بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Al-Quran mentions that the believers do ponder over the universe around them which increases their faith in the Creator. The Creator is the original designer and maker of the universe. As believers discover more and more about the universe, their awe and appreciation for its splendor, its immaculate design and balance, its complexity and its immense power, increases and they can appreciate more the absolute wisdom, knowledge and power of the Creator. The parameters of the cosmos are so meticulously designed that even if one factor or physical property of the matter and energy had differed, the whole universe would have crashed. This extreme care to perfection leads the believers to believe that this is all by the design of the most intelligent being whom people of all religions consider the Creator.
3:191 الَّذِينَ يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ قِيَامًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِهِمْ وَيَتَفَكَّرُونَ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ رَبَّنَا مَا خَلَقْتَ هَٰذَا بَاطِلًا سُبْحَانَكَ فَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ
Those who remember Allah, standing, sitting, and lying on their sides, and ponder in the creation of the skies and the earth, (they say). “Our Lord! not for falsehood have you created (all) this! Glory to You! give us salvation from the punishment of the fire.
57:4 هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ ۚ يَعْلَمُ مَا يَلِجُ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْهَا وَمَا يَنزِلُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَمَا يَعْرُجُ فِيهَا ۖ وَهُوَ مَعَكُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
It is He, who created the skies and the earth in six periods of time, then He firmly established on the throne. He knows what enters within the earth and what comes forth out of it, what comes down from sky and what mounts up to it, and He is with you where-ever you may be, and Allah sees well all that you do.
40:57 لَخَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ خَلْقِ النَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
Assuredly the creation of the skies and the earth is a greater (matter) than the creation of people. Yet most people do not know it.
The scale of the universe is simply enormous beyond the grasp of the normal comprehension. The deeper we look into the universe the farther it extends. There are places in universe whose light has not reached as yet, while light has been travelling from there for more than 14 billions years and light travels at the speed of 300,000 Km per second.
67:3 الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا ۖ مَّا تَرَىٰ فِي خَلْقِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ مِن تَفَاوُتٍ ۖ فَارْجِعِ الْبَصَرَ هَلْ تَرَىٰ مِن فُطُورٍ
He is who created the seven skies one above another. You will not see any imperfection in the creation of the most Gracious. So turn your vision again. Do you see any flaw?
The above ayat states that the seven skies that Allah has created are built one over the another.
37:6 إِنَّا زَيَّنَّا السَّمَاءَ الدُّنْيَا بِزِينَةٍ الْكَوَاكِبِ
We have indeed adorned the lower heaven with planets/stars,-
23:18 وَأَنزَلْنَا مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً بِقَدَرٍ فَأَسْكَنَّاهُ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۖ وَإِنَّا عَلَىٰ ذَهَابٍ بِهِ لَقَادِرُونَ
And We send down water from the sky according to a measure, and We cause it to soak in the soil; and We certainly are able to take it away (evaporation etc.)
The two ayahs above mention that the lowest sky is adorned with planets/starts. The water is sent down from sky. We may deduce that the lowest sky is the atmospheric layer of the earth as the atmospheric layer accumulates water vapors to form clouds and make rain on land. The layers of air also make the stars and planets look like glimmering lamps from earth. And also it provides protection against ultra violet rays, radio activity and meteorites entering the earth.
21:32 وَجَعَلْنَا السَّمَاءَ سَقْفًا مَّحْفُوظًا ۖ وَهُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِهَا مُعْرِضُونَ
And We have made the heavens, a protective roof, yet do they turn away from its signs.
As the skies are said to be built as layers one upon another, building upon this hierarchy of skies one upon another, one possibility of the seven skies could be in the below given order:
- Atmospheric layer of Earth
- Solar system
- Our Galaxy Milky way
- Cluster of Galaxies
- Super Cluster
Another possibility is that the first sky is the whole universe and there are still 6 additional layers of skies above our cosmos which we are not yet able to see.
65:12 اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَمِنَ الْأَرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ يَتَنَزَّلُ الْأَمْرُ بَيْنَهُنَّ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَحَاطَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا
Allah is He, who created seven skies and of the earth also the like of it. His orders descends between them so that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah encompasses, all things in (His) Knowledge
There is a similarity mentioned between the earth and the skies. The similarity is in their structure i.e as skies are built i.e one above another, similarly earth is made of layers one above another. The details of the layers of the Earth are given at the bottom of the post in notes.
86:11-12 وَالسَّمَاءِ ذَاتِ الرَّجْعِ وَالْأَرْضِ ذَاتِ الصَّدْعِ
By the Sky which is returning/bouncy, and by the Earth of opening/cracking nature
The nature of sky is stated to be returning or bouncy type, which could be pointing either to its cyclical nature (rotation), or it may mean its bouncing nature referring to the space time fabric of universe. The Earth is said to be of opening/cracking nature, may be referring to the cracks which forms between the layers of earth which causes e.g eruptions of volcanoes.
21:33 وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ ۖ كُلٌّ فِي فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ
It is He Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. all (the celestial bodies) swim along, each in its rounded course.
The sun and moon were made to move in their orbits which make the night and day on earth.
25:61 تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ فِي السَّمَاءِ بُرُوجًا وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا سِرَاجًا وَقَمَرًا مُّنِيرًا
Blessed is He, Who made structures in the skies, and placed therein a lamp and a bright moon.
71:16 وَجَعَلَ الْقَمَرَ فِيهِنَّ نُورًا وَجَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ سِرَاجًا
And (He) made the moon, in which is light, and made the sun as a Lamp.
Sun is said to be a lamp, obviously because it burns fuel. The ayat states that He made the Moon in which is light. We see light in the moon which is basically reflected light of the sun. In addition, moon’s inner most core comprising of iron and sulphur, at a temperature of 1600-1700K, would have its own glow as well inside of moon (see in notes below)
79:27-33 أَأَنتُمْ أَشَدُّ خَلْقًا أَمِ السَّمَاءُ ۚ بَنَاهَا رَفَعَ سَمْكَهَا فَسَوَّاهَا وَأَغْطَشَ لَيْلَهَا وَأَخْرَجَ ضُحَاهَا وَالْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ دَحَاهَا أَخْرَجَ مِنْهَا مَاءَهَا وَمَرْعَاهَا وَالْجِبَالَ أَرْسَاهَا
What! are you the more severe to create or the skies (above)? Which We have created. He raised its canopy high, thus perfected it. It’s night, He endowed with darkness, and its light He brings out. And the earth, after that He extended. He draw out therefrom its water and its pastures. And the mountains He firmly fixed.
In these ayahs, sequence of creation is mentioned. It is informed that He raised the canopy of the heavens high i.e the heavens were expanded. He brought forth the light of it, which means that the sun and stars were made to glow and with the expansion of the skies the darkness was distinct from the light of sun and starts. After that He spread out the earth. (Spreading out does not mean the Earth is flat, would mean He shaped the earth , i.e from very small size in the beginning when Earth and Skies were joined together, the Earth was spread to its present size, i.e to a size of much bigger sphere.). Then He brought forth its water and pastures and fixed mountains on Earth. It means the sequence of creations is that, Allah made first the sky and after that He shaped the Earth.
The Skies and Earth were all joined together in a mixture and then God separated them.
21:30 أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا ۖ وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاءِ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ ۖ أَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
Do not the unbelievers see that the skies and the earth were joined together before We split them asunder We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?
Earth was created and shaped out of this mixture, in two periods of time.
41:9 قُلْ أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَكْفُرُونَ بِالَّذِي خَلَقَ الْأَرْضَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ وَتَجْعَلُونَ لَهُ أَندَادًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ
Say. Is it that you deny Him who created the earth in two periods of time? And do you join equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds.
Then mountains were fixed on earth, and all provisions were provided on earth. All done in four periods of time. The two periods of time mentioned in Aya 41:9 and four periods of time mentioned 41:10 are concurrent. One information is provided additionally, that these four periods of time are equal in length.
41:10 وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ مِن فَوْقِهَا وَبَارَكَ فِيهَا وَقَدَّرَ فِيهَا أَقْوَاتَهَا فِي أَرْبَعَةِ أَيَّامٍ سَوَاءً لِّلسَّائِلِينَ
He sets on the (earth), mountains standing firm, above it, and bestowed blessings on it, and set measures/proportion therein for all things for their nourishment, in four periods/intervals of time, equal (time periods)for the (sake of) those who ask
The earth and sky were set in their motions.
41:11 ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلْأَرْضِ ائْتِيَا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا قَالَتَا أَتَيْنَا طَائِعِينَ
Then He attended towards the sky, and it was smoke/gaseous. He said to it and to the earth. “Come you together, willingly or unwillingly.” Both said. “We do come (together), in willing obedience.”
So, after the sky was shaped, then earth was shaped and provisions on earth were created, and after that He created seven skies out of the sky in two periods of time.
41:12 فَقَضَاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ وَأَوْحَىٰ فِي كُلِّ سَمَاءٍ أَمْرَهَا ۚ وَزَيَّنَّا السَّمَاءَ الدُّنْيَا بِمَصَابِيحَ وَحِفْظًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ
So He completed them as seven skies in two periods/intervals of time, and He assigned/inspired to each sky its command. And We adorned the lower sky with lamps, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge.
The lowest sky is adorned with stars. If the lowest sky is the atmospheric layer surrounding the earth, it makes the start look like glimmering lamps. Otherwise, from space the stars don’t look to glimmer.
2:29 هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ ۚ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
It is He who has created for you all things that are on earth; Then, He attended to the skies, thus made seven skies thereof; and He has knowledge of all things.
41:47 وَالسَّمَاءَ بَنَيْنَاهَا بِأَيْدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ
The sky, we constructed it with power and it is We who expand it
In the 20th century, the scientific community discovered that the universe is expanding. All the galaxies are moving away from one another. This was against logic as scientists expected that galaxies should be moving closer to one another due to force of gravitation. Allah informs in this Ayat that it is He, who is expanding the Universe.
11:7 وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ وَكَانَ عَرْشُهُ عَلَى الْمَاءِ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ أَيُّكُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلًا ۗ وَلَئِن قُلْتَ إِنَّكُم مَّبْعُوثُونَ مِن بَعْدِ الْمَوْتِ لَيَقُولَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنْ هَٰذَا إِلَّا سِحْرٌ مُّبِينٌ
He it is Who created the skies and the earth in six time periods – and His throne was over the water – that He may test you, which of you is better in conduct. But if you were to say to them, “You shall indeed be raised up after death”, the unbelievers would be sure to say, “This is nothing but obvious sorcery!”
In the above ayat it is mentioned that Allah created the skies and earth in six periods of time and His throne was on water in order to test you how you do you fare. This could be a reference to the to start of life on the earth after creation of heavens and earth, eventually towards the development of humanity. Allah’s throne means his control, and this is with reference to the beginning of life which originated in water.
55:33 يَا مَعْشَرَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ إِنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَن تَنفُذُوا مِنْ أَقْطَارِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ فَانفُذُوا ۚ لَا تَنفُذُونَ إِلَّا بِسُلْطَانٍ
O ye assembly of Jinns and men! If it be ye can pass beyond the zones of the skies and the earth, pass ye! not without authority shall ye be able to pass!
Escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body. The escape velocity from earth is about 40,270 km/h I.e the speed required to escape the earth gravitational pull.
56:75-76 فَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِمَوَاقِعِ النُّجُومِ وَإِنَّهُ لَقَسَمٌ لَّوْ تَعْلَمُونَ عَظِيمٌ
Thus, I swear by the occurrence/falling of stars and indeed it is a mighty adjuration if you but knew,-
The falling of most stars at the end of their lives, happens with a nova or supernova, a mighty release of energy in which a star can briefly outshine entire galaxies and radiate more energy than our sun will in its entire lifetime.
21:104 يَوْمَ نَطْوِي السَّمَاءَ كَطَيِّ السِّجِلِّ لِلْكُتُبِ ۚ كَمَا بَدَأْنَا أَوَّلَ خَلْقٍ نُّعِيدُهُ ۚ وَعْدًا عَلَيْنَا ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا فَاعِلِينَ
The day that We roll up the sky like a scroll rolled up for books. As We started the initial creation, so shall We repeat it. This is a promise upon us, truly shall We fulfill it.
This could be an indication that the universe would end up in ‘BIG CRUNCH’, as the universe expanded in the initial stages, eventually it could compress towards the end of time. (and may be this cycle keeps on repeating)
Structure of the Earth is divided into layers. These layers are both physically and chemically different. The Earth has an outer solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core, and a solid inner core. (Following is the description of layers and sub layers of Earth):
- The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth. It is made of solid rocks. It is mostly made of the lighter elements, silicon, oxygen, aluminium. Because of this, it is known as sial (silicon = Si; aluminium = Al) or felsic.
- Lithosphere is the first of the four sub layers which together constitute the Mantle. Mantle is the layer of the Earth right below the crust. It is made mostly of oxygen, silicon and the heavier element magnesium. The uppermost part of the mantle is solid, and forms the base of the crust. It is made of the heavy rock peridotite. The continental and oceanic plates include both the crust proper and this uppermost solid layer of the mantle. Together this mass makes up the lithosphere. The lithosphere plates float on the semi-liquid aesthenosphere below.
- Upper aesthenosphere: magma
- Lower aesthenosphere
- Lower mantle
- Outer core. Earth core is solid iron and nickel, and is about 5000–6000oC. is a liquid layer below the mantle.
- Inner core, is the very center of the Earth. It is very hot and, due to the high pressure, it is solid.
Moon’s Inner core: