ibne Mariam (Jesus son of Mary) holds an elevated status in Al-Quran. He is a messenger and prophet of God, ayat/sign, word of Allah, spirit/essence and mercy for mankind as mentioned in Al-Quran. Prophet Essa’s birth was a sign for mankind as it was an unusual birth. Prophet Essa is also unique among prophets in that he was a prophet since birth and was able to convey the message of God in his infancy. There are many intriguing facts mentioned about prophet Essa (a.s) in Al-Quran, however in the current post we will mainly discuss common beliefs around prophet’s death and the knowledge about the hour that is conveyed to us in the words of prophet Essa (a.s).

The unbelievers of the Book, always come up with plots of assassination of Prophet Essa’s personality. The true personality of prophet Essa (a.s) is distorted by them and different types of statuses ranging from an impostor to a deity have been associated with him. The rejecters were not able to kill prophet Essa (a.s) physically. Near the time of his natural death, Allah informed the prophet about His intention of giving him death and raising (in status) towards Him and purifying him of the falsehoods which unbeliever’s would associate with him. Allah specifically mentioned giving death to prophet Essa (a.s) in Quran, as the prophet had specials signs associated with him including the one of giving life to the dead.

3:54-55  وَمَكَرُوا وَمَكَرَ اللَّهُ ۖ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الْمَاكِرِينَ  إِذْ قَالَ اللَّهُ يَا عِيسَىٰ إِنِّي مُتَوَفِّيكَ وَرَافِعُكَ إِلَيَّ وَمُطَهِّرُكَ مِنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَجَاعِلُ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوكَ فَوْقَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَيَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ فِيمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ

And they plotted/planned and Allah too planned; and the best of planners is Allah. And when Allah said O Essa! Verily, I will cause you to die and raise you to Myself and clear you from those who reject; I will make those who follow you, superior to those who reject; towards the day of judgement. Then you shall all return to Me, and I will judge between you in matters in which you dispute.

A common belief among most people is that, prophet Essa (a.s), was raised towards Allah alive. He is not dead and will be sent again in the world near the end times. To support this belief they assert that the word (مُتَوَفِّيك) in the above ayat means ‘completing’ instead of ‘causing to die’. Therefore they say that the above ayat means that prophet Essa (his nafs) was completed and does not mean that he actually died.  However, please note the ayat 39:42, which states that Allah completes the nafs at the time of death. Therefore, it is the time of the death when a person (his nafs) is completed:

39:42  اللَّهُ يَتَوَفَّى الْأَنفُسَ حِينَ مَوْتِهَا وَالَّتِي لَمْ تَمُتْ فِي مَنَامِهَا ۖ فَيُمْسِكُ الَّتِي قَضَىٰ عَلَيْهَا الْمَوْتَ وَيُرْسِلُ الْأُخْرَىٰ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

It is Allah who causes to die/complete the Nafs at the time of death; and those whose time of death has not come (He causes them to die) during their sleep. Then those on whom He has passed the decree of death, He prevents (from returning to life), but the rest He sends until a term appointed; Verily in this are signs for those who ponder.

We come to know that nafs/psyche of a person is completed at the time of death and the same happened to prophet Essa (a.s).

Also, please ponder over below two ayahs which mention life cycles of prophet Essa (a.s) and prophet Yahya (a.s)  which both are the same and the norm for all human beings as well.

19:33  وَالسَّلَامُ عَلَيَّ يَوْمَ وُلِدتُّ وَيَوْمَ أَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ أُبْعَثُ حَيًّا

(Essa said)  And salam/peace is on me the day I was born , and the day when I die and the day when I shall be raised to life.

The below Ayat is for prophet Yahya (a.s) son of Zakarya (a.s). The same cycle of life and death which has been mentioned for Essa Ibne Mariam is mentioned for him also which is the same for all people as well.

19:15  وَسَلَامٌ عَلَيْهِ يَوْمَ وُلِدَ وَيَوْمَ يَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ يُبْعَثُ حَيًّا

So Peace on him the day he was born, and the day that he dies, and the day that he will be raised up to life (again)!

The below ayat provides knowledge about the Hour of an impending dialogue which is going to happen on the day of judgement between Allah and the prophet Essa (a.s):

5:116  وَإِذْ قَالَ اللَّهُ يَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ أَأَنتَ قُلْتَ لِلنَّاسِ اتَّخِذُونِي وَأُمِّيَ إِلَٰهَيْنِ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۖ قَالَ سُبْحَانَكَ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أَقُولَ مَا لَيْسَ لِي بِحَقٍّ ۚ إِن كُنتُ قُلْتُهُ فَقَدْ عَلِمْتَهُ ۚ تَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِي وَلَا أَعْلَمُ مَا فِي نَفْسِكَ ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ عَلَّامُ الْغُيُوبِ

And when Allah said: O Essa (Jesus) the son of Maryam (Mary), did you say to mankind  ‘take me and my mother as gods instead of Allah?’ , he said, ‘Glory to You! Never could I say what I had no right. Had I said such a thing, You would have known it. You know what is in my nafs, though I don’t know what is in Your nafs. Verily, You know all that is hidden.’

In below ayat prophet Essa (a.s) confirmed that when Allah granted him death, he did not know after that, what people said about him.

5:117 مَا قُلْتُ لَهُمْ إِلَّا مَا أَمَرْتَنِي بِهِ أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ رَبِّي وَرَبَّكُمْ ۚ وَكُنتُ عَلَيْهِمْ شَهِيدًا مَّا دُمْتُ فِيهِمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا تَوَفَّيْتَنِي كُنتَ أَنتَ الرَّقِيبَ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَأَنتَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدٌ

Never said I to them except what You commanded me to say, i.e serve Allah, my Lord and your Lord; and I was a witness over them while I lived among them; and when You caused me to die, You were the watcher over them, and You are a witness to all things.

Allah has named Essa ibne Mariam as mercy for the mankind (19:21), and he is asking for forgiveness for the people on the day of judgement in below ayat.

5:118 إِن تُعَذِّبْهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ عِبَادُكَ ۖ وَإِن تَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ فَإِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

If You punish them, they are Your servants. If You forgive them, You are the exalted in power, the wise.

However intercession is not going to help if one does not deserve on merit basis. Only those will be able to profit who are truthful to the Words of Allah and also truthful to themselves i.e when they see the truth in Allah’s ayahs they cannot stay on a divergent belief system. Anyone who does not change his beliefs on the basis of Allah’s ayahs when they become clear to him, will not be able to profit on the day of Judgment.

5:119  قَالَ اللَّهُ هَٰذَا يَوْمُ يَنفَعُ الصَّادِقِينَ صِدْقُهُمْ ۚ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٌ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ رَّضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

Allah said, This is a day in which the truthful will profit from their truth; for them are gardens, with streams flowing beneath, – their eternal home. Allah is pleased with them, and they are pleased with Allah, that is the great success.

The account of prophet Essa (a.s) being a witness on people is given in ayahs 5:116-119. So, every one of those who have Al-Kitab and can witness the account of the prophet Essa (a.s) in Al-Kitab, should never base his/her belief about prophet Essa (a.s) in any deviant way (other than what is stated in Al-Kitab), otherwise he can clearly see from these ayahs that prophet Essa’s testimony will go against him. 

Some muslim scholars state present 4:159 as a confirmation of 2nd coming of Essa (a.s) as such that prophet Essa shall return before end times and at that time all Jews and Christians shall believe in him before their death. However, what about those people who would have died before his 2nd coming. They would have been at a disadvantage of not given the opportunity of obtaining faith before their death. So, this interpretation does not make much sense. The ayat is addressing those who have the actual Allah’s book. They can witness the ayahs related to prophet Essa in this book. So after witnessing all these ayahs themselves, and seeing that there is no ayat in Al-Quran which mentions second coming of prophet Essa (a.s), even then if they strongly adhere to this faith instilled in them by story tellers and contractors of religion, then they should not expect much rewards in there hereafter, as this would be a confirmation that the basis of their belief is not Allah’s book. 

4:159  وَإِن مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ إِلَّا لَيُؤْمِنَنَّ بِهِ قَبْلَ مَوْتِهِ ۖ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ شَهِيدًا

And if there is any one from the People of the book, he must believe in it before his own death and on the Day of Judgement he (Essa) will be a witness over them.

Prophet Essa is also called the ‘knowledge of the Hour’ in Quran, because above ayahs inform us about the dialogue which will happen in the Hereafter between Allah and prophet Essa (a.s).

43:61  وَإِنَّهُ لَعِلْمٌ لِّلسَّاعَةِ فَلَا تَمْتَرُنَّ بِهَا وَاتَّبِعُونِ ۚ هَٰذَا صِرَاطٌ مُّسْتَقِيمٌ

Surely (Essa/Jesus) is definitely the knowledge for the Hour. So do not doubt in it and follow Me, this is the straight path.

For a surety Prophet Essa (a.s) was not killed by rejecters, but Allah made him die peacefully a normal death. For the people who say that they killed him, his natural death was made to resemble killing for them.

4:157  وَقَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا الْمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَٰكِن شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ لَفِي شَكٍّ مِّنْهُ ۚ مَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلَّا اتِّبَاعَ الظَّنِّ ۚ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينًا

And their saying that; “Indeed we killed Maseeh Essa, the son of Maryam, the messenger of Allah”, but they did not kill him , nor crucified him. But it was made (something) similar for them, and verily those who differ in this matter are full of doubt, with no real knowledge, but they only follow conjecture, and for of a surety they did not kill him.

When Allah told prophet Essa (a.s) of is approaching death (3:54), Prophet Essa (a.s) gave his last sermon:

61:6  وَإِذْ قَالَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُم مُّصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَمُبَشِّرًا بِرَسُولٍ يَأْتِي مِن بَعْدِي اسْمُهُ أَحْمَدُ ۖ فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُم بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ قَالُوا هَٰذَا سِحْرٌ مُّبِينٌ

And when Essa, son of Mary, said, “O Children of Israeel, I am Allah’s messenger to you, confirming the Taurat/law which is between my hands and bringing good news of a messenger to come after me whose name is ‘Ahmad’. ”  Then, when he (Ahmed) came to them (children of Israeel) with clarity (of Ayahs), they said, “This is profound magic.”

In the above ayat prophet Essa addressed Bani Israeel and gave them the glad tidings of coming of the messenger ‘Ahmed’. The glad tiding was given to Bani-Israeel and the messenger ‘Ahmed’ also came to Bani Israeel with clarifications. (see post related to Bani Israeel).

Discussion about Prophet Essa (a.s) with families:

3:61-62 فَمَنْ حَاجَّكَ فِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَنِسَاءَنَا وَنِسَاءَكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وَأَنفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَل لَّعْنَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِينَ  إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَهُوَ الْقَصَصُ الْحَقُّ ۚ وَمَا مِنْ إِلَٰهٍ إِلَّا اللَّهُ ۚ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

If any one disputes in this matter (of Essa) with you, after knowledge has come to you, say; come! Let us invite,– our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then let us earnestly pray, and call the curse of Allah on those who lie! This is the true account/story. There is no god except Allah; and Allah-He is indeed the Exalted in Power, the Wise

In case of some groups engage you in discussion regarding Prophet Issa A.S, then in that discussion bring the families along to ensure, that discussion goes on in a decent atmosphere. Otherwise we have seen many of discussions regarding prophet Essa A.S gets very heated and indecent.

4:171  يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا تَغْلُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ وَلَا تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلَّا الْحَقَّ ۚ إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَكَلِمَتُهُ أَلْقَاهَا إِلَىٰ مَرْيَمَ وَرُوحٌ مِّنْهُ ۖ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ ۖ وَلَا تَقُولُوا ثَلَاثَةٌ ۚ انتَهُوا خَيْرًا لَّكُمْ ۚ إِنَّمَا اللَّهُ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ سُبْحَانَهُ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ ۘ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا

O People of the Book! commit no excesses in your judgement. Nor say about Allah but the truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary is a messenger of Allah, and His word, which He bestowed on Mary, and (Essa is) a spirit proceeding from Him. So believe in Allah and His messengers. Say not “Three/Trinity” . Desist. It will be better for you for Allah is one God. Glory be to Him. (far exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belong all things in the heavens and on earth and enough is Allah as a disposer of affairs.

The Ahlal-Kitab are the people who have Allah’s book with them. As long as the people of Prophet Essa (a.s) adhered to Allah’s Book they were Ahle Kitab. So, Allah warned them against saying ‘Trinity’. When they put Allah’s Book on their backs and instead adopted another book which they wrote with their own hands, they no longer are Ahle Kitab.

Notes:

The root word ‘و ف ي’ is used in Quran in the meaning of ‘to fulfil’ or ‘to complete’. When used with people or ‘nafs’ it is in the sense of ful-fulling or completing them at the time of death. Examples given below from Quran;

2: 234 …وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا

Those who die and leave widows behind, they (women) shall wait concerning themselves four months and ten days…

3:193 رَبَّنَا فَاغْفِرْ لَنَا ذُنُوبَنَا وَكَفِّرْ عَنَّا سَيِّئَاتِنَا وَتَوَفَّنَا مَعَ الْأَبْرَارِ

Our Lord! Forgive our sins, blot out from us our evils, and make us die/recompense our souls with the righteous ones.

10:46 وَإِمَّا نُرِيَنَّكَ بَعْضَ الَّذِي نَعِدُهُمْ أَوْ نَتَوَفَّيَنَّكَ فَإِلَيْنَا مَرْجِعُهُمْ ثُمَّ اللَّهُ شَهِيدٌ عَلَىٰ مَا يَفْعَلُونَ

Whether We show you (the messenger) some part of what We promise them,- or We fulfil/cause you to die,- in any case, to Us is their return, then Allah is witness, to all that they do.

16:28 الَّذِينَ تَتَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنفُسِهِمْ ۖ فَأَلْقَوُا السَّلَمَ مَا كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ مِن سُوءٍ ۚ بَلَىٰ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

Whose whose lives the angels take in a state of wrong-doing to their own souls/nafs.” Then would they offer submission (with the pretence), “We did no evil .” (The angels will reply), “Nay, but verily Allah knows all that you did.

The Sign of Noah’s Ark

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Al-Quran informs us that the ark of prophet Nooh (a.s) has been made, an ayat/sign for the worlds (آيَةً لِّلْعَالَمِينَ). It means that the majority of people of the world should have seen this sign or know about it. It is another matter that they don’t realize what it is, even when they see it.

29:14-15 وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ فَلَبِثَ فِيهِمْ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ إِلَّا خَمْسِينَ عَامًا فَأَخَذَهُمُ الطُّوفَانُ وَهُمْ ظَالِمُونَ فَأَنجَيْنَاهُ وَأَصْحَابَ السَّفِينَةِ وَجَعَلْنَاهَا آيَةً لِّلْعَالَمِينَ

We sent Nooh/Noah to his people, and he remained among them a thousand years except fifty, thus the deluge overtook them while they were unjust. But We saved him and the companions of the Ark, and We made the (Ark) a sign for all the worlds!
The Noah’s ark is a sign for all the world. Its not hidden from people’s eyes. Majority of the people of the world should have seen it either in person or remotely e.g in pictures if it is really such an ayat/sign as stated in Al-Quran.

Quran informs us about the nation of prophet Nooh (a.s). Prophet Nooh stayed and preached the message of the Lord for a long time, i.e serve Him alone and not to associate any with the Lord. However majority of his people did not believe in him despite prophet’s best efforts. Eventually the prophet was convinced that none of his people will accept the message except for those few who were already with him in faith. Then the prophet prayed to God to flush out the unbelievers from his land as they were only acting as distractors to the message of Allah. Allah ordained him to build an ark which was to sustain him and those with him from the flood which was ordained to overtake this land. Subsequently, a lot of water was released from the sky and the earth which cleansed the rejecters from this land. Prophet Nooh was instructed to prepare for bracing the flood waters. He prepared an ark with physical materials. This ark was made as per Allah’s guidance. He also gathered all necessary provisions for sustenance till the flood water recede. Subsequent to the flood, the land was cleansed of rejecters and the ark was made an ayat/sign for all eternity for the mankind.
In this post we will see what was the land of prophet Nooh (a.s), whether the flood was local to his land or global and what is the sign of the ark, left for posterity.

71-1-2 إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ أَنْ أَنذِرْ قَوْمَكَ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ إِنِّي لَكُمْ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ

We sent Nooh to his people, “Warn your people before there comes to them a grievous penalty.” He said, “O my people! I am to you a warner, clear and open.

71:5-10 قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي دَعَوْتُ قَوْمِي لَيْلًا وَنَهَارًا فَلَمْ يَزِدْهُمْ دُعَائِي إِلَّا فِرَارًاوَإِنِّي كُلَّمَا دَعَوْتُهُمْ لِتَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ جَعَلُوا أَصَابِعَهُمْ فِي آذَانِهِمْ وَاسْتَغْشَوْا ثِيَابَهُمْ وَأَصَرُّوا وَاسْتَكْبَرُوا اسْتِكْبَارًا ثُمَّ إِنِّي دَعَوْتُهُمْ جِهَارًا ثُمَّ إِنِّي أَعْلَنتُ لَهُمْ وَأَسْرَرْتُ لَهُمْ إِسْرَارًا فَقُلْتُ اسْتَغْفِرُوا رَبَّكُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ غَفَّارًا

He said. “O my Lord! I called upon my people night and day. “But my call only increases (their) flight. Every time I called to them, that You (Allah) may forgive them, they thrust their fingers into their ears, covered themselves up with their garments and they increased in obstinacy and arrogance. Then I called to them openly. Then I addressed them in public and secretly in private. Thus I said, ‘Ask forgiveness from your Lord; for He is Most-Forgiving’.

71:26-28 وَقَالَ نُوحٌ رَّبِّ لَا تَذَرْ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ دَيَّارًا إِنَّكَ إِن تَذَرْهُمْ يُضِلُّوا عِبَادَكَ وَلَا يَلِدُوا إِلَّا فَاجِرًا كَفَّارًا رَّبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِمَن دَخَلَ بَيْتِيَ مُؤْمِنًا وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَلَا تَزِدِ الظَّالِمِينَ إِلَّا تَبَارًا

And Nooh, said. “O my Lord! leave not of the unbelievers, on the land! For, if You leave them, they will but mislead your servants, and they will breed none but wicked ungrateful ones. O my Lord! Forgive me and my parents and the believing men and believing women who enter my house, and do not increase the wrongdoers except in perdition”

Was Noah’s flood Global or local?

The flood was limited to the nation of Nooh as evident in the below ayahs.

25:37 وَقَوْمَ نُوحٍ لَّمَّا كَذَّبُوا الرُّسُلَ أَغْرَقْنَاهُمْ وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ لِلنَّاسِ آيَةً ۖ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

And the nation of Nooh,- when they rejected the messengers, We drowned them, and We made them as a sign for mankind; and We have prepared for (all) wrong-doers a grievous penalty.
Only those people were drowned who rejected the ayahs of Allah.

10:73 فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَنَجَّيْنَاهُ وَمَن مَّعَهُ فِي الْفُلْكِ وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ خَلَائِفَ وَأَغْرَقْنَا الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا ۖ فَانظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُنذَرِينَ

They rejected Him, but We delivered him, and those with him, in the Ark, and We made them inherit (the land) while We overwhelmed those who rejected Our signs. Thus see what was the end of those who were warned (but heeded not)!

The land in above ayat should mean a specific land not the whole earth. The subsequent ayahs will tell us which specific land is being talked about i.e the Holy land of Haram in Makkah. Till this day we see that this land has been made devoid of apparent unbelievers i.e unbelievers are not allowed to enter this Holy land. Therefore we can deduce that the reference of removal of rejecters by flood does not mean global flooding but means flushing out rejecters from the Holy land.

If you pay attention to a structure called ‘Hateem’ near Kaaba, you will notice that it is shaped as an arc or boat. It is a sign for all the people and open for the world to see.  From an aerial view when people do Tawaf around Kaaba, Hateem, gives the visual of a boat floating on waves of water.

Image result for hateem pictures

Image result for hateem kaaba animated gif

11:41 وَقَالَ ارْكَبُوا فِيهَا بِسْمِ اللَّهِ مَجْرَاهَا وَمُرْسَاهَا ۚ إِنَّ رَبِّي لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

So he said. “Embark on the Ark, it’s moving and staying is with the name of Allah! For my Lord is, be sure, Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful!”
People go round doing Tawaf of Kaaba reciting the name of Allah.

11:42-44 وَهِيَ تَجْرِي بِهِمْ فِي مَوْجٍ كَالْجِبَالِ وَنَادَىٰ نُوحٌ ابْنَهُ وَكَانَ فِي مَعْزِلٍ يَا بُنَيَّ ارْكَب مَّعَنَا وَلَا تَكُن مَّعَ الْكَافِرِينَ قَالَ سَآوِي إِلَىٰ جَبَلٍ يَعْصِمُنِي مِنَ الْمَاءِ ۚ قَالَ لَا عَاصِمَ الْيَوْمَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ إِلَّا مَن رَّحِمَ ۚ وَحَالَ بَيْنَهُمَا الْمَوْجُ فَكَانَ مِنَ الْمُغْرَقِينَ

So the ark floated with them on the waves (towering) like mountains, and Nooh called out to his son, who had separated himself “O my son! embark with us, and be not with the unbelievers!” The son replied, “I will take shelter in a mountain which will save me from the water.” Nooh said. “This day nothing can save, from the command of Allah, any but those on whom He has mercy! “And the waves came between them, and the son was among those overwhelmed.

When there are huge no. of people, the visual appears like the boat is floating on big waves of water.

36:41 وَآيَةٌ لَّهُمْ أَنَّا حَمَلْنَا ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ فِي الْفُلْكِ الْمَشْحُونِ

And a sign for them is that We made their progeny embark in the loaded ark;

Image result for hateem kaaba animated gif
Prophet Nooh was instructed to prepare for bracing the flood waters. He prepared an ark with physical materials. This ark was made per Allah’s guidance. He also gathered all necessary provisions in terms of two pairs of all items for sustenance till the flood water recede.

23:27-30 فَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْهِ أَنِ اصْنَعِ الْفُلْكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا وَوَحْيِنَا فَإِذَا جَاءَ أَمْرُنَا وَفَارَ التَّنُّورُ ۙ فَاسْلُكْ فِيهَا مِن كُلٍّ زَوْجَيْنِ اثْنَيْنِ وَأَهْلَكَ إِلَّا مَن سَبَقَ عَلَيْهِ الْقَوْلُ مِنْهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تُخَاطِبْنِي فِي الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا ۖ إِنَّهُم مُّغْرَقُونَ فَإِذَا اسْتَوَيْتَ أَنتَ وَمَن مَّعَكَ عَلَى الْفُلْكِ فَقُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي نَجَّانَا مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ وَقُل رَّبِّ أَنزِلْنِي مُنزَلًا مُّبَارَكًا وَأَنتَ خَيْرُ الْمُنزِلِينَ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ وَإِن كُنَّا لَمُبْتَلِينَ

So We inspired him (Nooh): “Construct the ark within Our sight and under Our guidance: then when comes Our command, and the fountain gushes forth, take on board all of two pairs (as provisions), and your near ones- except those against whom the word has already gone forth: And address Me not in favour of the wrong-doers; for they shall be drowned. And when you and those with you are settled on the ark, then say. “Praise be to Allah, who has saved us from the unjust people”. And say. “O my Lord! enable me to disembark with your blessing, for You are the best to enable (us) to disembark”. Verily in this there are signs and We do do take trials.
The ark was made with the guidance of Allah. The particular shape of Hateem causes the Tawaf around Kaaba to be in elliptical shape like all celestial objects which orbit around their centers. The Sha’air (شَعَائِرِ)/signs of this place i.e the house of Allah, Hateem, Saffa, Marwa and the well of Zamzam are all structures with location and shapes in accordance with divine wisdom.

11:39 وَيَصْنَعُ الْفُلْكَ وَكُلَّمَا مَرَّ عَلَيْهِ مَلَأٌ مِّن قَوْمِهِ سَخِرُوا مِنْهُ ۚ قَالَ إِن تَسْخَرُوا مِنَّا فَإِنَّا نَسْخَرُ مِنكُمْ كَمَا تَسْخَرُونَ

He (Nooh) was constructing the ark, every time that the chiefs of his people passed by him, they threw ridicule on him. He said. “you ridicule us (now), then (later on) we will be ridiculing you likewise!
Possible scenario of the event that happened at prophet Nooh’s time could be that, when the appointed time came, Allah caused torrential rains and flooding in the valley of Makkah. Kaaba is located at the low land of the valley of Makkah. The huge rainfall and the water gushing forth from the ground would flow towards Kaaba and gather there. The Ark made by Prophet Nooh A.S should be an ark big enough so that the people with him could stay safely on it. This flooding would last long enough to flush the rejecters from the Holy land. 
Also, considering allegorically, when the earth is filled with evil temptation as if being released from the skies and earth and people feel they may be overwhelmed by the enormity of evil temptations around them, then the refuge for them is the House of the Lord.

54:10-15 فَدَعَا رَبَّهُ أَنِّي مَغْلُوبٌ فَانتَصِرْ فَفَتَحْنَا أَبْوَابَ السَّمَاءِ بِمَاءٍ مُّنْهَمِرٍ وَفَجَّرْنَا الْأَرْضَ عُيُونًا فَالْتَقَى الْمَاءُ عَلَىٰ أَمْرٍ قَدْ قُدِرَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُ عَلَىٰ ذَاتِ أَلْوَاحٍ وَدُسُرٍ تَجْرِي بِأَعْيُنِنَا جَزَاءً لِّمَن كَانَ كُفِرَ وَلَقَد تَّرَكْنَاهَا آيَةً فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ

Then he called upon his Lord. “I have been overcome, thus You help me. So We opened the gates of heaven, with water pouring forth. And We caused the earth to gush forth with springs, so the waters met (and rose) to the extent decreed. We bore him on an (Ark) made of tablets and nails. It floats under our eyes (and care). a recompense to one who rejects. And We have left this as a sign, then is there any that will remember?

After the rejecters were flushed out of the Holy land the water receded and the Ark rested at placed named ‘Judi’ in Quran. The sign of this ark is left for all eternity in the shape of Hateem at this place. When people do Tawaf around Kaaba, an aerial view of ‘Hateem’ looks like a boat floating on waves of water. The present ‘Hateem’ is left as a sign of the actual ark for posterity.

11:44 وَقِيلَ يَا أَرْضُ ابْلَعِي مَاءَكِ وَيَا سَمَاءُ أَقْلِعِي وَغِيضَ الْمَاءُ وَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ وَاسْتَوَتْ عَلَى الْجُودِيِّ ۖ وَقِيلَ بُعْدًا لِّلْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ

And was said “O earth! swallow up your water, and O sky! withhold!” and the water abated, and the matter was settled and (the Ark) rested on Al- Judi, and was said “Away with the unjusts!”
Prophet Nooh and his companions were made the Khalifas/Vicegerent of the Holy land (10:73).

11:48 قِيلَ يَا نُوحُ اهْبِطْ بِسَلَامٍ مِّنَّا وَبَرَكَاتٍ عَلَيْكَ وَعَلَىٰ أُمَمٍ مِّمَّن مَّعَكَ ۚ وَأُمَمٌ سَنُمَتِّعُهُمْ ثُمَّ يَمَسُّهُم مِّنَّا عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

It was said “O Nooh! come down (from the ark) with peace from Us, and blessing on you and on some of the nations from those with you and (other) nations to whom We shall grant blessings, then a grievous penalty will reach them from Us.”

Notes:

1- Almost all celestial bodies rotate in the same direction i.e anti-clockwise direction elliptically, as ‘tawaf’ around the house of the Lord.

Geek Answers: Why do all planets rotate and orbit in the same direction?

The word أَرْضُ‘/Ard’ used in The Quran 71:26 related to not leaving rejectors on earth, should mean ground/land and not necessarily mean whole of Earth. Examples of usage of ‘Ard’ for Land in Quran are given below:

7:110 …he wants to drive you out from your land

7:137 We let the people who were oppressed inherit the east and the west of the land which We have blessed…

12:9 “Kill Joseph or cast him to a land

12:80 …I will not leave the land until my father permits me…

14:13 …We will expel you from our land

20:57 He said: “Have you come to us to take us out of our land

Ar-Rum (the Romans)

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

30:2-6 غُلِبَتِ الرُّومُ  فِي أَدْنَى الْأَرْضِ وَهُم مِّن بَعْدِ غَلَبِهِمْ سَيَغْلِبُونَ  فِي بِضْعِ سِنِينَ ۗ لِلَّهِ الْأَمْرُ مِن قَبْلُ وَمِن بَعْدُ ۚ وَيَوْمَئِذٍ يَفْرَحُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ  بِنَصْرِ اللَّهِ ۚ يَنصُرُ مَن يَشَاءُ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ  وَعْدَ اللَّهِ ۖ لَا يُخْلِفُ اللَّهُ وَعْدَهُ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ  

The Rums have been overpowered. In the land close by; but they, after (this) defeat of theirs, will be victorious, within a few years. With Allah is the order, in the past and in the future and on that day, the believers will rejoice, with the help of Allah. He helps whom He wills, and He is exalted in might, most merciful. (It is) the promise of Allah. Never does Allah depart from His promise. but most people do not know.

The root word R u m (ر و م) is described in lexicons with range of meanings as given below:

Desired/sought after, to seek/search, to wait/pause/expect, be patient, to mock/ridicule. Greeks, Byzantines, Romans.  Rum n. 30:2  LL, V3, p: 359, 360

‘Ar- Rum’ in above Ayahs most probably stands for  ‘the researchers’ and ‘seekers’ who are normally people with progressive minds and beliefs. The opposites of them are the frozen minded people, who believe that any new idea or research in Deen/Judgment is ‘Biddat’ or innovation. The Rums are not exactly aligned with the believers in their beliefs but have some logical approach in common with believers so that their victory over the cultists and frozen minded people would be a matter of joy for the believers.

The above Ayahs forecasts that the Rums were overwhelmed by the non Rums earlier however they will be victorious in near future.

We may take this example for couple of events which we witnessed recently;

Commencement of lunar months by calendar or by eye witness:

There are two major groups in matters of lunar month determination now a days. One group is adamant that the start of the lunar month should be witnessed by actually seeing the new moon with the naked eye by some one in the community. The basis for it is their belief that this instruction is from the prophet of God which is recorded in Hadith books.

The other group which is progressive, maintains that moon positions are well known with telescopes and calculations and are not an unknown factor. There is no way the prophet of God would have conveyed an instruction from God, regarding a religious matter, for all eternity, which is against logic i.e to actually see the moon before witnessing the start of lunar month. Therefore this instruction attributed to the prophet, is doubtful and we can make use of more accurate and precise tools available to us for witnessing the start of lunar month.

Then the believers are those whose belief is based on Al-Quran. They know that actual  instructions of the prophet’s are those which are recorded by Allah in Al-Quran.  Regarding the moon, when people asked him about the moon he said that it is for ‘Mawaqeet lill naas’ i.e for scheduling of people. The scheduling of lunar months is done by calendar. We cannot schedule any event in future in different parts of the world, if the start of the month is doubtful and depends upon such factors as actual eye witness. Therefore for this matter the believers and Rums are in line. Please note that this is just an example to understand the concept of Ar-Rum.

At present the other groups are in majority and start of the lunar month is with actual eye witnessing of the moon however, later on the situation will change and the majority situation will change.

Notes:

Notes:

Most translations and tafsirs describe ‘Ar-Rum’ as the Romans.  They say that the believers were rejoicing the victory of Romans over Iranians who were infidels at that time while Romans were Christians. This is quite doubtful as Romans at that time were no friends to believers either.

 

 

Inheritance Distribution

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

It is incumbent upon the believers that when facing death, one should leave a ‘will or testament’ for the parents and the close relatives. The will should not be unjust ( غَيْرَ مُضَارٍّ)to any one, for example if one or more of the close relatives have circumstances because of a particular situation that he/she deserves extra provisions, then that should be granted in the will.

2:180  كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ إِن تَرَكَ خَيْرًا الْوَصِيَّةُ لِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۖ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ

It is written on you (people) that, when death approaches any of you, if he leaves any good that he makes a bequest for parents and next of kin in a known/reasonable manner; it is binding on those who take guard.

The above Ayat is not abrogated after the 4:11-12. It simply means that if you don’t leave instructions to distribute your inheritance as per injunctions of Allah, it will not be automatically distributed as per Allah’s orders. Also, you are the best judge of particular circumstances of your family, therefore any adjustments which needs be made can be made in the will as some family members may need more or less than others due to their particular situation. 

4:33  وَلِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مَوَالِيَ مِمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ عَقَدَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ فَآتُوهُمْ نَصِيبَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدًا

For everyone, We have made heirs out of inheritance of parents and relatives. And to those people who have taken pledge from your right hand, give them their due portion. Verily Allah is witness to all things.

Those people who have pledges/(I owe you) notes, they should be paid their due share.

2:240  وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا وَصِيَّةً لِّأَزْوَاجِهِم مَّتَاعًا إِلَى الْحَوْلِ غَيْرَ إِخْرَاجٍ ۚ فَإِنْ خَرَجْنَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي مَا فَعَلْنَ فِي أَنفُسِهِنَّ مِن مَّعْرُوفٍ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

Those of you who die and leave pairs/spouses, should enjoin for their spouses allowance and provision towards an environment of non exit ; but if they leave, there is no blame on you for what they do with themselves, reasonably and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.

First step logically for a person facing death, is to ensure that the spouse has enough provision to keep on living in the same environment with family/kids after him, without having to exit that environment . If the wives later decide for themselves to exit to improve their conditions for example get a job etc. or to marry again, then no blame on the person as obviously he may not be able to provide for in-definite period of time. Normally, in many developed countries this is achieved by having some kind of insurance policy.

5:106  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا شَهَادَةُ بَيْنِكُمْ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ حِينَ الْوَصِيَّةِ اثْنَانِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِّنكُمْ أَوْ آخَرَانِ مِنْ غَيْرِكُمْ…..

 Ye who believe! When death approaches any of you, (take) witnesses among yourselves when making bequests,- two just men of your own (brotherhood) or others from outside….

The will or testament should be documented and signed off by at least two witnesses.

After adjustment of payment of debts/liabilities and adjustments made for particular situations for close relatives in the will (Quran does not put any limitation on this amount), the remaining amount of inheritance to be distributed among close relatives according to instruction in Ayas 4:11-12 and 4:176.

4:11  يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي أَوْلَادِكُمْ ۖ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۚ فَإِن كُنَّ نِسَاءً فَوْقَ اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُنَّ ثُلُثَا مَا تَرَكَ ۖ وَإِن كَانَتْ وَاحِدَةً فَلَهَا النِّصْفُ ۚ وَلِأَبَوَيْهِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ مِمَّا تَرَكَ إِن كَانَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُ وَلَدٌ وَوَرِثَهُ أَبَوَاهُ فَلِأُمِّهِ الثُّلُثُ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُ إِخْوَةٌ فَلِأُمِّهِ السُّدُسُ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِي بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۗ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ لَا تَدْرُونَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ لَكُمْ نَفْعًا ۚ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

4:12  وَلَكُمْ نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ أَزْوَاجُكُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُنَّ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَلَكُمُ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْنَ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِينَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۚ وَلَهُنَّ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّكُمْ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَلَهُنَّ الثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُم ۚ مِّن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ تُوصُونَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۗ وَإِن كَانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلَالَةً أَوِ امْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ فَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ ۚ فَإِن كَانُوا أَكْثَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ فِي الثُّلُثِ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصَىٰ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ غَيْرَ مُضَارٍّ ۚ وَصِيَّةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَلِيمٌ

4:176  يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِي الْكَلَالَةِ ۚ إِنِ امْرُؤٌ هَلَكَ لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَهُ أُخْتٌ فَلَهَا نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ ۚ وَهُوَ يَرِثُهَا إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهَا وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَتَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُمَا الثُّلُثَانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَ ۚ وَإِن كَانُوا إِخْوَةً رِّجَالًا وَنِسَاءً فَلِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۗ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ أَن تَضِلُّوا ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

4:11 Allah enjoins you in your offsprings. For the male, the example is of the portion of two females. If the women are more than two, their share is two-thirds of what he left; if only one, her share is a half. For each of the parents, a sixth , if he (deceased) has a son/child; if he has no son/child and both parents inherit him, then for the mother is the third; if the deceased left brothers (siblings) then for the mother is the sixth, after carrying out the will or debts. You do not know whether your parents or your children are nearer to you in your benefit. This is an obligation from Allah; and Allah is All-knowing, All-wise.

4:12 For you is half in what your wives leave, if they leave no son/child; but if they leave a son/child, then for you is the fourth in what they leave; after carrying out the will and debts. In what you leave, their(wives) share is a fourth, if you leave no son/child; but if you leave a son/child, then for them the share is an eighth; after carrying out the Will and debts. In case the man or woman is inherited by Kalalah, and has a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if they are more than two, then all share in the third; after payment of legacies and debts; so that no loss is caused (to any one). Thus is it ordained by Allah; and Allah is All-knowing, Most Forbearing.

4:176  They ask you (messenger) for a fatwa/advice. Say. Allah gives you fatwa/advice in Kalalah. If a man dies for him there is no son/child, and  he has a sister then for her is half of what he left and he will inherit her if she does not have a son/child, and If they are two (females) they shall have two-thirds out of what he left and if there are brothers and sisters, then for a male is a share like share of two females. Thus Allah makes clear to you, lest you go astray, and Allah has knowledge of all things

The claimants on inheritance as per above three Ayahs are the following relatives of the deceased:

  1. Children
  2. Parents
  3. Spouses
  4. Siblings

Basic assumptions of inheritance calculations in this post are given below:

  1. Total amount of inheritance available for distribution is assumed to be 100 units i.e after will and payment of debts/liabilities.
  2.  Sum of the distributable shares should equal the total inherited amount. E.g if the inheritors of deceased are his Children, parents, Spouse and Siblings, then the sum of all shares of share holders should equal to the total i.e 100. 

Share of children + share of parents + share of spouses + share of siblings = Total (100)

Above equation is the basic equation for inheritance calculation. We will substitute the values of each in the above equation.

Ratio of distribution of inheritance between male and female children:

4:11  يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي أَوْلَادِكُمْ ۖ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۚ فَإِن كُنَّ نِسَاءً فَوْقَ اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُنَّ ثُلُثَا مَا تَرَكَ ۖ وَإِن كَانَتْ وَاحِدَةً فَلَهَا النِّصْفُ ۚ

Allah enjoins you with regards to your Children’s (Inheritance). For the male, the example is portion of two females. If the women are more than two, their share is two-thirds of what he left; if only one, her share is a half.

The above statement defines the ratio between males and females shares in offspring’s as this Ayat states male share as an example of females shares when females are 1 or more.

In case of upto two daughters: ratio of son to daughter share is    2:1         (1 / 0.5 = 2)

In case of more than two daughters: ratio of son to daughter is    1.5 : 1    ( 1 / (2/3) = 1.5)

Point to note here is that above statement is describing the ratio of inheritance between the male and female children e.g the expression in Ayat 4:11, ‘if only one, her share is a half’ is referring to the ratio of son’s to daughter’s share, and not to half of total inheritance value.

There is a school of thought who considers above injunction of 1/2 (incase of 1 female) and 2/3 ( in case of more than 2 females), applicable to whole of inheritance, instead of considering it as a ratio between male and female children. 

However, with this line of thinking, several problem arise, as given below:

 1 – What is the injunction in case of exactly two females?

2.  Just after Allah enjoined the ratio between male and females then why He would fix 2/3rd portion of total inheritance for more than 2 females, instead of keeping it on basis of ratios just mentioned.

3. If 2/3 is a fixed portion of inheritance for more than 2 females instead of a ratio, then there will be certain cases where we will not able to distribute shares for example, when there are 3 daughters, 1 husband and mother and father. In this case three daughters will get 2/3, husband gets 1/4 and parents each get 1/6. There will be not enough to distribute if we consider it as fixed amount instead of a ratio.

An objection by some people is, why Allah discriminates in distribution of inheritance giving preference to males over females. The reason could be because in general males have more responsibilities in providing for household, than females.  However, if a particular family situation is different, e.g females carry more responsibility of the household expenditure, then extra provision for them can be provided in the will, which is to be carried out before distribution of shares.

Example 1:  (1 son and 1 daughter only)

Lets assume total inheritance =100. The total of shares of all inheritors should equal 100. Now, assume daughter’s share to be ‘x;, then son’s share becomes 2x, and the formula becomes as below :لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ

Total inheritance= Son’s share + Daughter’s share= 100
2x + x = 100
3x= 100
x= 100/3
Daugher’s share x= 33.33
Son’s share 2x = 2 x 33.33= 66.67

Example 2:  (One daughter only)

Lets assume total inheritance =100. First equation is, total share of inheritors should equal 100. Now, as one daughter is the only share holder other shareholder’s share will be 0, so daughters share will be 100.

Total inheritance= All other inheritors + Daughter’s share= 100
0 + Daughter’s share 100
x + 0 100
x= 100
Daugher’s share is = 100

Example 3:  (2 son and 3 daughter only)

The equation is total shares of all inheritors should equal 100. Now, assume daughter’s share is x, then son’s share becomes 1.5x, and the formula becomes as below: لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ) (الْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۚ فَإِن كُنَّ نِسَاءً فَوْقَ اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُنَّ ثُلُثَا مَا تَرَكَ

Share of sons + share of daughters = 100

1.5x + 1.5x + x + x +x = 100

3x + 3x = 100

6x = 100

x = 100/6 = 16.67

Each daughter share = x = 16.67

Each son’s share = 1.5x =   25

Share of Parents:

….  وَلِأَبَوَيْهِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ مِمَّا تَرَكَ إِن كَانَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ…..

For each of the parents, a sixth , if he (deceased) has son/child;

Example 4:   Father, 1 daughter, 1 son

Total inheritance 100. Lets assume daugher’s share to be ‘x’ , then son’s share will be 2x and Fathers share is 1/6th

 Total share of inheritors  = 100

Sons’ share + daughter’s share + Father’s share = 100

2x + x + 100/6  = 100

3x + 100/6 = 100

3x  = 100 – 100/6

3x = 83.33

x= 27.78

Daughter’s share = x = 27.78

Son’s share = 2x = 55.56

Fathers share= 100/6 = 16.67

Example 5:   Father, mother, 3 daughters, 3 sons

Lets assume total inheritance= 100, assume each daughter’s share to be ‘x’,   then each son’s share will be 1.5x,  Father’s share is 1/6th and Mother’s share is also 1/6th of inheritance

Total shares of inheritors  = 100

Sons’ share + daughters’ share + Father’s share+ Mother’s share = 100

1.5x + 1.5x +1.5x +x + x + x + 100/6 + 100/6 = 100

7.5x + 200/6 = 100

7.5 x = 100 – 200/6

7.5x = 66.67

x = 8.89

Each daughter’s share = 8.89

Each son’s share = 1.5x = 1.5 x 8.89 = 13.33

Father’s share = Mothers share = 16.67

4:11 …..  فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُ وَلَدٌ وَوَرِثَهُ أَبَوَاهُ فَلِأُمِّهِ الثُّلُثُ   ….

if no son or daughter, and both parents are heirs, mother has a third;

Example 6:    Only Mother and father and no children

Mother’s share + Father’s share = 100

assume fathers share as x,

100/3 + x = 100

x = 100 – 100/3 = 66.67 = Father’s share

Mother’s share = 100/3 = 33.67

وَلَكُمْ نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ أَزْوَاجُكُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُنَّ وَلَدٌ4:12

Your share is a half in what your wives leave, if for them is no child….

Example 7:  husband and Father only, no kids

Assume total inheritance 100. Husband share is 1/2. There are two heirs only so the equation is:

Husband’s share + Father’s share = 100

100/2  + Father’s share = 100

Father’s share = 100 – 50 = 50

Husband’s share = 50

Ex 8: husband, father and mother only, no kids

Assume total inheritance 100. Husband’s share is 1/2. Mother’s share is 1/3 and assume father’s share to be x:

(فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُ وَلَدٌ وَوَرِثَهُ أَبَوَاهُ فَلِأُمِّهِ الثُّلُثُ  )

Husband + Mother + Father’s share = 100

100/2 + 100/3 + x= 100

x= 100 – 100/2 – 100/3

Father’s share = 16.67

Mother;s share = 33.33

Husband’s share = 50

4:12  … فَإِن كَانَ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَلَكُمُ الرُّبُعُ

Ex 9: One daugher 1 son, and husband

Assume x for the daughter, then son gets 2x and husband gets 1/4 of inheritance

x + 2x + 100/4 = 100

3x = 100 – 25

x = 25

Daughter’s share = 25, Son’s share = 50, Husband’s share = 25

Ex 10: One daughter and husband

Assume total amount =100. Assume x for daughter’s share, Husband’s share is 100/4.

x + 100/4 = 100

x = 75

Daughter’s share = 75, Husband’s share = 25

4:12 …. وَلَهُنَّ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّكُمْ وَلَدٌ ۚ

Ex 11: 1 wife, mother and father only no kids

Wife get 1/4 of inheritance, mother get 1/3 of inheritance as per 4:11, assume x for father

x + 100/3 + 100/4 = 100

x = 100- 33.33 – 25= 41.66

Mother gets 33.33, Father gets 41.66, wife gets 25

Ex 12: 1 wife and mother only no kids

Wife get 1/4 of inheritance as per 4:12, mother’s share was to be 1/3 when both parents were present as in Ayat 4:11, in this case as both parents are not there, therefore mother’s share is not fixed at 1/3 but is variable. Assume mother’s share = x

x +  100/4 = 100

x = 100 – 25= 75

Mother gets 75, wife gets 25

4:12  …  ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَلَهُنَّ الثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُم

Ex 13: Two son’s two daughters and 2 wives

Assume x for the daughter’s share, then son gets 2x, both wives share in 1/8

2x + 4x + 100/8 = 100

6x = 87.50

x = 14.58

Each daughter’s share = 14.58, each son’s share = 29.16

Each wife’s share = 6.25

Example 14:  husband, mother, father, 2 sons and 3 daughters

Husband’s share is fixed at 1/4. Mothers and father’s each share is 1/6 (4:11). Assume x for the daughter’s share then sons share is 1.5x:

Husband + Mother + Father + Daughters + Sons = 100

100/4 + 100/6 + 100/6 + x +x +x + 1.5x + 1.5x = 100

6x  = 100 – 100/4 – 100/6 – 100/6

6x = 100 – 25 – 16.67 – 16.67

6x = 41.67

x= 6.94 = each daughter’s share,

Each son’s share = 1.5x = 10.41, Husband’s share = 25, Father and mothers share each = 16.67

Kalalah Cases:

Quran uses a word ‘Kalalah’ for inheritance distribution in certain cases. The word ‘Kalalah’ however is not well defined in dictionaries. Religious scholars have tried to guess the meanings of ‘Kalalah’ on the basis of two Ayas i.e 4:12 and 4:176. What they came up with the interpretation as ‘a person leaving behind no offsprings nor parents/grandparents’. The problem however remained with this interpretation is that the distribution of shares described in 4:12 and 4:176 both concern siblings however both Ayahs describe different distribution for siblings. The traditionalists found a way out of this predicament by assuming that one Ayat to be used for distribution of shares of real siblings and the other for calculating shares of uterine siblings. However this interpretation at best seems lame and arbitrary as Ayahs don’t mention this distinction.

As these three Ayahs which describe the distribution of shares of inheritance are based on pure mathematics, therefore I believe the correct interpretation of Kalalah will be that which satisfies both cases mathematically. One thing for sure is that ‘Kalalah’ case is the case of distribution of inheritance to the siblings. My understanding of differentiation of these two cases is as below:

First case i.e Ayat 4:12 describe a case in which a person specifically nominates his siblings to be given share in his inheritance while his children are also present. The basis of this assumption is the statement (in case a man or woman is inherited ‘Kalalah’) so it denotes not a normal case but a certain case in which siblings are nominated to be inherited by the deceased.

 Second case is described in Ayat 4:176 when siblings in any case get their share in inheritance. This is the case when there are no children of the deceased to share in inheritance.

4:12  إِن كَانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلَالَةً أَوِ امْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ فَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ ۚ فَإِن كَانُوا أَكْثَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ فِي الثُّلُثِ

In case a man or woman is inherited by Kalalah, and for him is a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if they are more than this, then all share in the third.

4:176  يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِي الْكَلَالَةِ ۚ إِنِ امْرُؤٌ هَلَكَ لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَهُ أُخْتٌ فَلَهَا نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ ۚ وَهُوَ يَرِثُهَا إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهَا وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَتَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُمَا الثُّلُثَانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَ ۚ وَإِن كَانُوا إِخْوَةً رِّجَالًا وَنِسَاءً فَلِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۗ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ أَن تَضِلُّوا ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

They ask you (messenger) for a fatwa/advice. Say. Allah gives you fatwa/advice in Kalala. If a man dies for him there is no son, and  he has a sister then for her is half of what he left and he will inherit her if she does not have a son/child, and If they are two (females) they shall have two-thirds out of what he left and if there are brothers and sisters, then for a male is (a share) like share of two females. Thus Allah makes clear to you, lest you go astray, and Allah has knowledge of all things.

  • When there are no children then siblings inherit per ratio of males to females. (The brother becomes an inheritor only when there is no child  (وَهُوَ يَرِثُهَا إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهَا وَلَد))
  • Sister share is half of male’s share in case of 1 sister only. When only one sister, ratio of brother:sister :: 2:1
  • If there are two sisters then their share ratio is 2/3 of male’s share. (brother to sister:: 1.5:1)
  • If mix of brothers and sisters then share of a males is like of share of 2 sisters. Shares of 2 sisters in this case is defined as  2/3 of male’s share. (male to female: 1.5:1). Therefore this ratio will be maintained for mix of brothers and sisters.

As the case with sons and daughters Ayat 4:11, the ratio of sister and brother’s shares are described here, not total inheritance values. This is obvious from orders in Quran otherwise, if they were fixed inheritance values other than ratios, then husband, no kids and 2 sisters would not be able to be distributed as husband gets 1/2 and 2 sisters would get 2/3rd.

Ex 15: Mother, Father,  1 sister 1 brother, no child

4:11  فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُ وَلَدٌ وَوَرِثَهُ أَبَوَاهُ فَلِأُمِّهِ الثُّلُثُ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُ إِخْوَةٌ فَلِأُمِّهِ السُّدُسُ..

If no child, and both parents are the heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased Left brothers (siblings) the mother has a sixth

And as per  4:176 (إِنِ امْرُؤٌ هَلَكَ لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَهُ أُخْتٌ فَلَهَا نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ ۚ وَهُوَ يَرِثُهَا إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهَا وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَتَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُمَا الثُّلُثَانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَ) in case there is no child and siblings are present then siblings will have distribution as per ratios of brother to sister of 2:1, except in case of 2 or more sisters, the ratio of brother to sister will be 1.5:1

Mother’s and Father’s share is 1/6th each.  Assume sister’s share x, then brother’s share is 2x

Mother +  Fathers  + Sister + Brother = 100

100/6 + 100/6 +  x + 2x = 100

3x = 100 – 200/6

Sister’s share x= 22.22
Brothers share 44.44
Mothers share 16.67
Father’s share 16.67

Ex 15a: Mother, Father,  2 sisters , no child

Mother’s and Father’s share is 1/6th each.

The 2 sister’s share of 2/3 ( فَإِن كَانَتَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُمَا الثُّلُثَانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَ) is the ratio of brothers to sisters i.e if sister share is x, brother’s share will be 1.5x. As in this case there is no brother, we will assume each sister’s share is x. Then the equation can be written as follows:

Mother’s share + Father’s share + sister’s share + sister’s share = 100

100/6 + 100/6 + x + x = 100

2x = 100 – 200/6

x = 33.33, each sister’s share

Mother’s and father’s share = 16.66 each

Ex 16: Mother, 1 sister 1 brother, 2 daughters, 1 son (deceased nominated siblings in inheritance)

Since deceased nominates in this case siblings to be given share in inheritance, therefore they will be given shares in inheritance as per Ayat 4:12. Mothers share is 1/6th,  Each brother and sister share is 1/6 (إِن كَانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلَالَةً أَوِ امْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ فَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ ), assume x as daughter’s share, then son’s share is 2x:

Mother + Sister + Brother + Daughter + Son’s share = 100

100/6 + 100/6 + 100/6 + x + x + 2x = 100

4x = 100 – 300/6

4x = 50

x= 12.5

Sister’s share= 16.66

Brother’s share = 16.66

Mothers share= 16.66

Son’s share= 25

Each Daughter’s share = 12.5

Ex 17: Father, Mother, 2 brother, 2 sisters, 2 sons, 1 daughter

(deceased nominates siblings in inheritance)

Father and mother each has a share of 1/6. ( وَلِأَبَوَيْهِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ مِمَّا تَرَكَ إِن كَانَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ)

2 brothers and 2 sisters share equally in 1/3 (وَإِن كَانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلَالَةً أَوِ امْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ فَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ ۚ فَإِن كَانُوا أَكْثَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ فِي الثُّلُثِ)

Assume share of daughter as x, then share of son is 2x

Father + Mother + Brothers + Sisters + Daughter + Sons’ share = 100

100/6 + 100/6 + 100/3 + x + 2x + 2x = 100

5x = 100 – 100/6 – 100/6 – 100/3

5x = 33.33

x = 6.67= Daughter’s share

Each son’s share = 13.33

Father and Mother’s each share= 16.66

Total share of 2 brothers and sisters = 33.33, each of them gets 8.33

Ex 18: 3 daughters, 2 sons, father,  mothers, 3 wives, 3 sisters, 2 brothers (deceased does not nominate siblings in inheritance)

Assume each daughter’s share= x, then each son’s share will be 1.5x, father and mother each gets 1/6th, 3 wives share in 1/8th. Sisters and brothers don’t get share because of children’s presence and deceased has not nominated siblings in inheritance. Three daughters will be x +x+x = 3x, two sons will be 1.5x +1.5x = 3x

3x + 3x + 100/6 + 100/6 + 100/8 = 100

6x = 100 – 100/6 – 100/6 – 100/8

6x = 54.17

x = 9.03

Total
Each daughter’s share 9.03 27.08
Each son’s share 13.54 27.08
Fathers share 16.67 16.67
Mothers share 16.67 16.67
Each wife’s share 4.17 12.50

Ex 19: Mother, no children, 2 sisters no brother

Mother’s share is 1/6th,  sister’s share assume x, then two sisters’ share is 2x: ( 2/3rd for 2 sisters is the ratio, which will be applicable in case there are brother/brothers)

Mother + Sisters  = 100

100/6 + 2x = 100

2x = 100 – 100/6

2x = 83.33

x = 41.66 = share of each sister

Mother gets 16.66

Ex 20: Mother and father and no children, 2 sisters, 1 brother

Mother’s share is 1/6th, Father’s share 1/6 (per 4:11, Mother’s and father’s share were both 1/6 each when no children). For sister’s share assume x, then brothers share is 1.5x: ( 2/3rd for 2 sisters is the ratio, which will be applicable in case there is a mix of brothers and sisters)

Mother + Father + Sisters + brother’s share  = 100

100/6 + 100/6 + x +x + 1.5x + 1.5x = 100

5x= 66.66

x= 13.33, each sister gets 13.33, each brother gets 20, mother gets 16.66 and father’s share is 16.66.

The Orphans’ case:

Allah admonishes against eating orphans’ wealth in many places in Quran.  There are lot of Ayahs warning not to eat orphan’s wealth. It seems that some practices will always be going on in the society where people don’t give orphans their due share. Consider a case where a man dies, and leaves offspring. One of the his offspring may already have died leaving behind his own children. However, these children will not get any share in their grandfather’s inheritance as per traditional practice. A recommendation is to consider the already deceased son (who has orphans or widow) to be a share holder in grandfather’s inheritance. Then this share of the deceased son can be distributed further among his children and spouse according to Quranic injunctions.

4:2  وَآتُوا الْيَتَامَىٰ أَمْوَالَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَتَبَدَّلُوا الْخَبِيثَ بِالطَّيِّبِ ۖ وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَهُمْ إِلَىٰ أَمْوَالِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حُوبًا كَبِيرًا

Give the orphans their wealth, do not substitute the bad things with (their) good ones; and do not eat their wealth by (by mixing it up) with your wealth; this is indeed a great sin.

4:10  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ الْيَتَامَىٰ ظُلْمًا إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ نَارًا ۖ وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيرًا

Those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, eat up a fire into their bellies. They will enter a blazing fire!

89:19 وَتَأْكُلُونَ التُّرَاثَ أَكْلًا لَّمًّا  وَتُحِبُّونَ الْمَالَ حُبًّا جَمًّا

And you devour inheritance – all with greed and ye love wealth an intense love!

 

  • The Arabic word ‘Walad/( وَلَد) is translated as ‘Child’ in above post as the the Ayat 2:233 also implies the understanding of this word as child.

 

 

Qibla/Direction (of belief) and Kaaba

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Qibla means ‘Direction’. In religious context it means the direction of one’s faith. The word ‘Kaaba’ is understood to be the cube shaped House of God, situated in the city of Makkah.

The belief system of every individual can be thought of his spiritual house in which he feels protection. The spiritual house is initially built with inputs from one’s immediate environment and people in his surroundings, who instill the fundamentals of belief in him. The initial spiritual house a person builds and feels protection in it, is built without the knowledge and Sprit of Allah’s Ayahs.

29:41  مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ كَمَثَلِ الْعَنكَبُوتِ اتَّخَذَتْ بَيْتًا ۖ وَإِنَّ أَوْهَنَ الْبُيُوتِ لَبَيْتُ الْعَنكَبُوتِ ۖ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ

The example of those who take protectors other than Allah is that of the spider, who builds a house; and truly the flimsiest of houses is that of the spider;- if they but knew.

The First house established for mankind by Allah, is Kaaba (cube) which is at Bakka/Makka. This house is for guidance of the whole World.  We will review in this post about, what guidance emanates from this place.

3:96 إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِي بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكًا وَهُدًى لِّلْعَالَمِينَ

The first House appointed for mankind is that at Bakka (Makkah): Full of blessings and of guidance for all Worlds.

Bakka is an attribute of city of Makkah meaning ‘busy place’. The city is situated in a non agriculture valley of folds having hills of varying shades of blacks and greys. The house is made of black-stone and is in the midst of the sacred Mosque/Masjid ul Haram. The house is not made of bricks, the lining we see which appear as bricks are decorative stripes put on the black stone. Other attributes for this place are Bait Ul Ateeq/the ancient House (29:33الْبَيْتِ الْعَتِيقِ) and Umm ul Qura 6:92 ( أُمَّ الْقُرَىٰ) /Mother of dwellings.

5:97  جَعَلَ اللَّهُ الْكَعْبَةَ الْبَيْتَ الْحَرَامَ قِيَامًا لِّلنَّاسِ وَالشَّهْرَ الْحَرَامَ وَالْهَدْيَ وَالْقَلَائِدَ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

Allah has made the Ka’bah, The Sacred House, a place of standing for people (in prayers), and The Sacred Month, and the offering, and the garlands/orbits, That you may know that Allah has knowledge of what is in the skies and in earth and that Allah is well-acquainted with all things.

Kabah, the sacred house, is recognizable with the standing of people in prayers (the system of salat is established in that place), and system of Hajj with association of month of Hajj and the offerings at Hajj. The people do tawaf/orbits around Kabah. These orbits appear as garlands around the Kabah when seen from above.  

9:28  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ فَلَا يَقْرَبُوا الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ بَعْدَ عَامِهِمْ هَٰذَا ۚ وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ عَيْلَةً فَسَوْفَ يُغْنِيكُمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ إِن شَاءَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ

O you who believe! Truly the associaters are unclean; so let them not  approach the Sacred Mosque after this year. And if you fear poverty, soon Allah will enrich you, if He wills, out of His bounty, for Allah is All-knowing, All-wise.

Those who associate others in Allah are unclean spiritually. When some one who was previously involved in associations with Allah, realizes that and makes correction in belief then he after cleansing himself should make plans for visit to the sacred House. Without the spiritual cleansing, the guidance emanating from sacred House stated in Ayat 3:96 will not be achieved.

2:158  إِنَّ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةَ مِن شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ ۖ فَمَنْ حَجَّ الْبَيْتَ أَوِ اعْتَمَرَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِ أَن يَطَّوَّفَ بِهِمَا ۚ وَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَاكِرٌ عَلِيمٌ

Surely! Safa and Marwah are among the symbols of Allah, so if any who goes for Hajj or Umra of the House, It is no sin on him, that he goes round them and whoever voluntarily does good, so surely Allah is He who is thankful and knowing.

Safa and Marwa are two raised spots near the Sacred house, symbols for its recognition. One who goes for the visit of the sacred House, would go around them as part of the pilgrimage.

20:12  إِنِّي أَنَا رَبُّكَ فَاخْلَعْ نَعْلَيْكَ ۖ إِنَّكَ بِالْوَادِ الْمُقَدَّسِ طُوًى

(O’ Moosa) Surely I am your Lord so take off your shoes. Surely you are with the Holy Valley of folds.

All prophets went for pilgrimage of the sacred house. The Holy valley is called with the name of ‘Tuwa’ i.e a valley of folds in Quran. The practice of Prophet Moosa A.S to take off his shoes in the sacred valley, is followed by pilgrims when entering the House of the Lord.

23:15  وَجَعَلْنَا ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ وَأُمَّهُ آيَةً وَآوَيْنَاهُمَا إِلَىٰ رَبْوَةٍ ذَاتِ قَرَارٍ وَمَعِينٍ

And We made the son of Mary and his mother, a Sign. We gave them shelter on raised ground of tranquility and springs.

Prophet Essa A.S and his mother Mariam, also are associated with the Holy land. The signs mentioned will always be there, e.g the well of Zamzam for spring of water and the raised spots of Safwa and Marwa.

The well/spring of Zamzam is a sign associated with the Kaaba the House of the Lord. This well supplies water and quenches thirst of millions of pilgrims and has been around for thousands of years without drying up. The well retains its water level in matter of minutes. (see picture in notes below)

6:75-79 وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُرِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ مَلَكُوتَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلِيَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُوقِنِينَ  فَلَمَّا جَنَّ عَلَيْهِ اللَّيْلُ رَأَىٰ كَوْكَبًا ۖ قَالَ هَٰذَا رَبِّي ۖ فَلَمَّا أَفَلَ قَالَ لَا أُحِبُّ الْآفِلِينَ  فَلَمَّا رَأَى الْقَمَرَ بَازِغًا قَالَ هَٰذَا رَبِّي ۖ فَلَمَّا أَفَلَ قَالَ لَئِن لَّمْ يَهْدِنِي رَبِّي لَأَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الضَّالِّينَ   فَلَمَّا رَأَى الشَّمْسَ بَازِغَةً قَالَ هَٰذَا رَبِّي هَٰذَا أَكْبَرُ ۖ فَلَمَّا أَفَلَتْ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ  إِنِّي وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ حَنِيفًا ۖ وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

And likewise, We showed Ibraheem A.S the kingdom of the skies and the earth that he might be of those having belief. When the night covered him over, he saw a planet: he said, “This is my Lord.” But when it set, he said: “I love not those that set. When he saw the moon rising he said: “This is my Lord.” But when the moon set, he said: “If my Lord does not guide me, I shall surely be among those who go astray. When he saw the sun rising he said: “This is my Lord; this is greater.” But when the sun set, he said: O my people! I am indeed free from your (guilt) of associating partners with Allah.

In terms of Hujjat/logical arguments to his people, Ibrahim A.S explained with the help of examples of exceeding bigger things which may appear to people as of divine importance, that only Allah is to be focused upon, no matter how bright and shining and invincible any object or personality seems to them.

6:79  إِنِّي وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ حَنِيفًا ۖ وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

I have set myself firmly and truly, to Him Who originated the skies and the earth, and I am not from those who associate partners with Allah.

After disassociating oneself from previous psychological idols held in high esteem, one is to focus on the Lord, who created the skies and earth. This is the first step in setting the true direction of belief.

In terms of search for the true direction of belief, the order is to set our direction of belief to the Sacred mosque. Which means to adopt the system of the Sacred mosque and not to oppose the system established there.

2:144  قَدْ نَرَىٰ تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ ۖ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْلَةً تَرْضَاهَا ۚ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۚ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ ۗ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۗ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ

Without doubt, We see the movements of your face in the sky, so, We will revert you to a Qiblah/direction (of faith) that shall please you. So revert yourself to the intersection/portion of the Sacred Mosque: and from wherever you come, revert yourselves to its intersection/portion. Surely, those who are given the Book definitely know that this is the truth from their Lord. and Allah is not unaware of what they are doing.

The Masjid Al Haram has a established system of Salat and Tawaf. Which ever sect you belong to, leave sectarian practice and turn your self towards the ‘Salat’ portion of Masjid Al Haram. Facing the sacred mosque is symbolically stating that you adhere to the system of Salat established in that Mosque.

Prophet Ibrahim was shown the place of the Sacred House and he was entrusted to establish the system of Salat and Tawaf in the house. 

22:26  وَإِذْ بَوَّأْنَا لِإِبْرَاهِيمَ مَكَانَ الْبَيْتِ أَن لَّا تُشْرِكْ بِي شَيْئًا وَطَهِّرْ بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْقَائِمِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ

And when We pointed out the place of the House to Ibraheem “associate not anything with Me; and purify My house for those who go around, and who stand and bow, prostrate.”

In the sunnat/practice of Prophet Ibraheem A.S, we are to purify the House of the Lord of evil associations in the minds of people. There are stories in people’s mind that at some point in time the House of the Lord was not pure. That there were physical idols placed inside the House and people used to go around the House, naked.  All these notions are false made out of distorted history. The House of the Lord must always been clean and a place of getting guidance for the Salat and Hajj for the mankind from day one, as it is the first House established for mankind for guidance.  

2:125  وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَمْنًا وَاتَّخِذُوا مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى ۖ وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ

And when We made the house a place of reward and safety for people, and you take from the standing position of Ibraheem, the Musalla / prayer performed. And We covenanted with Ibraheem and Ismaeel that both of you purify My house for those who go around and those who intent upon (do Aetikaf) and those who bow and prostate.

Please note the system of Masjid Haram:
1. Not to associate anyone in partnership with Allah
2. Tawaf of the House
3. Salat/Namaz

7:29  قُلْ أَمَرَ رَبِّي بِالْقِسْطِ ۖ وَأَقِيمُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ عِندَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ وَادْعُوهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ ۚ كَمَا بَدَأَكُمْ تَعُودُونَ

Say; “My lord has ordered with justice; and you establish your faces/selves near every mosque and call Him, making your judgment pure for Him. As He originated you, so you will return”.

All mosques are shatar/part(شَطْرَ) of the Masjidul-Haram/Sacred Mosque by virtue of facing towards it. You may visit any mosque and pray there in as per system of Salat established in the Sacred Mosque. If people argue with you over your salat then your argument should be that you have taken the system of salat on the basis of Ayahs of Quran (See previous post https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/21/salat-procedure/ )

2:127  وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ الْقَوَاعِدَ مِنَ الْبَيْتِ وَإِسْمَاعِيلُ رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

And when Ibraheem and Isma’il raised  from the House, Al-Qawaid/the Rules, “Our Lord! Accept from us for you are All hearing, All knowing.”

What are the rules that were raised by Ibrahim and Ismail from the House of Allah; the rules of Salat/Prayers and Tawaf/Hajj.

14:37  رَّبَّنَا إِنِّي أَسْكَنتُ مِن ذُرِّيَّتِي بِوَادٍ غَيْرِ ذِي زَرْعٍ عِندَ بَيْتِكَ الْمُحَرَّمِ رَبَّنَا لِيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ فَاجْعَلْ أَفْئِدَةً مِّنَ النَّاسِ تَهْوِي إِلَيْهِمْ وَارْزُقْهُم مِّنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَشْكُرُونَ

“O’ our Lord surely I have settled from my offspring within the valley without cultivation near your Sacred House, O’ Our Lord, so that they establish As-Salat/The prayer, so make the hearts of people loving towards them and provide them with fruits so that they will be thankful.”

Ibrahim A.S, who was made Imam and entrusted to keep the House of Allah purified, made some of his offsprings (spritual) station there and prayed to Allah for ensuring the sanctity of establishment of salat at that place. After the system of Salat is established by people there, they will be rewarded with fruits imported from all over the world in that non-agricultural valley.

3:97  فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّنَاتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۖ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا ۗ وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا ۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ

In it are clear ayats / signs, the standing position of Ibraheem; whoever enters it attains security. And for Allah is Pilgrimage of the house on people, those who can afford the journey, but if anyone denies, surely Allah is not in need of any in the worlds.

When a person disassociate with alternative religious teachings, leave the sectarian belief system, adopts the guidance of Allah and enters the House of the Lord physically and spiritually, he surely enters into peace and security. He leaves behind him sectarian hatred and enmity.

When you exit from your previous beliefs i.e the beliefs held before the clarity of Ayahs of Allah, you should redirect your self towards the Masjid Haram and become part of it, so that people cannot argue with your way of salat/prayers.

2:150  وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۚ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَيْكُمْ حُجَّةٌ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مِنْهُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِي وَلِأُتِمَّ نِعْمَتِي عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

And from wherever you come out, so revert yourself to the intersection / portion of the Sacred Mosque  and wherever you are, revert yourselves to its intersection/portion that there would be no ground of dispute over you from the people except those of them that are bent on wickedness, so fear them not but fear Me and that I may complete My favors on you and that you may be guided.

The people who insist that the system of Salat and Tawaf in the Masjid ul Haram/Sacred Mosque is not right, and instead their system is right, should see below Ayahs:

8:34-5  وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلَّا يُعَذِّبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُوا أَوْلِيَاءَهُ ۚ إِنْ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُ إِلَّا الْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ  وَمَا كَانَ صَلَاتُهُمْ عِندَ الْبَيْتِ إِلَّا مُكَاءً وَتَصْدِيَةً ۚ فَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْفُرُونَ

But what plea they have, that Allah should not punish them when they are in opposition about the Sacred Mosque and they are not its protectors (Walis). No one can be its protectors except those who take guard, but most of them do not understand. Their Salat/prayer near the House is nothing but whistling and clapping of hands, “Taste the penalty because you rejected”.

If you do not follow the system of salat which is established at the Holy House, it is just like whistling and clapping in the eyes of Allah

1:6  اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ

Guide us to the straight path.

Most people believe that by the grace of  God, they are born on the straight path, while Allah has made it incumbent to recite this Ayat in each Raka of Salat five times a day to supplicate to Allah to guide them to the straight path. Truly, guidance is only from Allah and He bestows it to whomever He wills and can only be attained by following the Spirit of Ayahs of Allah.

2:142  سَيَقُولُ السُّفَهَاءُ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَا وَلَّاهُمْ عَن قِبْلَتِهِمُ الَّتِي كَانُوا عَلَيْهَا ۚ قُل لِّلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ ۚ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

The fools among the people will say: ” What has reverted them from their Qiblah/direction (of faith) on which they were?” Say: for Allah is East and West. He guides whom He wills to a straight path.

When one attains the Sprit of Ayahs of Allah, he realizes that he needs to change his direction of belief as per Ayahs of Allah and moves away from the sectarian teaching. At that time the silly people of his earlier sect would object and ask what made him change his direction of faith.

2:143  وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِّتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا ۗ وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الْقِبْلَةَ الَّتِي كُنتَ عَلَيْهَا إِلَّا لِنَعْلَمَ مَن يَتَّبِعُ الرَّسُولَ مِمَّن يَنقَلِبُ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ ۚ وَإِن كَانَتْ لَكَبِيرَةً إِلَّا عَلَى الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ ۗ وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِيعَ إِيمَانَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِالنَّاسِ لَرَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Likewise, We made you a balanced nation, that you be a witnesses over people, and the messenger be a witness over yourselves; and We did not make the Qiblah/direction (of faith) you were on it before,  except that We know those who followed the messenger from those who would turn over their heels. Surely, it is a great thing, except, for those whom Allah guides and never would Allah make your belief be of no effect. Surely, Allah is to people full of Kindness, Most Merciful.

Indeed changing ones direction of belief is a great burdensome thing to do by any one. He or she has to face a lot of opposition from community and near and dear ones. This can only be achived with the help and guidance of Allah and Allah does not let go the belief of people to wastage.

We know that the first house established for the mankind is in Bakka/Makkah (3:96). However, people think of it as the second Qibla historically. The first Qibla is deemed to be another mosque which cannot be recognized with peace and Barakat/blessings. The characteristics of this alternative mosque are exposed in below Ayahs.

9:107 وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مَسْجِدًا ضِرَارًا وَكُفْرًا وَتَفْرِيقًا بَيْنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَإِرْصَادًا لِّمَنْ حَارَبَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ مِن قَبْلُ ۚ وَلَيَحْلِفُنَّ إِنْ أَرَدْنَا إِلَّا الْحُسْنَىٰ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ

And these (hypocrites) who have taken a mosque as an ambush (i.e. hidden place for sudden attack), for those who have been waging war against Allah and His messenger from before, to harm and to reject (i.e. Islam / Peace) and to make divisions between the believers and definitely they swear that our intention is nothing except goodness. And Allah testifies that surely they are definite liars.

The hypocrites have taken one Mosque for harm and rejection and division among believers and for waging gorilla war against the People who had been fighting with Allah from before. So you can recognize which mosque is this one, where there is a dispute, between two groups. Gorilla type of war is going on  there and Islam is being harmed. And there can never be peace at that place till the day of Judgment 5:64.

9:108 لَا تَقُمْ فِيهِ أَبَدًا ۚ لَّمَسْجِدٌ أُسِّسَ عَلَى التَّقْوَىٰ مِنْ أَوَّلِ يَوْمٍ أَحَقُّ أَن تَقُومَ فِيهِ ۚ فِيهِ رِجَالٌ يُحِبُّونَ أَن يَتَطَهَّرُوا ۚ وَاللَّهُ يُحِبُّ الْمُطَّهِّرِينَ

You never ever stand in it, definitely that mosque (i.e. Masjid-e-Haram / Sacred mosque) whose basis from the first day is on Taqwa/taking guard, it is more right that you stand in it. In it are men who love to purify themselves. And Allah loves those who purify themselves.

The order is that believers never to take a stand for that mosque which symbolizes harm, gorilla war and terrorism. Believers are to take stand for the Sacred Mosque, Masjid ul Haram which is established on Truth since day one.

2:145  وَلَئِنْ أَتَيْتَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ بِكُلِّ آيَةٍ مَّا تَبِعُوا قِبْلَتَكَ ۚ وَمَا أَنتَ بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَتَهُمْ ۚ وَمَا بَعْضُهُم بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَةَ بَعْضٍ ۚ وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءَهُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ ۙ إِنَّكَ إِذًا لَّمِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ

And even if you were to bring to those who are given the Book all the signs (Ayahs), they would not follow your Qiblah (direction), nor you are going to follow their Qiblah nor will they follow each other’s Qiblah. If you were to follow their desires after the knowledge has come to you, surely, you would be among the wrong doers.

14:35-36  وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَٰذَا الْبَلَدَ آمِنًا وَاجْنُبْنِي وَبَنِيَّ أَن نَّعْبُدَ الْأَصْنَامَ  رَبِّ إِنَّهُنَّ أَضْلَلْنَ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ ۖ فَمَن تَبِعَنِي فَإِنَّهُ مِنِّي ۖ وَمَنْ عَصَانِي فَإِنَّكَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

And when Ibraheem said, O’ my Lord! Make this city of peace and security and keep me and my sons strangers from serving Asnam (idols with love). O my Lord! Surely they have led astray many among people, so who follows me is of me, and he who disobeys me, so you are surely Oft-Forgiving,Most Merciful.

Asnam are the idols with association of love. Many sectarians fall prey to  psychological idols whose love is instilled in them by their environment. Prophet Ibraheem A.S prays to Allah to make him and his sons strangers to the Asnams as a majority of mankind has been lead to delusion.

27:91  إِنَّمَا أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ رَبَّ هَٰذِهِ الْبَلْدَةِ الَّذِي حَرَّمَهَا وَلَهُ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ ۖ وَأُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ

For me, I have been commanded to serve the Lord of this City, Who has made it sacred, and for Him are all things: and I am commanded to be of those who are Muslims/submitters.

27:92  وَأَنْ أَتْلُوَ الْقُرْآنَ ۖ فَمَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدِي لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَن ضَلَّ فَقُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُنذِرِينَ

And that I  recite the Quran, and if any one accept guidance, he does it for the good of his own self, and if anyone goes astray, say “I am only a warner”.

Notes:

Link to the lecture of Qibla (direction of belief) by scholar Sholar Mohammad Shaikh:

Kabah / Cube And Qibla / Direction (2009)

https://www.iipccanada.com/category/urdu-video-lectures/emaan-ki-simt/

 

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Saum/Fast in Quran

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Muslims perform fasting during the Holy month of Ramadan. In fasting they refrain from normally lawful eating, drinking and sexual activity from dawn to dusk. The main purpose of fasting is to increase consciousness of Allah in oneself. During fasting we abstain from halal and lawful things knowing that we are being watched by Allah although no one else is watching, so our consciousness of Allah increases. The purpose of training of Saum/fast is to increase our consciousness of Allah. Similar is the concept of Akhira or accountability. It a reaffirmation of the fact to be aware that Allah watches us when one one else does. With this training we pay heed to accountability. Think of accountability as if your video is being made all time and this video would be made available at the time of our final accountability. Normally, when people are conscious of their video being made, they behave differently being conscious of the fact that they are being recorded. Many a people, if they know for sure that they would get away with a bad act as nobody in the world would know about it, they would do so, forgetting at the moment that we cannot get away with any evil act and Allah will make us accountable for every single thing we did in this life. The training of Saum/fast is related to this concept in that we develop the feeling of being conscious of Allah and this consciousness of Allah in our nafs keeps us away from doing evil things. In Ramadan our striking the body with the discomfort refraining from eating and drinking acts as constant reminder of consciousness of Allah. Once the consciousness of Allah becomes part of our nafs, it should extend beyond the month of Ramadan.

2:185  شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَىٰ وَالْفُرْقَانِ ۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۗ يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Ramadan is the month in which Al-Quran/The Reading was sent down, a guidance for mankind, and clarification from the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong), so whosoever is a witness amongst you of that month, then he should fast in it, but if any one is ill, or travelling, then the count (should be made up) in later days. Allah intends facility for you; He does not intend to put you to hardship. So that you complete the prescribed period (of fasting), and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and you be grateful to Him.

In the month of Ramadan our defense mechanism increases against doing evil by refraining from even lawful halal things during the day. People usually refrain themselves from doing bad and evil things in Ramadan, which they may do in other months. If we can refrain our selves in doing evil during this one month, we may try to train ourselves to refrain from doing evil for the rest of the year.

The fasting as other orders of Allah, has always been incumbent upon believers in all times.

2:183  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

O ye who believe! Fasting is written over you as it was written over those before you, that you may take guard,-

In case of sickness or travel you should not fast but keep count of these days to be completed later. It is not allowed to do fasting in sickness which will worsen because of keeping fast. Similarly while travelling significant distances which may involve time difference between destinations, keeping fast is not allowed.

In case you are in-capacitated to fast due to physical conditions or being at a place where it is difficult to distinguish between days and nights, then you can do Fidya/recompense of Saum i.e arrange to feed a poor person in lieu of keeping fast.

2:184  أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَاتٍ ۚ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۚ وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ ۖ فَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُ ۚ وَأَن تَصُومُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

(Fasting) for a counted number of days; but if any of you is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed number (should be completed) from days later. For those who can do it (With hardship), is a ransom, the feeding of one that is indigent. But he that will give more, of his own free will,- it is better for him. And it is better for you that you fast, if you only knew.

In Ramadan people try to  indulge mostly in worship of the Lord and in doing so some, avoid contact with their wives during the Ramadan nights, sometimes sacrificing their desires. Allah advises that you need not be dishonest to your nafs/physche and seek your woman during the Ramadan nights as this is lawful.

However, contact with women during Aaitekaf/devotion in the mosques is not allowed.  

2:187  أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَىٰ نِسَائِكُمْ ۚ هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَّهُنَّ ۗ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ ۖ فَالْآنَ بَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَابْتَغُوا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۚ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ فَلَا تَقْرَبُوهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ

It is lawful for you to be intimate with your women in the night of fasts, they are a covering for you and you are covering for them. Allah knows that you used to be dishonest with your nafs/psyche, so He returns over you and pardoned you about it. So now be in contact with them and seek what Allah has written for you,

 And eat and drink until from dawn the white thread clarifies for you from the black thread then complete the fast towards the night and you do not accompany them when you are devoted/Aakif in the mosques. These are the boundaries of Allah so you do not go near them. Likewise Allah clarifies His Ayas / signs for people so that they may take guard.

In keeping Saum/fast We can eat and drink in the night as long as we don’t see a slight indication of morning light getting distinguished from the night’s darkness. Then the prohibition of Saum will last during the day till dusk when again the day changes into night; going towards the night (i.e not actual night)

Correction with Saum/Fasting:

If we recognize ourselves  deviating from the Right, then we can apply the method given in below Ayat for correction:

5:89  لَا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا عَقَّدتُّمُ الْأَيْمَانَ ۖ فَكَفَّارَتُهُ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ أَوْ كِسْوَتُهُمْ أَوْ تَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ ۖ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ كَفَّارَةُ أَيْمَانِكُمْ إِذَا حَلَفْتُمْ ۚ وَاحْفَظُوا أَيْمَانَكُمْ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Allah does not call you to account with futile talk in your oaths, but He calls you to account with what you deliberate in your oaths/right. Thus it’s expiation is to feed ten indigent persons, the average of the food you feed your families; or clothe them; or free a neck. If any does not find such then fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths/right you have sworn. Guard your oaths/right. This way Allah make clear to you His Ayahs/signs, that you may be grateful.

For example a person recognizes that lying is wrong conduct and is not ‘Right’ but he thinks that he is forced to do so because of circumstances beyond his control. Then he can start doing correction by paying an expiation every time he finds himself deviating from right i.e either feed ten poor, or clothe them or free a neck from debt or if he is not able to afford these then fast for three days. After paying the expiation for a few times, He should be much better able to control himself in deviating from the Right, Insha’Allah.

For bigger matters e.g Zihar or accidentally killing a person unintentionally the prescription is for two months consecutive fasting in order to mitigate the profound effects on ones psychology 4:92, 58:4.

Saum of Speech

19:26 فَكُلِي وَاشْرَبِي وَقَرِّي عَيْنًا ۖ فَإِمَّا تَرَيِنَّ مِنَ الْبَشَرِ أَحَدًا فَقُولِي إِنِّي نَذَرْتُ لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ صَوْمًا فَلَنْ أُكَلِّمَ الْيَوْمَ إِنسِيًّا

(O Maryam) “So eat and drink and cool (your) eye. And if you see any man, say, ‘I have vowed a fast to (Allah) Most Gracious, and this day I will not  enter into talk with any human”

A less commonly known Saum/fast is of speaking to people. When one has the initial encounter with the Spirit of Allah’s Ayat/Ayahs, then he/she is not to speak about them immediately to any one, unless one attains clarity about the Ayahs and practically implement them in one’s life.

Parent and children relationship guidelines

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Parents raise their kids in the best possible way they can manage given the resources they have. They transfer their values to their children as well, the values which were instilled in them by their own parents, their society and their culture. They like to transfer the same to their kids. They want their children to follow things which they believe are right and good. Also, there are certain things which the parents themselves are not doing, however, they want their children to do so. They keep on instructing their kids about them. The children in this case are able to see the difference in the words and actions of their parents. When the kids grow up they point out to their parents these differences and some have altercations with their parents as well.

Al-Quran’s guide lines in dealing with the parents is that in whatever means parents were able to raise the kids, kids are not to blame parents for their shortcomings. In matters of guidance parents are not responsible for their children’s actions and vice versa. We will see the Ayahs of Quran for these guidelines as below:

Parents:

Parents are instructed not to forget Allah and His orders while raising kids. Parents should not be overwhelmed in the love of their offspring to the extent as to ignore the orders of Allah in this regard.

63:9 يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُلْهِكُمْ أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

O you people who believe! Let not your wealth nor your offspring divert you from the remembrance of Allah. If any does that, they are from the losers.  

If we are blessed with wealth and offspring in the world, it is not because we have some special favors bestowed on us by the Lord. The only thing which can bring us closer to our Lord in stature, is our belief in Him and the corrections we strive to do  in our actions.

34:37  وَمَا أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُكُم بِالَّتِي تُقَرِّبُكُمْ عِندَنَا زُلْفَىٰ إِلَّا مَنْ آمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَأُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ جَزَاءُ الضِّعْفِ بِمَا عَمِلُوا وَهُمْ فِي الْغُرُفَاتِ آمِنُونَ

It is not your wealth nor your offspring that will bring you nearer to Us: but only those who believe and work righteousness; these are the ones for whom there is double reward for their deeds, and they will be  in peace in rooms/chambers.

The Satan catches us in our weak moments i.e when we are in an emotionally vulnerable condition. Most of us have great emotional attachment with our children, Ayat 17:64  warns us that this love would be used by Satan in deluding from the path of the Lord ( وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَوْلَادِ وَعِدْهُمْ ۚ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا ). Therefore we should not close our eyes to Allah’s commands while doing justice and giving truthful witness while dealing with our children and other people (4:135).

8:28  وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَأَوْلَادُكُمْ فِتْنَةٌ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ

And know that your wealth and your children are but a temptation and with Allah is a great reward.

Allah says that the majority of the people in world are not the thankful ones and not on the right path. The majority of these people try to make sure that their kids follow the same ideology and belief system which they are following thus contributing to the vicious cycle of deviation from the right path. Imposing one’s ideology in the guise of Din/judgment on one’s children is tantamount to the psychological killing of the children and destroying them.

6:137 وَكَذَٰلِكَ زَيَّنَ لِكَثِيرٍ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ قَتْلَ أَوْلَادِهِمْ شُرَكَاؤُهُمْ لِيُرْدُوهُمْ وَلِيَلْبِسُوا عَلَيْهِمْ دِينَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا فَعَلُوهُ ۖ فَذَرْهُمْ وَمَا يَفْتَرُونَ

Likewise for many of the associtors, their  partners (in Allah, who give orders besides Allah’s orders) have made alluring, the killing of their children, to destroy them and to clothe this order with Din/judgment. If Allah had willed they would have not done so; so leave them alone and their inventions.

There is a physical aspect also of this killing. The mushrikeen/associators are those who follow Allah’s orders and also the orders of others (6:137). The partners/Shuraka are those who make sharia for them (42:21). These Shuraka’s have ordered them to wage war and do violence on earth and they have termed these orders as Din/Judgment and make it appear as Holy war and made dying for this cause as alluring to people.

2:133  أَمْ كُنتُمْ شُهَدَاءَ إِذْ حَضَرَ يَعْقُوبَ الْمَوْتُ إِذْ قَالَ لِبَنِيهِ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن بَعْدِي قَالُوا نَعْبُدُ إِلَٰهَكَ وَإِلَٰهَ آبَائِكَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ

Were you witness when death appeared before Yaqoob/Jacob? Behold, he said to his sons. “What will you serve after me?” They said. “We shall serve your God and the God of your fathers, of Ibraheem, Isma’il and Ishaq,- the one (True) God. To Him we are muslim/submitters.”

The injunction of a parent to his offspring is to serve one God, the same God to all the prophets. This God has sent a Book to be followed by mankind. So the injunction is to follow that one God and not the sectarian teachings.

Ayat 3:14 informs us that it is in built in human beings the love of sons and women, and worldly possessions (زُيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ حُبُّ الشَّهَوَاتِ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ وَالْبَنِينَ ).

16:58-59  وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُم بِالْأُنثَىٰ ظَلَّ وَجْهُهُ مُسْوَدًّا وَهُوَ كَظِيمٌ  يَتَوَارَىٰ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ مِن سُوءِ مَا بُشِّرَ بِهِ ۚ أَيُمْسِكُهُ عَلَىٰ هُونٍ أَمْ يَدُسُّهُ فِي التُّرَابِ ۗ أَلَا سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ

When news is brought to one of them, of a female (child), his face darkens, and he is filled with inward grief! With shame does he hide himself from his people, because of the bad news he has had! Shall he retain it on (suffering and) contempt, or bury it in the dust? Ah! what an evil (choice) they decide on?

Although the sons are made to look good in the eyes of the people, the bad attitude of people in the event of birth of a daughter is a bad judgment on their part, as per above Ayat.

81:8-9 وَإِذَا الْمَوْءُودَةُ سُئِلَتْ بِأَيِّ ذَنبٍ قُتِلَتْ

When the female (infant), is questioned, for what crime she was killed?

In some countries if people know the sex of the fetus they strive to abort it in case of a female child. There definitely will be accountability for that heinous crime as it is killing of a human life.

17:31  وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلَادَكُمْ خَشْيَةَ إِمْلَاقٍ ۖ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُهُمْ وَإِيَّاكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ قَتْلَهُمْ كَانَ خِطْئًا كَبِيرًا

Do not kill your children for fear of poverty. We (Allah) provides sustenance to them as well as for you. Verily the killing of them is a great sin.

Aborting a new life/fetus for the fear of worldly loss or poverty, is a great sin. Sustenance/Rizq of all living beings is on Allah.

64:14  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّ مِنْ أَزْوَاجِكُمْ وَأَوْلَادِكُمْ عَدُوًّا لَّكُمْ فَاحْذَرُوهُمْ ۚ وَإِن تَعْفُوا وَتَصْفَحُوا وَتَغْفِرُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

O’ you people who believe, surely amongst your pairs / wives and your children,  are enemies for you, so be cautious of them and if you pardon and shake hands and forgive them surely Allah is all forgiving, all merciful.

In some cases the offspring of a man can become enemy (in belief). This enmity mentioned in Quran is in matters of belief only, see Ayat 60:4 (قَدْ كَانَتْ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ إِذْ قَالُوا لِقَوْمِهِمْ إِنَّا بُرَآءُ مِنكُمْ وَمِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ كَفَرْنَا بِكُمْ وَبَدَا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةُ وَالْبَغْضَاءُ أَبَدًا حَتَّىٰ تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ  ). In case this happens to a believing person, the four steps mentioned in this Ayat to be followed i.e to be cautious with them, to forgive, to shake hands and bear with them. The original enemy of man is the Satan. The term enemy is used here as Satan can harm a man by overpowering a member of his family,  and since every one is emotionally attached to the family, therefore the believer may be liable to fall in the emotionally vulnerable trap of comprising on his belief in certain aspects related to family.

The practice of the wise man Luqman, is stated in Quran stating what advice one should impart on one’s offspring. The important points are given below:

31:17-9 يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا أَصَابَكَ ۖ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ  وَلَا تُصَعِّرْ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَمْشِ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَرَحًا ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ  وَاقْصِدْ فِي مَشْيِكَ وَاغْضُضْ مِن صَوْتِكَ ۚ إِنَّ أَنكَرَ الْأَصْوَاتِ لَصَوْتُ الْحَمِيرِ

“O my son! establish As-Salat/the prayer, enjoin what is just, and forbid what is wrong, and bear with patience whatever befalls on you; for this is firmness (of purpose) in (the conduct of) affairs. And do not swell your cheeks (with pride) for people, and do not walk on earth with pride; for Allah does not love any arrogant boaster. And be moderate in your pace, and lower your voice; for the harshest of sounds is the braying of the donkey.”

One should advise the children about establishing Salat, to be patient and humble, speak gently to people, and to enjoin the right things and forbid wrong acts.

37:102  فَلَمَّا بَلَغَ مَعَهُ السَّعْيَ قَالَ يَا بُنَيَّ إِنِّي أَرَىٰ فِي الْمَنَامِ أَنِّي أَذْبَحُكَ فَانظُرْ مَاذَا تَرَىٰ ۚ قَالَ يَا أَبَتِ افْعَلْ مَا تُؤْمَرُ ۖ سَتَجِدُنِي إِن شَاءَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الصَّابِرِينَ

So, when he (Ismaeel) reached (the age of) work with him, he said  O my son! Surely I saw in the sleep, that I am sacrificing you, so view it, what you see?, He said:  O my father! Do, as you are ordered.  If Allah Wills, you will find me from those who have patience.

The dreams are not exactly as they appear, but they have a certain explanation. Also, please note Ibrahim’s practice/sunnat with regards to conduct with children. He did not force anything on his son, instead he delivered the message to his son and asked about his opinion and decision.

11:46 قَالَ يَا نُوحُ إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِكَ ۖ إِنَّهُ عَمَلٌ غَيْرُ صَالِحٍ ۖ فَلَا تَسْأَلْنِ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ ۖ إِنِّي أَعِظُكَ أَن تَكُونَ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِينَ

He (Allah) said. “O Nooh! He is not of your family, for his conduct is unrighteous. So don’t ask from Me, of which you have no knowledge! I advise you, lest you become of the ignorant ones!”

Families of righteous people don’t automatically become guided. Matters of conduct and guidance are on individual basis.

25:74  وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا هَبْ لَنَا مِنْ أَزْوَاجِنَا وَذُرِّيَّاتِنَا قُرَّةَ أَعْيُنٍ وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ إِمَامًا

And those who say, “O’ our Lord, grant for us the cooling of eyes from our pairs and our offspring and make us an Imam / Leader for those who guard.”

The above prayer is taught by Allah to the believers to ask guidance and cooling of their eyes from their families.

Children:

Children are enjoined to be kind in their conduct with the parents. When the parents reach old age, kids are not allowed to insult them or be disdainful with them. If parents err due to old age, the children are ordered to address them with very kind words.

17:23 وَقَضَىٰ رَبُّكَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا ۚ إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِندَكَ الْكِبَرَ أَحَدُهُمَا أَوْ كِلَاهُمَا فَلَا تَقُل لَّهُمَا أُفٍّ وَلَا تَنْهَرْهُمَا وَقُل لَّهُمَا قَوْلًا كَرِيمًا

Your Lord has decreed that you serve none but Him, and that you be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of contempt, nor repel them, but address them in terms of honor.

In matters of justice and witness, only truthful and unbiased witness to be given.

4:135  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُونُوا قَوَّامِينَ بِالْقِسْطِ شُهَدَاءَ لِلَّهِ وَلَوْ عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوِ الْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ ۚ إِن يَكُنْ غَنِيًّا أَوْ فَقِيرًا فَاللَّهُ أَوْلَىٰ بِهِمَا ۖ فَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا الْهَوَىٰ أَن تَعْدِلُوا ۚ وَإِن تَلْوُوا أَوْ تُعْرِضُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا

O you people who believe! Be the ones who stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses for Allah, even if this (witness) is against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and if they (concerned parties) are rich or poor; Allah is more (a benefactor for them than you).Thus do not follow the desire (of your hearts), so that you (try to) do justice, verily Allah is well-acquainted with all that you do.

In matters of belief, if the parents strive to impart association of other partners with Allah on their kids, they are not be followed in this matter, however children are still ordered to accompany them in the world in the best possible way.

31:15  وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ عَلَىٰ أَن تُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا ۖ وَصَاحِبْهُمَا فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفًا ۖ وَاتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ مَنْ أَنَابَ إِلَيَّ ۚ ثُمَّ إِلَيَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

“But if they (parents) strive to make you to associate with Me, things of which you have no knowledge, then don’t obey them; yet bear them company in this World in a good known way, and follow the way of him who turns to me. In the end the return of you all is to Me, and I will tell you what you used to do.”

9:23  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا آبَاءَكُمْ وَإِخْوَانَكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ إِنِ اسْتَحَبُّوا الْكُفْرَ عَلَى الْإِيمَانِ ۚ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمْ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ

O’ you who believe do not take your fathers and you brothers as protectors if they seek to love rejection over belief (i.e. Islam/Peace). And whosoever from you take them as protectors then they are the oppressors.

All the relationships in the world should be below Allah and Messengers and striving in the way of Allah. If the relationships get priority over Allah and Messenger’s orders then there is a problem and Allah shall not guide those people who will do that.

9:24  قُلْ إِن كَانَ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَالٌ اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَارَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَاكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَجِهَادٍ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَتَرَبَّصُوا حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ

Say if your fathers and your sons and your brothers and your pairs and your associates and the wealth to which you are committed and the business in which you fear a slump and the residences in which you are pleased. You have more love towards them than Allah and His messenger and jihad / to strive in His way then you wait until Allah comes with His order. And Allah does not guide the people who are dissolute / immoral.

If an offspring gets belief as per Allah’s Ayahs and the parents are still in rejection of Allah, and they reject the offspring and cast him away because of his belief, even in that case the child is to send blessings on them and not be rash in conduct with the parents. The practice of prophet Ibraheem A.S is described in this regard as below.

19:42-47 إِذْ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ يَا أَبَتِ لِمَ تَعْبُدُ مَا لَا يَسْمَعُ وَلَا يُبْصِرُ وَلَا يُغْنِي عَنكَ شَيْئًا  يَا أَبَتِ إِنِّي قَدْ جَاءَنِي مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَمْ يَأْتِكَ فَاتَّبِعْنِي أَهْدِكَ صِرَاطًا سَوِيًّا  يَا أَبَتِ لَا تَعْبُدِ الشَّيْطَانَ ۖ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ كَانَ لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ عَصِيًّا  يَا أَبَتِ إِنِّي أَخَافُ أَن يَمَسَّكَ عَذَابٌ مِّنَ الرَّحْمَٰنِ فَتَكُونَ لِلشَّيْطَانِ وَلِيًّا  قَالَ أَرَاغِبٌ أَنتَ عَنْ آلِهَتِي يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ ۖ لَئِن لَّمْ تَنتَهِ لَأَرْجُمَنَّكَ ۖ وَاهْجُرْنِي مَلِيًّا قَالَ سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكَ ۖ سَأَسْتَغْفِرُ لَكَ رَبِّي ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِي حَفِيًّا

He (Ibraheem) said to his father, “O my father, why do you worship what can neither hear, nor see, nor help you in any way? O my father, I have received knowledge that you did not receive. Follow me, and I will guide you to a straight path. O my father, do not worship the Satan The Satan has rebelled against the Most Gracious. O my father, I fear lest you incur retribution from the Most Gracious, then become an ally of the Satan. (The father) replied. “Do you hate my gods, O Abraham? If you don’t desist, I will indeed stone you. Now get away from me for a good long while!” Abraham said. “Peace be on you. I will pray to my Lord for your forgiveness. for He is to me Most Persuant.

Off springs are enjoined to spend on their parents from their wealth. Any good that they do, will be rewarded by Allah.

2:215  يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ ۖ قُلْ مَا أَنفَقْتُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ

They ask you (the messenger) what they should spend. Say. Whatever you spend from the good, is for parents and the relatives and the orphans and the needy and for the sons of the path. And whatever you from good, -Allah knows it well.

 

Links:

Lecture by Scholar Mohammad Shaikh on the topic of Parents Children relationship:

https://www.iipccanada.com/category/english-video-lectures/family-life/

 

 

 

 

Emotional management & remedy of psychological hurts

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Human beings are combination of body and nafs (psychology). When some one says that Mr. X is a good person, they are referring to Mr. X’s psychology. When Mr. X dies, people refer to the physical form of Mr. X as ‘body’, i.e they say that the body is lying on the bed not as Mr. X is lying on the bed.

Physical wounds on the body of a person are easy to see. The psychological wounds can not be seen, however they manifest in one’s personality. Similar to physical hurts and wounds which need be treated otherwise infection can spread in the body, the psychological hurts and wounds need be treated, otherwise they can lead to psychological problems damaging one’s personality.

The three main types of psychological hurts experienced by people are given below:

Psychological hurts from the creation of God. One is not satisfied with what has been created by God of him or her. People would look upon others and wish that they were like some other person.

Second type of psychological hurts are from other people. You are hurt by what people say about you or the way they treat you, which you may find insulting and hurtful.

Third type of psychological hurt come from hurting some one i.e reproach from your conscience. It can come even as a reaction to the 2nd type of hurts, i.e you react back to people and hurt them in return. It may feel good temporarily however, because of the law of Qasas/retribution, another hurt of similar proportion is inflicted on one’s nafs when one inflicts a hurt on someone (see previous post https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/06/04/qasas/)

The psychological hurts reside in one’s Nafs/psychology and if allowed to linger on, they may become chronic psychological problems damaging one’s personality permanently. Sometimes they manifest physically as well i.e making certain ridges or deformities in the brain triggering a particular evil and then that evil would become part of that individual’s personality with obviously bad outcome.

2:155  وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُم بِشَيْءٍ مِّنَ الْخَوْفِ وَالْجُوعِ وَنَقْصٍ مِّنَ الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَنفُسِ وَالثَّمَرَاتِ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الصَّابِرِينَ

We shall certainly put you to trial with something of fear and hunger, some loss in wealth and nafs/psyche and of the fruits (of your toil), and give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere.

Allah has informed that He will certainly put to trial, everyone with some loss in wealth and nafs/psychology. Many people live their lives in constant fear of something bad or disastrous happening to them. This fear does not help them live a peaceful life. A believer in God’s ‘Word’ can lead a contended life, if he would expect that Allah’s trial will surely come to him and that this trial will be to see if he exhibits perseverance or not. The believer expects the trial, he knows that the trial is temporary ( إِنَّ مَعَ الْعُسْرِ يُسْرًا ), and the trial will be according to his capacity (لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ). With this knowledge, the believer need not live in constant fear of losses in wealth, health and nafs but to be prepared and ready for it to earn Allah’s reward on passing successfully the trial.  

The tendency of a common person is to play blame games when encountering adverse situations in life and feel victimized:

75:2  وَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِالنَّفْسِ اللَّوَّامَةِ

And by the self-reproaching nafs/psyche

When encountered with an adverse situation in life, a person will blame something or someone, without realizing that he is currently under trial by Allah. And glad tidings to those who exhibit patience as they realize it is their chance to earn rewards of Allah by being successful in the trial. Even when the hurt comes from some other person, believers should not play the blame game as it would not have come without the leave of the Lord. So the patient ones, who persevere in adverse circumstances and don’t loose control of their minds and try to correct, are those who will succeed.

2:156-157  الَّذِينَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ قَالُوا إِنَّا لِلَّهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ  أُولَٰئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَلَوَاتٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُهْتَدُونَ

Those who say, when afflicted with calamity  “To Allah We belong, and to Him is our return”. They are those on whom are salwats/blessings from Allah, and mercy, and they are the guided ones.

They persevere with patience under trial and say that we are indeed for Allah and to Him is our return, meaning we are not here for the world so the worldly problems and trials are insignificant for us. 

57:22-23  مَا أَصَابَ مِن مُّصِيبَةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّبْرَأَهَا ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ  لِّكَيْلَا تَأْسَوْا عَلَىٰ مَا فَاتَكُمْ وَلَا تَفْرَحُوا بِمَا آتَاكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ

No misfortune/calamity happens on the earth or in your nafs/psyche but is in a book before We release it. That is truly easy for Allah. So that you may not grieve over what you lose, and not be over joyous over what is bestowed by Allah, for Allah does not love any arrogant boastful person.

People are actually helpless in matter of divine destiny. People should always keep in mind, that despite all their successes in life, Allah can take back every thing. All your properties or wealth which you may have spent several years building, may be destroyed by natural calamity or by health problems in matters of minutes. Again everything belongs to Allah and people should not grieve over what they lose or be boastful of what Allah has provided from His bounties. They should always be ready for trial by Allah.

For dissatisfaction in matters of creation of God, believers must realize that the opinion of the Lord matters much more than the opinion of other people. Allah has created everyone in the best of proportion. In the eyes of Lord, you are among the elite ones if you are a believer. Those rock stars, most adored in the world by people, may not necessarily be the favorites of God. Therefore the supreme success is not in getting people’s approval but in getting the favor of the Lord by acting righteously with faith in God’s Word.

3:139  وَلَا تَهِنُوا وَلَا تَحْزَنُوا وَأَنتُمُ الْأَعْلَوْنَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

So do not lose heart, nor fall into despair, for you are the elated ones if you become the believer.

3:140  إِن يَمْسَسْكُمْ قَرْحٌ فَقَدْ مَسَّ الْقَوْمَ قَرْحٌ مِّثْلُهُ ۚ وَتِلْكَ الْأَيَّامُ نُدَاوِلُهَا بَيْنَ النَّاسِ وَلِيَعْلَمَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَيَتَّخِذَ مِنكُمْ شُهَدَاءَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الظَّالِمِينَ

If a wound has touched you, be sure a similar wound has touched the others. Such days (of varying fortunes) We rotate among people, so that Allah may know those who believe, and that He may take witnesses among them, and Allah does not love Zalimeen/wrongdoers.

A psychological hurt when harbored for long time converts into a psychological wound. A person inflicted with misery and having psychological wounds, may grieve and complain why he alone is chosen for this misery. However, similar wounds are with everyone. He should not think that he is singled out to be unfortunate in the world. Every body is inflicted with similar wounds. Allah does not burden any one more than his capacity. These trials are from Allah. He keeps on revolving the difficult days on people for their trial. So the believers believe in Allahs’ trials and help themselves with consolation from this knowledge.

3:172  الَّذِينَ اسْتَجَابُوا لِلَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا أَصَابَهُمُ الْقَرْحُ ۚ لِلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا مِنْهُمْ وَاتَّقَوْا أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ

Those who responded to Allah and the Messenger, after that a wound has been inflicted on them; Those people of them who do right and take guard of Allah, there is a great reward;-

The people who understood that the psychological hurts they received are a trial from Allah. They get clarification of their hurts from Allah and messenger (they seek a situation in the Book of Allah similar to their situation), these people who did correction; did not blame any one or Allah for their sufferings and persevered; for them is a great reward.

22:15  مَن كَانَ يَظُنُّ أَن لَّن يَنصُرَهُ اللَّهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ فَلْيَمْدُدْ بِسَبَبٍ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ ثُمَّ لْيَقْطَعْ فَلْيَنظُرْ هَلْ يُذْهِبَنَّ كَيْدُهُ مَا يَغِيظُ

If any one thinks that Allah will not help him in this world and the Hereafter, let him stretch out a means to the sky and cut (himself) off. then let him see whether his plan will remove that thing which enrages (him)!

There is no escape for a person who loses hope in the world and hereafter except his recourse to Allah. He cannot escape anywhere. Even death and suicide doesn’t help as he has to go back to Allah in any case. Therefore, one cannot lose hope in Allah and should always revert back to Him and not to take any irrational decision.

9:40  إِلَّا تَنصُرُوهُ فَقَدْ نَصَرَهُ اللَّهُ إِذْ أَخْرَجَهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ثَانِيَ اثْنَيْنِ إِذْ هُمَا فِي الْغَارِ إِذْ يَقُولُ لِصَاحِبِهِ لَا تَحْزَنْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَنَا ۖ فَأَنزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَيَّدَهُ بِجُنُودٍ لَّمْ تَرَوْهَا وَجَعَلَ كَلِمَةَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا السُّفْلَىٰ ۗ وَكَلِمَةُ اللَّهِ هِيَ الْعُلْيَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

If you people won’t help him (The Messenger), Allah did indeed help him, when the unbelievers drove him out. He was the second of the two when; they two were in the cave (deep in despair), and he said to his companion, “Have no fear, for Allah is with us”. Then Allah sent down His peace upon him, and strengthened him with forces which you people did not see, and made the sayings of the rejectors lowly and the Word of Allah is exalted one for Allah is Exalted in Might, Wise.

This is a particular situation experienced by people who start following the path of Allah leaving the deviant path of their community, if the community does not believe in Allah’s Word. At some point in their journey, they are left off by even their near and dear ones and they find themselves in a hole of despair when everyone leaves them in their belief. At this point the Messenger becomes their companion, and consoles the individual. Allah helps them by making the sayings of rejecters the lowly ones and exalts the Kalima/Saying of Allah against the rejecters Kalima/sayings and supports the believers with such forces that nobody can see.

4:17  إِنَّمَا التَّوْبَةُ عَلَى اللَّهِ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السُّوءَ بِجَهَالَةٍ ثُمَّ يَتُوبُونَ مِن قَرِيبٍ فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَتُوبُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا  وَلَيْسَتِ التَّوْبَةُ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السَّيِّئَاتِ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ إِنِّي تُبْتُ الْآنَ وَلَا الَّذِينَ يَمُوتُونَ وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ أَعْتَدْنَا لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

On Allah the repentance/return is only for those who do evil in ignorance and repent/return soon afterwards; to those people Allah returns/accepts repentance . And Allah is knowledgeable, Wise.

If a person has done an evil act and his conscience is blaming him and he is suffering from psychological hurts, the way to get out of the evil is to do Tauba/repentance with Allah. This  repentance is accepted by Allah if done timely i.e not delayed for too long and with the intention of not repeating the act again.  Indication of acceptance of Tauba is that you will not be repeating the bad act.

39:53-54  قُلْ يَا عِبَادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ لَا تَقْنَطُوا مِن رَّحْمَةِ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ جَمِيعًا ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ  وَأَنِيبُوا إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَسْلِمُوا لَهُ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَذَابُ ثُمَّ لَا تُنصَرُونَ

Say. “O my Servants who have transgressed against their nafs! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah. for Allah forgives all sins. for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful; and turn ye to your Lord (in repentance) and bow to His (Will), before the Penalty comes on you, after that ye shall not be helped.

Allah will forgive all sins with the condition mentioned in above Ayahs, that you have to turn to your Lord before the penalty comes. If the evil act is continued to that stage that punishment starts then you will not be helped at this stage.

39:55-56  وَاتَّبِعُوا أَحْسَنَ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَذَابُ بَغْتَةً وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ أَن تَقُولَ نَفْسٌ يَا حَسْرَتَا عَلَىٰ مَا فَرَّطتُ فِي جَنبِ اللَّهِ وَإِن كُنتُ لَمِنَ السَّاخِرِينَ

And follow the best of (the courses) revealed to you from your Lord, before the Penalty comes on you suddenly while you don’t perceive it. “Lest the nafs should (then) say. ‘Alas in that I neglected towards Allah, and was but among those who mocked!’-

If you continue doing the evil acts, there comes at some point within the worldly life, the punishment. When the punishment comes then it will be too late to repent and ask for forgiveness.  When you realize your mistake, take ownership and ask forgiveness before the worldly punishment comes, then Allah may forgive and save you from the punishment.

17:80  وَقُل رَّبِّ أَدْخِلْنِي مُدْخَلَ صِدْقٍ وَأَخْرِجْنِي مُخْرَجَ صِدْقٍ وَاجْعَل لِّي مِن لَّدُنكَ سُلْطَانًا نَّصِيرًا

Say. “O my Lord! Let my entry be by the entrance of Truth, and my exit be the exit of Truth; and grant me from your presence an authority for (my) help.”

The psychological hurts cannot be helped with the help of falsehood and lies. You have to make your life the life of truthfulness in order to help heal the psychological hurts, confess to Allah your the mistakes with the will to do corrections and not repeat the evil acts. Deceiving oneself with lies and lame justifications is not going to help.

41:34  وَلَا تَسْتَوِي الْحَسَنَةُ وَلَا السَّيِّئَةُ ۚ ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ فَإِذَا الَّذِي بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُ عَدَاوَةٌ كَأَنَّهُ وَلِيٌّ حَمِيمٌ

Nor is goodness and Evil equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better. Then will he between whom and thee was hatred become as it were your friend and intimate!

Goodness and evil acts are not equal. Therefore believers cannot return the same acts which oppressors do to them. They have to return the wrongdoing with better things.

42:40-41  وَجَزَاءُ سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِّثْلُهَا ۖ فَمَنْ عَفَا وَأَصْلَحَ فَأَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الظَّالِمِينَ  وَلَمَنِ انتَصَرَ بَعْدَ ظُلْمِهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَا عَلَيْهِم مِّن سَبِيلٍ

The recompense for a wrong doing is a similar wrong doing (which will be inflicted by Allah). but if a person forgives and makes correction, his reward is due from Allah. for (Allah) does not love those who do wrong.

If some one inflicts evil acts on others, he will get automatically an equivalent return from Allah. The believers help themselves when they are wronged, from the knowledge of the fact that the oppressor who have oppressed them, will meet similar fate (by Allah) and they don’t have to take their own revenge.

Notes:

Lectures by Scholar Br. Mohammad Shaikh on the topic of Consolation of psychological hurts:

https://www.iipccanada.com/category/english-video-lectures/govern-yourself/

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/12/13/nafsiyati-zakhmon-ki-tasali-2012/

Heavenly Book or books ?

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

How many divine books were sent by God?

It is commonly believed by muslims that there are four divinely sent books. Earlier than these four books, some booklets were sent down which are known as ‘suhuf’. ‘Suhuf'(plural of Sahifa) are generally thought to be smaller in volume than a full fledged divine book. It is not very clear which prophets were given ‘suhuf;, though many people think that prophet Ibrahim (a.s) was one of them. The reason for sending booklets was that, in earlier times, the society was not mature enough to need a full fledged divine book. The first divine book is thought to be Taurat/Torah given to Prophet Moosa (a.s), after that Psalms/Zaboor to Prophet Dawood (a.s) then Injeel/Gospel was given to Prophet Essa (a.s), and then last and the final one, Quran to propeht Mohammad (pbuh). The final book is believed to be global in scope i.e covering all mankind and is sent as a guidance for all eternity. While some also believe that during the 23 years period in which the last book was being revealed, due to changing circumstances, some ayahs of the book were abrogated. The present day Bible is thought to be the altered version of previously sent divine books of Torah/Taurat, Gospel/Injeel and Psalm/Zaboor. Present day Bible is composed of two main parts known as Old Testament and New Testament. Both Old and New Testaments comprise several chapters which are called books. Torah is believed to be comprising the first five books of Old testament called Pentateuch. These first five books are GenesisExodusLeviticusNumbers, and Deuteronomy.  The New Testament of present day Bible is generally considered to be altered version of Al-Injeel/Gospel. Zaboor/Psalm is thought to be first book of the (“Writings”), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and thus a book of the Christian Old Testament.

We will review all these beliefs in the light of ayahs of Al-Kitab in this post.

First we will explore the concept that why there should be different books sent for guidance of mankind. Was the content different or the language of revelation different? Was it Allah’s practice to give details of names and places in earlier books and later He changed his practice in the last book? Were the other books revealed in different languages to match the language of the nation and the prophet? As prophets were sent to all the nations, were divine books sent in all languages of the world? Were the conditions of the world changing rapidly earlier, lets say in a period of time between 4000 to 1500 years ago, to warrant sending various books and booklets and making different Sharia’s/ways for different messengers. If the earlier divine books were not able to handle changing times and circumstances how come the final divine book was being able to handle all times to come while we know that conditions change more rapidly in later times than in earlier times.

Keeping these questions in mind, lets analyze the ayahs of Al-Kitab, to find out if the revelation and the book, which God gave to mankind is one or many? All the prophets and messengers were given the same Sharia/way or different sharias/ways according to their books? Does the book of Allah has only one name or many attributes similar to Allah’s who has many attributes/(Siffati names) such as Ar-Rahman (The Gracious), Ar-Raheem (The Merciful), Al-Wadood (the Loving) etc.

The names of the prophets who were given Al-Kitab/the Book are given in below ayahs:

6:83-90  وَتِلْكَ حُجَّتُنَا آتَيْنَاهَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ ۚ نَرْفَعُ دَرَجَاتٍ مَّن نَّشَاءُ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ  وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ ۚ كُلًّا هَدَيْنَا ۚ وَنُوحًا هَدَيْنَا مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ  وَزَكَرِيَّا وَيَحْيَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَإِلْيَاسَ ۖ كُلٌّ مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ  وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَالْيَسَعَ وَيُونُسَ وَلُوطًا ۚ وَكُلًّا فَضَّلْنَا عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ  وَمِنْ آبَائِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّاتِهِمْ وَإِخْوَانِهِمْ ۖ وَاجْتَبَيْنَاهُمْ وَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ  ذَٰلِكَ هُدَى اللَّهِ يَهْدِي بِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَشْرَكُوا لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ  أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ ۚ فَإِن يَكْفُرْ بِهَا هَٰؤُلَاءِ فَقَدْ وَكَّلْنَا بِهَا قَوْمًا لَّيْسُوا بِهَا بِكَافِرِينَ  أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ ۖ فَبِهُدَاهُمُ اقْتَدِهْ ۗ قُل لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا ۖ إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا ذِكْرَىٰ لِلْعَالَمِينَ

That was our reasoning, which We gave to Ibraheem against his people. We raise whom We will, degree after degree, for your Lord is full of wisdom and knowledge. We gave him Ishaq and Yaqub: all guided: and before him, We guided Nooh, and among his progeny, Dauood, Suleman, Ayub, Yousuf, Moosa, and Haroon: thus do We reward the Mohsineen (those who do good). And Zakariya and Yahya, and Essa, and Ilyas: all in the ranks of the righteous. And Isma’il and Yas’a, and Yunus, and Lut: and to all We gave favor above the worlds. And from among their fathers, and progeny and brethren: We chose them, and we guided them to a straight path. That is the guidance of Allah: He guides with it to whom He pleases among His servants. If they were to join partners with Him, all that they did would be vain for them. These were those whom We gave The Book, and Authority, and Prophet hood: if these (their descendants) reject them, Behold! We shall entrust their charge to a nation (new people) who do not reject with them. Those were the people who received Allah’s guidance: Thus you (the messenger), follow the guidance they received; Say: “No reward for this do I ask of you: This is no less than a message/reminder for all worlds.”

The names of the prophets who received Al-Kitab/The Book are given in above ayahs and the messenger is ordered to follow the guidance they had received. The Book was given to all prophets from Nooh (a.s) onwards. Can we differentiate between what was given to some of the prophets mentioned above or say that some were given a different book or a different edition of the book ? Please see below ayahs:

2:136-7 قُولُوا آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ  فَإِنْ آمَنُوا بِمِثْلِ مَا آمَنتُم بِهِ فَقَدِ اهْتَدَوا ۖ وَّإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا هُمْ فِي شِقَاقٍ ۖ فَسَيَكْفِيكَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

Say: “We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Ibraheem, Isma’il, Ishaq, Yaqoob , and the tribes, and that given to Moosa  and Essa, and that given to prophets from their Lord: we make no difference between any one of them: And we are Muslims/Submitters. So if they believe as you believe, they are indeed on the right path; but if they turn back, it is they who are in schism; but Allah will suffice thee as against them, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.

The kalima/saying of Muslims is that we make no difference in the messengers and what is given to them. And in the above ayat Allah insists to believe as such. in order to get guidance.

10:94  فَإِن كُنتَ فِي شَكٍّ مِّمَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ فَاسْأَلِ الَّذِينَ يَقْرَءُونَ الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكَ ۚ لَقَدْ جَاءَكَ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ

Thus, if you (the Messenger) are in doubt from what We have revealed to you, then ask those who are reading Al-Kitab/The Book from before you, definitely there has come to you the truth from your Lord, so do not become from the doubtful ones.

People have been reading Al-Kitab before the messenger (pbuh) times, as evident in the first set of ayahs, that all prophets of Allah have been given Al-Kitab/the Book.

2:213   كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ فَهَدَى اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لِمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

Mankind is one single nation, and Allah sent Messengers with glad tidings and warnings; and with them He sent the Book in truth, to judge between mankind in matters wherein they differed; but the People of the Book, after the clear Signs came to them, did not differ among themselves, except through selfish contumacy. Allah by His Grace guided the believers to the Truth, concerning that wherein they differed.  For Allah guides whom He will to a path that is straight.

Please note in above ayat, it is mentioned that Allah sent the prophets and sent with them Al-Kitab/the Book to order justly among the mankind.

The below ayat informs that on the day of judgement the one book (al-kitab) will be placed and all prophets and witnesses will testify from it. Had there been different books in different prophet eras, how could they be a witness to a different book then?

39:69  وَأَشْرَقَتِ الْأَرْضُ بِنُورِ رَبِّهَا وَوُضِعَ الْكِتَابُ وَجِيءَ بِالنَّبِيِّينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُم بِالْحَقِّ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ

And the Earth will shine with the Light/Glory of its Lord: The Book will be placed; the prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward and a just decision pronounced between them; and they will not be wronged (in the least).

The ‘shuraka’/partners in Din/Judgment are those who promote the concept that there were different books sent according to the needs of earlier time and there were different sharias for the earlier messengers (42:21). However please see below Ayat:

42:13  شَرَعَ لَكُم مِّنَ الدِّينِ مَا وَصَّىٰ بِهِ نُوحًا وَالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ وَمَا وَصَّيْنَا بِهِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ ۖ أَنْ أَقِيمُوا الدِّينَ وَلَا تَتَفَرَّقُوا فِيهِ ۚ كَبُرَ عَلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ مَا تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَيْهِ ۚ اللَّهُ يَجْتَبِي إِلَيْهِ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي إِلَيْهِ مَن يُنِيبُ

The same Sharah (Shariat) He has established for you which He enjoined on Nooh  – that We have sent by inspiration to you (Mohammad) – and that which We enjoined on Ibrahim, Moosa, and Essa:  that you should remain steadfast in Din/Judgment, and make no differentiations therein: to those who join others with Allah, hard is the (way) to which you call them. Allah chooses to Himself those whom He pleases, and guides to Himself those who turn (to Him).

The messenger informs that this (Quran) is the reminder with him and the reminder of those before him.

21:24  أَمِ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِهِ آلِهَةً ۖ قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ ۖ هَٰذَا ذِكْرُ مَن مَّعِيَ وَذِكْرُ مَن قَبْلِي ۗ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ الْحَقَّ ۖ فَهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ

Or have they taken other gods besides Him? Say, “Bring your proof, this is the reminder with me and the reminder of those before me.” But most of them know not the Truth, and so turn away.

Allah has protected the Zikr (15:9). Therefore the Zikr before and with the Messenger are the same and that’s what the messenger is emphasizing.

2:4 وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ

And who believe in the Revelation sent to you, and sent before you, and (in their hearts) have the assurance of the Hereafter.

What is revealed on the Messenger (pbuh) is the same as what had been revealed to other messengers before him.

Is Anything different said or given to the Messenger (pbuh) than earlier messengers? The below ayat negates this concept:

41:43 مَا يُقَالُ لَكَ إِلَّا مَا قَدْ قِيلَ لِلرُّسُلِ مِن قَبْلِكَ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَذُو مَغْفِرَةٍ وَذُو عِقَابٍ أَلِيمٍ

“Nothing is said to You (Mohammad) that was not said to the messengers before you: verily your Lord has at His command (all) forgiveness as well as the most grievous vengeance.”

The Messenger (pbuh) confirms that he does not bring anything new which the earlier messengers did not bring:

46:9 قُلْ مَا كُنتُ بِدْعًا مِّنْ الرُّسُلِ وَمَا أَدْرِي مَا يُفْعَلُ بِي وَلَا بِكُمْ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَى إِلَيَّ وَمَا أَنَا إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ

“Say (O’ Mohammad) “I am no bringer of new doctrine among the messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or with you. I follow but that which is revealed to me by inspiration; I am but a warner open and clear.”

2:8  ذَٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَۛ فِيهِ ۛ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

That is the Book, there is no doubt in it, a guidance for those who take guard/fear (Allah)

When Quran mentions Al-Kitab, the Book is meant which is generally known to people as Al-Quran. Muslims adhere to Al-Kitab. Is it not surprising then why the term ‘Ahlal-Kitab’ should be used for two other groups instead, for the people who are holding on to this Book? When Allah specifically orders, not to say that Al-Kitab was sent to two groups before us.

6:156 أَن تَقُولُوا إِنَّمَا أُنزِلَ الْكِتَابُ عَلَىٰ طَائِفَتَيْنِ مِن قَبْلِنَا وَإِن كُنَّا عَن دِرَاسَتِهِمْ لَغَافِلِينَ

‘Do you say surely, Al-Kitab/The Book was revealed on the two groups before us, and that we remain unaware about their studies.’

Worth mentioning is that no body can alter Allah’s Book (6:34). The concept that before this Book, other books were sent by Allah which were altered, cannot be true because Allah declares that his Kalima cannot be changed (6:115).

6:34  وَلَقَدْ كُذِّبَتْ رُسُلٌ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَصَبَرُوا عَلَىٰ مَا كُذِّبُوا وَأُوذُوا حَتَّىٰ أَتَاهُمْ نَصْرُنَا ۚ

وَلَا مُبَدِّلَ لِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَكَ مِن نَّبَإِ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

‘Rejected were the messengers before you. With patience they bore their rejection and their persecution, until Our aid reached them. there is none that can alter the Words of Allah. Already you have received some account of those messengers.’

Therefore if the other books were Allah’s books, they could not have been altered because Allah protects his Kalima and Zikr/Remembrance (15:9).

What happened was that these nations put Allah’s book on their back and wrote  books with their own hands and attributed those to be from inspiration of God (2:79). These other Books even have the names of human authors on them (Gospel by Luke, Mark etc). Whoever adheres to Al-Kitab should therefore be called Ahlal Kitab and not the people who were supposed to have different version of the Book at some earlier time. For example, as long as the people following prophet Essa adhered to Al-Kitab, they were Ahlal Kitab/People of the Book. However when they put Al-Kitab on their back and instead adopted a book they wrote themselves, they no longer are Ahlal Kitab. Present day Ahlal Kitab are the people who adhere to Al-Kitab/the Book.

Attributes of Quran

As Allah has 99 beautiful attributes (e.g Rehman, Rahim, Wadood etc), so does Quran has several attributes. Some of these attributes which are mentioned in the Book are given below:

  1. Quran,             Reading
  2. Kitab                Book
  3. Taurat             Law
  4.  Injeel             Good News
  5. Zaboor            Piece
  6. Furqan           Criteria
  7. Burhan          Proof
  8. Hikma            Wisdom
  9. Wahi              Inspiration
  10. Majeed           Glorious
  11. Noor               Light
  12. Ahsan ul Hadith          Best narration
  13. Ahsan ul Qasa             Best of relationship
  14. Moizza          Sermon
  15. Zikr               Remembrance
  16. Alwah           Tablets
  17. Qual              Saying
  18. Haq               Truth
  19. Ilm                Knowledge
  20. Kalam            Word
  21. Suhuf             Pages

The Revelation and Al-Kitab is given to all prophets and messengers, however, some attributes of the Revelation are associated with the names of certain messengers, such as:

Al-Kitab, Al-Furquan, Alwah, Suhuf, associated with Prophet Moosa (a.s), 7:145,

(2:53 وَإِذْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَالْفُرْقَانَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ   )

(53:36  أَمْ لَمْ يُنَبَّأْ بِمَا فِي صُحُفِ مُوسَىٰ)

Taurat, Injeel, Al-Kitab, Al-Hikma, with prophet Essa (a.s)  (3:45-48  وَيُعَلِّمُهُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَالتَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ )

Zubur with Dawood (a.s), 17:55

Al-Kitab, Suhuf, Al-Hikma with Ibraheem (a.s) (87:19 صُحُفِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَىٰ )

(4:54  أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلَىٰ مَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۖ فَقَدْ آتَيْنَا آلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَآتَيْنَاهُم مُّلْكًا عَظِيمًا)

Point to note is that, it is not stated in the Book, that Taurat was given to Moosa (a.s) and that 4 books were sent by Allah.

7:145  وَكَتَبْنَا لَهُ فِي الْأَلْوَاحِ مِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مَّوْعِظَةً وَتَفْصِيلًا لِّكُلِّ شَيْءٍ فَخُذْهَا بِقُوَّةٍ وَأْمُرْ قَوْمَكَ يَأْخُذُوا بِأَحْسَنِهَا ۚ سَأُرِيكُمْ دَارَ الْفَاسِقِينَ

“ And We wrote for him in the Alwah/the tablets, sermon from everything and explanation for everything. So hold fast to it with strength, and order your people that they should hold it beautifully soon I will show you the circles of dissolute/Immoral people.

The Quran is protected in the tablets. The memory held in human mind is like a tablet. The collective remembrance of the believers preserve the Book, as there is no standard calibrated version of the Book (Al-Quran) in existence.

85:21-22  بَلْ هُوَ قُرْآنٌ مَّجِيدٌ  فِي لَوْحٍ مَّحْفُوظٍ

But this is a glorious Quran/reading, In a loh/tablet preserved.

23:49  وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ

And without doubt, We gave Moosa, Al-Kitab/ The Book so that they may be guided.

56:77-78  إِنَّهُ لَقُرْآنٌ كَرِيمٌ  فِي كِتَابٍ مَّكْنُونٍ

That this is indeed a Qur’an (a Reading) most honorable, in a Book/writing well-guarded

The reading (Quran) is well guarded in writing (Book)

28:48  فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ عِندِنَا قَالُوا لَوْلَا أُوتِيَ مِثْلَ مَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ ۚ أَوَلَمْ يَكْفُرُوا بِمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ مِن قَبْلُ ۖ قَالُوا سِحْرَانِ تَظَاهَرَا وَقَالُوا إِنَّا بِكُلٍّ كَافِرُونَ

When the truth came to them from Our nearness, they said why is not given similar to what was given to Moosa/Moses; do they not reject with what was given to Moosa from before. They said these two are magics backing each other. And they said surely we reject with all of them.

When the Messenger delivers message from the Book of Allah, unbelievers of the message, say that why is this Book (Quran) not like what was given to Moosa (in their minds, like Bible, containing details of events, names of peoples etc). Allah asks didn’t you reject and hid what was given to Moosa (The same Al-Kitab was given to Moosa but they instead attributed different Book/Bible to Moosa).

The two magics; one is the Spirit coming from Reading of the Book (Al-Quran) and the other which is between the hands confirming it (The Book),  they collaborate each other and the rejecters, reject both of them.

28:49  قُلْ فَأْتُوا بِكِتَابٍ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ هُوَ أَهْدَىٰ مِنْهُمَا أَتَّبِعْهُ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Say ,so come with a Kitab/Book from the nearness of Allah, which is more in guidance than both of them. I would follow it, if you are truthful

The challenge to them is to bring a book from Allah, (not from human authors) which is better in guidance than both the Book and the Spirit. (The Book of Allah provides guidance with the Spirit (Ar-Rooh) of the Book, not with man written exegeses/tafseers)

34:31  وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَن نُّؤْمِنَ بِهَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ وَلَا بِالَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ ۗ وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذِ الظَّالِمُونَ مَوْقُوفُونَ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يَرْجِعُ بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ الْقَوْلَ يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُوا لِلَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُوا لَوْلَا أَنتُمْ لَكُنَّا مُؤْمِنِينَ

The rejecters say. “We shall neither believe with this Al-Quran/the Reading nor with what is between his hands“.  If you could only see when the wrong-doers will be made to stand before their Lord, throwing back the word (of blame) on one another! Those who were weak, would say to the arrogant ones. “Had it not been for you, we should certainly have been believers!”

The rejecters don’t believe with Al-Quran (the Reading) and what is between the hands (The Book). 

46:12  وَمِن قَبْلِهِ كِتَابُ مُوسَىٰ إِمَامًا وَرَحْمَةً ۚ وَهَٰذَا كِتَابٌ مُّصَدِّقٌ لِّسَانًا عَرَبِيًّا لِّيُنذِرَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُحْسِنِينَ

And book of Moosa/Moses from before was Imam/leader and mercy and this Kitab/Book is confirming in the Arabic Language, so as to warn those who are oppressors and a good news for those who are good doers.

Book of Moosa exists from before as we saw in this post that the attribute of Revelation ‘Al-Kitab’ is associated with Prophet Moosa (a.s) and the Book was given to all prophets. Now this book (Quran) which is between our hands confirms this understanding in Arabic (meaning that the Spirit of the Book comes down with Arabic). When we read the ayahs given in this post in Arabic we come to know that this Book was given to all the prophets and people were reading Al-Kitab in all times. While had we not read the above ayahs in Arabic, some translations of these ayahs presented a different picture, for example the word ‘Baina Yadahi (بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ) is translated differently as ‘before it’ giving the impression of different books existing before Al-Kitab/the Book.

14:4  وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا بِلِسَانِ قَوْمِهِ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمْ ۖ فَيُضِلُّ اللَّهُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

We have not sent a Messenger except in the language of his people, in order to make clear to them. Thus Allah leaves straying those whom He pleases: and He is exalted in power, full of wisdom.

Allah sends messengers to make clear to them the Spirit of the Book of Allah in their own language. Allah has sent messengers in all communities. He has not given them a separate book in all languages of the world. Messengers deliver the sermons and Spirit of the message of Allah from Al-Kitab (which is in Arabic language) and clarifies for them this understanding in the language of their nations.

4:136 يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ مِن قَبْلُ ۚ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا

O you people who believe! Believe in Allah and His messenger, and the Book which He sent down to His messenger and the Book which He sent down before. If any one denies Allah, His angels, His Books, His messengers, and the Day of Judgment, verily he went far, far astray.

Al-Kitab/the Book existed in all times and given to all prophets. Allah ask believers to believe in the the book revealed to the messenger and the book revealed before him which is the same book given to all messengers.  Please note that Allah did not say that believe in this Book and the books (in plural) sent before this book. Messenger and people should not doubt about Al-Kitab. People have been reading Al-Kitab before the Messenger (pbuh), as evident in the below Ayat:

10:94  فَإِن كُنتَ فِي شَكٍّ مِّمَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ فَاسْأَلِ الَّذِينَ يَقْرَءُونَ الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكَ ۚ لَقَدْ جَاءَكَ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ

Thus, if you (the Messenger) is in doubt from what We have revealed to you, then ask those who are reading Al-Kitab/The Book from before you, definitely there has come to you the truth from your Lord, so do not become from the doubtful ones.

10:37  وَمَا كَانَ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ أَن يُفْتَرَىٰ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِن تَصْدِيقَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَتَفْصِيلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ مِن رَّبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

And this Al-Quran / The Reading is not that can be produced from other than Allah, but it is a confirmation, that is between his two hands and the explanation of Al-Kitab / The Book there is no doubt in it from the Lord of the worlds.

This Reading/Al-Quran confirms what is between the hands, and it details the Book/Al-Kitab.

43:21  أَمْ آتَيْنَاهُمْ كِتَابًا مِّن قَبْلِهِ فَهُم بِهِ مُسْتَمْسِكُونَ

‘Have We given them a book before this, and they are upholding it?’

In below ayat, Allah challenges that if there was a book before it (Quran) then bring it forth or bring some remnants of this knowledge. Had present day Bible an altered version of Allah’s Book, then it could have been presented as the older book and remnant of knowledge as response to this challenge.  So, the below Ayat confirms that present day Bible is not an altered from of Al-Kitab.

4:46   قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُم مَّا تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَرُونِي مَاذَا خَلَقُوا مِنَ الْأَرْضِ أَمْ لَهُمْ شِرْكٌ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ ۖ ائْتُونِي بِكِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ هَٰذَا أَوْ أَثَارَةٍ مِّنْ عِلْمٍ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Say: “Do you see what it is you call besides Allah? Show me what it is they have created on earth, or have they a share in the heavens. Bring me a Book before this, or any remnant of knowledge (you may have), if you are telling the truth!

Taurat and Injeel:

In order to know what At-Taurant and Al-Injeel are, lets see what Al-Kitab says about them in below Ayahs:

3:7 هُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ آيَاتٌ مُّحْكَمَاتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ ۖ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَابَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغَاءَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغَاءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ ۗ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ ۗ وَالرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ رَبِّنَا ۗ وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ

It is He who has revealed Al-Kitab / The Book over you. In it are muhkamat ayahs ( signs containing orders). They are the mother of Al-Kitab / The Book, and others are mutashabehat / resembling (Ayahs / signs). So in whose heart is deviation, they follow what resembles from it, seeking Fitna/captivation and its interpretation and no one knows its interpretation except Allah. Those who are stable in knowledge they say we believe with it, all is from the nearness of our Lord. And none remembers except those who posses the core.

From the above Ayat we come to know that Al-Kitab/the Book contains two type of ayahs. One type is ‘Muhkamat’ i.e containing orders of Allah.

5:43 وَكَيْفَ يُحَكِّمُونَكَ وَعِندَهُمُ التَّوْرَاةُ فِيهَا حُكْمُ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يَتَوَلَّوْنَ مِن بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ ۚ وَمَا أُولَٰئِكَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ

And how can they make you (Mohammad pbuh) a judge? As they have the At-Taurat with them, in it is hukum / order of Allah. Then after that they turn away and they are not with the believers.

We come to know that At-Taurat has the Hukum/Orders of Allah. From Ayat 3:7 and 5:43, we can deduce that the Ayahs of Al-Kitab containing Hukum/orders of Allah are referred to as At-Taurat.

5:44  إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ ۚ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُوا لِلَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُوا مِن كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاءَ ۚ فَلَا تَخْشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

Surely We have revealed the Taurat: therein is guidance and light. By it the prophets who were submitters to Allah’s Will, governed for the people who were Jews and the Rabbis and the Ahbar / the scholars: for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah’s book, and they were witnesses to it: therefore fear not people, but fear me, and sell not my signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah has revealed, they are the rejectors.

At-Taurat (Ayahs containing orders of Allah) has guidance and light. The prophets ordered with At-Taurat and they were entrusted with the protection of the Book of Allah.

5:46  وَقَفَّيْنَا عَلَىٰ آثَارِهِم بِعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ ۖ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْإِنجِيلَ فِيهِ هُدًى وَنُورٌ وَمُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَهُدًى وَمَوْعِظَةً لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

And We made the following in their footsteps by Essa, son of Marium, verifying what was  between his hands from the Taurat and We gave him the Injeel in which is guidance and light, and verifying what was between his hands from the Taurat and a guidance and an sermon for those who guard (against evil).

Injeel is stated as having guidance and light and a sermon for the Mutaqqin/those who take guard. Prophet Essa A.S is associated with the attribute of Al-Kitab, Al- Injeel, which is guidance, light and sermon.

Also please note for Al-Quran:

3:138  هَٰذَا بَيَانٌ لِّلنَّاسِ وَهُدًى وَمَوْعِظَةٌ لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

This is a statement for mankind, a guidance and sermon to those who take guard!

Allah is asking Ahle-Injeel (people of Gospel) to order by Injeel. Per religious leaders’ interpretation, if Al-Injeel is cancelled when Al-Quran is revealed, then why this order is in Al-Quran. This is possible only if Al-Anjeel is not a different book, but an attribute of the same Book.

5:47  وَلْيَحْكُمْ أَهْلُ الْإِنجِيلِ بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

‘Let the people of the Injeel  judge/govern by what Allah has revealed therein. If any do fail to judge by what Allah has revealed, they are wrongdoers/Fasiqeen.’

5:68  قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَسْتُمْ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ حَتَّىٰ تُقِيمُوا التَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۗ وَلَيَزِيدَنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنْهُم مَّا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ طُغْيَانًا وَكُفْرًا ۖ فَلَا تَأْسَ عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

Say O’ Ahlal-Kitab / People of the Book you are not on anything/ unless you establish At-Taurat and Al-Injeel and what is revealed from your Lord to all of you. And what is revealed from your Lord to you (the messenger) definitely increases amongst the majority of them in rebellion and rejection. Then you do not greave over the people who reject

Again in the above Ayat, the Ahlal Kitab are asked to establish Taurat and Injeel. If as per common belief, old sharias/old Books are cancelled, how come Allah and his messenger would ask to establish them. This wont be possible unless Al-Injeel and At-Taurat are attributes of the same revelation, Al-Kitab.  Second part of the ayat can be practically confirmed on ground that this revelation will increase the majority of people in rebellion and they will not believe in it that Taurat and Injeel are not different books but attributes of Al-Kitab. If we consider in this ayat, Taurat and Injeel as Bible or Bible when it was revealed in original form, how can the people establish it when Quran it self challenges to bring any remnant of knowledge of previous books (4:46), meaning there does not exists any.

3:65  يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لِمَ تُحَاجُّونَ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمَا أُنزِلَتِ التَّوْرَاةُ وَالْإِنجِيلُ إِلَّا مِن بَعْدِهِ ۚ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ

O’ People of the Book! Why you dispute in Ibrahim, when the Taurat/Law and the Injeel/Gospel were not revealed but after him? Do you not understand?

Ibrahim as described in Al-Quran is the Idol Breaker and his Muqam/place is clarified Ayahs (3:97). You cannot reach or touch the spirit of the revelation unless you cleanse your self of the filth of idols (56:79). So the first step in the path of the Book and revelation is Ibrahim. You cannot attain the sprit of the Book, until you clean yourself of previous Idols held in high esteem in your Nafs/psyche. After these idols are broken, understanding of Taurat i.e the orders of Allah and Injeel i.e guidance, light and sermon can be attained. 

16:123 ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ أَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

“Then We inspired thee (Mohammad), Follow the religion of Ibrahim the True in Faith, and he was not from the Polytheists.”

The Messenger confirms that God has guided him to the straight path of the religion of Ibrahim. So, is it possible that last Messenger with the greatest Book detailing all orders of the religion, was asked to follow the religion of Ibrahim, who was not given this Book? Can we imagine that the last messenger with the final Book was actually following the religion of Ibrahim (a.s) who had a supposedly different sharia and different book?

3:3-4  نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَأَنزَلَ التَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ  مِن قَبْلُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَنزَلَ الْفُرْقَانَ ۗ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ ذُو انتِقَامٍ

It is He Who sent down to you, in truth, the Book, confirming what is between his hands and He sent down the Taurat  and the Injeel. before this, for guidance to mankind, and He sent the Furqan/criterion (of judgment between right and wrong).Then those who reject Faith with the Ayahs/ Signs of Allah will suffer the severest penalty, and Allah is exalted in might, Lord of retribution.

Allah sent down the Book which confirms the written Word between the hands and He sent down the Taurat (orders of Allah) and the Injeel (guidance, light and sermon) from before and he sent down Al-Furqan (the criteria to judge).

If we visualize the above Ayat on individual basis, whenever Allah reveals the Book on a Bashar (human) messenger, the Al-Taurat i.e orders of Allah have already been existing for all times on Earth for the believers.  Injeel i.e the light, guidance and sermons exists as well. With this revealed book on him, the Bashar/human messenger can use the Furqan/criteria to judge between truth and falsehood and order with the Taurat and sermon with Injeel as previous messengers have done so in their times.

Zaboor

Zaboor means piece, the plural is Zubur meaning pieces and this is also an attribute of the revelation and Al-Kitab. This attribute is associated by name with prophet Dawood (a.s).

17:55  وَرَبُّكَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۗ وَلَقَدْ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَ النَّبِيِّينَ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۖ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا

And your Lord knows better all that are in the heavens and in the earth. We did bestowed on some prophets more than on others and We gave Zaboor/Piece to Dawood.

The Az-Zikr (the remembrance) is also an attribute of Al-Kitab and is protected by Allah.

15:9  إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ

Indeed, We have sent down the Remembrance; and indeed we are the guardians for it.

21:105  وَلَقَدْ كَتَبْنَا فِي الزَّبُورِ مِن بَعْدِ الذِّكْرِ أَنَّ الْأَرْضَ يَرِثُهَا عِبَادِيَ الصَّالِحُونَ

And indeed we wrote in Zaboor after the Zikr that My servants the righteous, shall inherit the earth.

Az-Zikr is written in Zaboor/Piece

26:192-197 وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ  نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ  عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنذِرِينَ  بِلِسَانٍ عَرَبِيٍّ مُّبِينٍ  وَإِنَّهُ لَفِي زُبُرِ الْأَوَّلِينَ  أَوَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُمْ آيَةً أَن يَعْلَمَهُ عُلَمَاءُ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ

This is a revelation from the Lord of the Worlds. Sent down the Ruh-ul-Ameen/Honest Spirit with it. On your heart, so that you may be of the warners, with the clear Arabic language. Verily, it is in the Zubur/Pieces of earlier people. Is it not an ayat/sign for them  that the scholars of the Bani Israel know it.

The revelation, which the Honest Spirit (Rooh ul Ameen) brought on the messenger’s heart, came with clear Arabic and this indeed was in the pieces of the earlier people.

35:25  وَإِن يُكَذِّبُوكَ فَقَدْ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ جَاءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُم بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَبِالزُّبُرِ وَبِالْكِتَابِ الْمُنِيرِ

And if they reject thee, so did their predecessors, to whom came their messengers with Bayyinat/Clear Signs, Zubur/Pieces and with the Book of enlightenment.

Unbelievers will however reject this as were the previous messengers who came with clarity, and Zubur/pieces and with enlightened Book.

16:44  بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالزُّبُرِ ۗ وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

(We sent them) with Bayyinat/Clear Signs and Zubur/Pieces; and We have sent down unto you the Zikr/remembrance that you explain clearly to men what is sent for them, and that they may reflect on it.

6:91  وَمَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ إِذْ قَالُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ بَشَرٍ مِّن شَيْءٍ ۗ قُلْ مَنْ أَنزَلَ الْكِتَابَ الَّذِي جَاءَ بِهِ مُوسَىٰ نُورًا وَهُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ ۖ تَجْعَلُونَهُ قَرَاطِيسَ تُبْدُونَهَا وَتُخْفُونَ كَثِيرًا ۖ وَعُلِّمْتُم مَّا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا أَنتُمْ وَلَا آبَاؤُكُمْ ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۖ ثُمَّ ذَرْهُمْ فِي خَوْضِهِمْ يَلْعَبُونَ

They did not value Allah as He should be valued. When they said, “Allah did not reveal anything to a bashar/human.” Say, “Who then sent down the Book which Moosa brought, with light and guidance for the people?” You made it to pieces of paper, you show something while concealing a lot of it. You were taught what you never knew-you and your parents. Say, “Allah (revealed it),” then leave them in their heedlessness, playing.

The revelation from Allah has been put down on pieces of papers by people.

Books of Allah:

The plural of Kitab/book is Kutub/books in Arabic.

2:285  آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۚ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ ۚ وَقَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ

The messenger believes in what has been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the believers. All of them believe in Allah, His angels, His books, and His messengers. “We make no distinction (they say) between any of His messengers.” And they say. “We hear, and we obey. (We seek) your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the destiny.”

The above ayat mentions books. Lets see what could be meant by books of Allah:

98:2-3 رَسُولٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ يَتْلُو صُحُفًا مُّطَهَّرَةً  فِيهَا كُتُبٌ قَيِّمَةٌ

A messenger from Allah, reading pages purified. Wherein (these pages) are books established.

The books of Allah are established within the purified pages and the messenger reads from these pages. The suras/chapters of Al-Kitab are referred in plural form as books/kutub.

Notes:

بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ   The Arabic words ‘Baina Yadaihi’ means ‘between his hands’. Does not mean ‘Before it’ as found in some translations.

  • Part of the lecture of Scholar Mr. Ahmed Deedat informing about Bible is not actually Injeel or Taurat

Lecture by Scholar Br. Mohammad Shaikh on Al-Kitab/The Book:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/10/16/al-kitab-the-book-2007/
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