Satan/Shaitan/Devil

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

16:98  فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

When you read the Quran/the Reading, seek Allah’s protection from Satan the stoned one.

Allah has warned mankind that Satan is their open enemy and that Satan will eventually be able to lead a majority of mankind to delusion and destruction. Therefore it is imperative for us to be able to identify the attacks of Satan in order to protect ourselves  Especially so, as Satan is relentless in his attacks and he is sitting at the ‘Sirate-Mustaqim’ (Straight Path). Quran gives us a lot of information about Satan for our protection. In this post we will review the Ayahs related to the story of Adam and his pair and the tree from which they ate and lost their place in Janna. Also, we will analyze various aspects of the personality of Satan and his delusion tactics.

38-71-76  إِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي خَالِقٌ بَشَرًا مِّن طِينٍ  فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ  فَسَجَدَ الْمَلَائِكَةُ كُلُّهُمْ أَجْمَعُونَ  إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ اسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ  قَالَ يَا إِبْلِيسُ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَن تَسْجُدَ لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ ۖ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ أَمْ كُنتَ مِنَ الْعَالِينَ  قَالَ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ ۖ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ

When your Lord said to the angels; ‘Surely I am creating a human from clay. When I have made him even and breathed into him from My spirit, then you all fall down prostrating for him.” So the angels prostrated, all of them together, except Iblis who showed arrogance and became from the rejecters. He (Allah) said: O’ Iblis, what prevented you to prostrate for what I have created with my hands. Did you show arrogance or are you from the higher class? He (Iblis) said. “I am better than him. You have created me from fire, and created him from clay.”

In the above Ayahs, we come to know about one aspect of the personality of Satan; The personality called ‘Iblis’. The root word of ‘Iblis’ is (ب ل س ) which means ‘in grief and hurts’. Iblis is the personality who considers himself superior based on criteria not given by Allah. Allah ordered the angels that you all prostrate to human when He breathes into the ‘human/bashar’ from His Sprit. The criteria which Iblis makes to compare, is made by himself for example fire is better than clay. While making the criteria he focuses on the body form and misses the essence/spirit. When he perceives injustice being done to him from things beyond his control, he rebels against Allah and thinks he is justified in doing so because he has been dealt unjustly. The lesson to recognize this aspect of Iblis is that, not to follow in his footsteps and be dejected and complexed in matters on which we have no control.  Creation is only from Allah so there should be no complexes and grudges from Allah, in people in what has been created or provided by Allah.

17:62  قَالَ أَرَأَيْتَكَ هَٰذَا الَّذِي كَرَّمْتَ عَلَيَّ لَئِنْ أَخَّرْتَنِ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَأَحْتَنِكَنَّ ذُرِّيَّتَهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

He (Iblis) said: “Do you see! this is the one you have honored over me! Definitely If you will give me respite till the day of resurrection, I will bring his descendants under my control except a few”.

The word  لَأَحْتَنِكَنَّ  is from root (ح ن ك ) which also means to make worldly experienced. The plan of Iblis/devil is to bring the descendent of Adam under his control by making them going after the worldly life. While Allah has always emphasized upon the Hereafter/Akhira over worldly life.

7:19  وَيَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ فَكُلَا مِنْ حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلَا تَقْرَبَا هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ

And “O Adam You and your pair stay in the garden, thus both of you eat from wherever you wish and do not go near this tree so you will become from the oppressors.

20:117-119  فَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ إِنَّ هَٰذَا عَدُوٌّ لَّكَ وَلِزَوْجِكَ فَلَا يُخْرِجَنَّكُمَا مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ فَتَشْقَىٰ إِنَّ لَكَ أَلَّا تَجُوعَ فِيهَا وَلَا تَعْرَىٰ  وَأَنَّكَ لَا تَظْمَأُ فِيهَا وَلَا تَضْحَىٰ

Then We said. “O Adam! verily, this is an enemy to thee and your pair. So let him not get you both out of the Garden, so that you land in misery. Surely you are not to be hungry and naked in it, and surely you are not to be thirsty and victimized in it.

Adam and his pair were in Al-Janna/the garden. Quran says that what is described as Jannat in Quran is an example (13:35 مَّثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ ۖ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ أُكُلُهَا دَائِمٌ وَظِلُّهَا ۚ تِلْكَ عُقْبَى الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا ۖ وَّعُقْبَى الْكَافِرِينَ النَّارُ ). The example of the Janna in which they were in, had the following characteristics as per Ayahs 20:117-119:

  1. Free from hunger as there is no shortage of food.  Hunger is also associated with the hunger for power, prestige and excelling others. In Janna there is no competition with any one, there-fore there is no desire for man to excel, exceed or compare with any one.
  2. No Nakedness. Nakedness is associated with covering one’s blemishes and weaknesses. In Janna, there is no need to cover ones’ shortcomings as again no comparison with others.
  3. No thirst. Thirst is also associated with ones thirst for knowledge to excel and compete with others. There is no desire in Janna for that.
  4. No victimization. In the example of Janna, people are not victimized as there is no  desire to leave others behind.

As Janna is an example, the tree of Janna is also an example. The example of the exit tree in Janna is something that when you experience it, you lose the Janna and along with it the characteristics mentioned above of Janna.  So this tree. which they were asked to avoid is associated with worldly life. Once they taste it, the protection of Janna which they were enjoying is withdrawn and they are exposed to worldly life. Worldly life is associated with competition with others to excel. They have to strive to compete with others to do better than others. They have to have the hunger and thirst to do better for themselves and get materials things for making their worldly life better. They have to cover themselves for their blemishes and shortcomings from people’s eyes. So, this tree is the tree of worldly life and competition, and after getting the taste of this tree all rigors of worldly life were exposed for them.

20:120  فَوَسْوَسَ إِلَيْهِ الشَّيْطَانُ قَالَ يَا آدَمُ هَلْ أَدُلُّكَ عَلَىٰ شَجَرَةِ الْخُلْدِ وَمُلْكٍ لَّا يَبْلَىٰ

Then Satan tempted him by saying: “O Adam, should I show you the tree of immortality, and a kingdom that will never know any wane?”

Satan tempted Adam and his pair, by suggesting them they should work for their worldly life, so that they become immortals. We often hear similar statements, that we should do something so that world would remember us even after our death. Similarly people have an inclination to leave their progeny behind so that their lineage would continue. However, God advises that what ever is in the world will be left here when you leave the world.

7:20 فَوَسْوَسَ لَهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ لِيُبْدِيَ لَهُمَا مَا وُورِيَ عَنْهُمَا مِن سَوْآتِهِمَا وَقَالَ مَا نَهَاكُمَا رَبُّكُمَا عَنْ هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةِ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَا مَلَكَيْنِ أَوْ تَكُونَا مِنَ الْخَالِدِينَ

Then Shaitan/Satan whispered so that he made for them appear from their ills which were behind them and said “that Your Lord has forbidden from this tree so that you become angels or you become eternal.

Sometimes we hear similar rhetoric that there is no hereafter and those who target hereafter are left behind in the World and this is just an illusion that religions creates to restrain mankind from development.

20:121  أَكَلَا مِنْهَا فَبَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْآتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ الْجَنَّةِ ۚ وَعَصَىٰ آدَمُ رَبَّهُ فَغَوَىٰ

And both ate of (its fruit), and their hidden evils were exposed to one another, and they patched the leaves of the garden (to hide them). Adam disobeyed his Lord, and went astray.

After eating from that tree, Adam and his pair, lost the protections of Janna as mentioned above. When they were exposed to the world and competition with others, they realized their short comings in comparison with others, and like all others started covering their short comings and blemishes from the world. Once they are exposed to the worldly life, they have to endure the hardships therein, and live the worldly life.

2:36  فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ ۖ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۖ وَلَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ

Then did Satan make them slip and got them out of the state (of felicity) in which they had been. We said. “Get down, all,  for you are enemies to one another. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood – for an appointed time.”

After getting out of Jannat, Adam had to live his life on Earth, which is associated with struggle and strife for the worldly life.

36:60  أَلَمْ أَعْهَدْ إِلَيْكُمْ يَا بَنِي آدَمَ أَن لَّا تَعْبُدُوا الشَّيْطَانَ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

“Did I not covenant to you, O Children of Adam, that you will not serve the Satan; for that he is a clear enemy to you?

7:27  يَا بَنِي آدَمَ لَا يَفْتِنَنَّكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ كَمَا أَخْرَجَ أَبَوَيْكُم مِّنَ الْجَنَّةِ يَنزِعُ عَنْهُمَا لِبَاسَهُمَا لِيُرِيَهُمَا سَوْآتِهِمَا ۗ إِنَّهُ يَرَاكُمْ هُوَ وَقَبِيلُهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا تَرَوْنَهُمْ ۗ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

O children of Adam, do not let the Satan dupe you as he did when he caused the eviction of your parents from the Garden, and the removal of their garments to expose their ills. He and his tribe see you, while you do not see them. We appoint the satans as companions of those who do not believe.

In the above Ayat, Allah advises us to be cautious of arguments from Satan to keep us involved in worldly life to the maximum. We are under constant scrutiny from him and the likes of him. Those who don’t believe in Allah’s advise, invariably become companions of Satan.

2:268  الشَّيْطَانُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُم بِالْفَحْشَاءِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَعِدُكُم مَّغْفِرَةً مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلًا ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Satan promises you of poverty and orders you with shameful acts. Allah promises you His forgiveness and bounties. And Allah  is bounteous for all and He knows all things.

Satan tries to scare you of poverty and keeps us involved in worldly affairs so that we are continuously working for this life. He makes doing shameful acts, alluring. While Allah promises forgiveness and bounties for the believers.

Means give to Satan to delude people in the world:

17:63-64  قَالَ اذْهَبْ فَمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ فَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ جَزَاؤُكُمْ جَزَاءً مَّوْفُورًا  وَاسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ مِنْهُم بِصَوْتِكَ وَأَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِم بِخَيْلِكَ وَرَجِلِكَ وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَوْلَادِ وَعِدْهُمْ ۚ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا

He (Allah) said (to Satan): “Go away, whosoever follows you from them, surely Hell is your reward, an abundant reward. And you can excite, with your sound; whosoever you can from them, and bring over them your horses and infantry (i.e overwhelm them with your ideologies), and be their partner in wealth and children. And make promises with them, and Satan promises them nothing except delusion.

The tools by which Satan delude, are the sounds which stirs up emotions, his ideologies, wealth and children i.e the worldly life adornments.

17:65  إِنَّ عِبَادِي لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانٌ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِرَبِّكَ وَكِيلًا

“Surely My servants, over them, you will never have any authority and sufficient advocate is your Lord.

7:16-17  قَالَ فَبِمَا أَغْوَيْتَنِي لَأَقْعُدَنَّ لَهُمْ صِرَاطَكَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ  ثُمَّ لَآتِيَنَّهُم مِّن بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ وَعَنْ أَيْمَانِهِمْ وَعَن شَمَائِلِهِمْ ۖ وَلَا تَجِدُ أَكْثَرَهُمْ شَاكِرِينَ

He (Satan) said. “so with what you have tempted me, definitely I will sit on Your straight path for them. Then definitely I will come to them from between their front and from their behind and about their right and about their left and you will not find the majority of them thankful.”

Satan sits on Allah’s ‘Sirate Mustaqim’/straight path. He is not sitting in places of shameful and criminal acts as there are others substituting him at those places.  As soon as one starts inclining towards the right path, Satan’s relentless attacks shall target him. Satan will give argument from both left and right side in order to sway him from the right path. The only way to guard off is to recognize Satan and his schemes is through the Ayahs of Allah.

4:19  وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمْ وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمْ وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ آذَانَ الْأَنْعَامِ وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ الشَّيْطَانَ وَلِيًّا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ خَسِرَ خُسْرَانًا مُّبِينًا

“And I will lead them astray, and I will make them wishful and I will order them so definitely they will cut off the ears of cattle, and I will order them so definitely they will alter the creation of Allah. And who takes the Satan a protector from other than Allah then without doubt he is at loss, a clear loss.

Satan promised that he will definitely make people desirous in the world. He will order them to make changes in the creations of Allah. The reference of phrase about ‘cutting ears of cattle’,  is metaphorical. In some languages this phrase means to ‘exceed in mischievous antics in a negative sense. On Satan’s instigation, people would exceed in carnal behaviors which can even put animals to shame.

7:18  قَالَ اخْرُجْ مِنْهَا مَذْءُومًا مَّدْحُورًا ۖ لَّمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

(Allah) said. “Get out from this, disgraced and expelled. I will fill Hell with all of you, whoever follows you from them,-

16:63  تَاللَّهِ لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمَمٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمُ الْيَوْمَ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

By Allah, We sent (Our messengers) to nations before you; but Satan made, their own acts seem alluring. He is also their patron today, but they shall have a most grievous penalty.

Satan provides justification to people in order to make their bad acts alluring in their eyes.

5:90  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

The works of Satan are Intoxicants and gambling, stones, statues and arrows; an abomination,- of Satan’s handwork. eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper.

The touch of Satan causes psychological problems. Satan is not physical.

2:275  الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا ۗ وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا ۚ فَمَن جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىٰ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Those who eat Ar-Riba/the increase  do not take a stand except like that he stands to madness from the touch of Satan. That is because they say that Al-Bai/the deal  is the example of Ar-Riba . And Allah has made Al-Bai/the deal  lawful and has made Ar-Riba/the increase unlawful so he to whom comes the sermon from his lord then forbids, that is past for him. And his affair is towards Allah, and whosoever returns , then they are the companions of the fire. They will live forever in it.

17:27  إِنَّ الْمُبَذِّرِينَ كَانُوا إِخْوَانَ الشَّيَاطِينِ ۖ وَكَانَ الشَّيْطَانُ لِرَبِّهِ كَفُورًا

Squanderers are the brothers of satans, and the Satan is to his Lord, a rejecter.

3:175  إِنَّمَا ذَٰلِكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

Verily it is the Satan who make you fear his protectors so do not be afraid of them, but fear Me, if you are the believers.

5:91  إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاءَ فِي الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلَاةِ ۖ فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ

Satan intends to create among you enmity and hatred through intoxicants and gambling, and to divert you from the remembrance of Allah and the prayer. Will you therefore not desist?

58:19  اسْتَحْوَذَ عَلَيْهِمُ الشَّيْطَانُ فَأَنسَاهُمْ ذِكْرَ اللَّهِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ حِزْبُ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ أَلَا إِنَّ حِزْبَ الشَّيْطَانِ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

Satan has got the better of them so he has made them forget the remembrance of Allah. They are the Party of the Satan. Truly, it is the Party of the Satan that will perish!

7:30  فَرِيقًا هَدَىٰ وَفَرِيقًا حَقَّ عَلَيْهِمُ الضَّلَالَةُ ۗ إِنَّهُمُ اتَّخَذُوا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ

One party He (Allah) has guided, others, on them the loss of the way has been established; as they took the satans, not Allah, for their protectors, and assume that they are the guided ones.

34:20  وَلَقَدْ صَدَّقَ عَلَيْهِمْ إِبْلِيسُ ظَنَّهُ فَاتَّبَعُوهُ إِلَّا فَرِيقًا مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

And without doubt Iblis/Devil made true his conjecture over them, so they followed him except a division from the believers.

16:98-99 فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ  إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ سُلْطَانٌ عَلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ  إِنَّمَا سُلْطَانُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَوَلَّوْنَهُ وَالَّذِينَ هُم بِهِ مُشْرِكُونَ

When you read the Quran/the Reading, seek Allah’s protection from Satan the stoned one. No authority has he over those who believe and put their trust in their Lord. His authority is over those only, who take him as protector and who join partners with Allah.

7:200-202  وَإِمَّا يَنزَغَنَّكَ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ نَزْغٌ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا إِذَا مَسَّهُمْ طَائِفٌ مِّنَ الشَّيْطَانِ تَذَكَّرُوا فَإِذَا هُم مُّبْصِرُونَ  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا إِذَا مَسَّهُمْ طَائِفٌ مِّنَ الشَّيْطَانِ تَذَكَّرُوا فَإِذَا هُم مُّبْصِرُونَ

And if you are incited from the Satan to incitement, so seek refuge with Allah, surely He is all hearing, all knowing. Those who are pious/take guard, when any evil from the Satan touches them, they remember (Allah), then they get the insight. Their (Satan’s) brothers keep on expanding them in the wrong and they do not relax.

If any evil thought comes across your mind, remember Allah at that moment.

Satan efforts with prophets and messengers and Golden words:

22:52  وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ وَلَا نَبِيٍّ إِلَّا إِذَا تَمَنَّىٰ أَلْقَى الشَّيْطَانُ فِي أُمْنِيَّتِهِ فَيَنسَخُ اللَّهُ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ ثُمَّ يُحْكِمُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ  لِّيَجْعَلَ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ فِتْنَةً لِّلَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَفِي شِقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ

And We have not sent  before you a Messenger nor a Prophet except when he wishes, Satan encounters in his wishes. So Allah cancels what Satan encounters, then Allah confirms His Ayahs/Signs and Allah is knowing, wise. That He may make the suggestions thrown in by Satan, a captivation for those in whose hearts is a disease and who are hardened of heart. verily the wrong-doers are in a schism far (from the Truth).

6:112-113  وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ عَدُوًّا شَيَاطِينَ الْإِنسِ وَالْجِنِّ يُوحِي بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ زُخْرُفَ الْقَوْلِ غُرُورًا ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ مَا فَعَلُوهُ ۖ فَذَرْهُمْ وَمَا يَفْتَرُونَ  وَلِتَصْغَىٰ إِلَيْهِ أَفْئِدَةُ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ وَلِيَرْضَوْهُ وَلِيَقْتَرِفُوا مَا هُم مُّقْتَرِفُونَ

And likewise ,We have made for every Prophet the satans of mankind and the satans of jin-kind an enemy, some of them inspire golden words (as sayings of prophets) on some, for the purpose of delusion, and if your Lord had willed they would have not done it, so leave them and what they have invented. To such (deceit) let the hearts of those incline (towards those golden words), who have no faith in the hereafter. let them delight in it, and let them earn from it what they may.

43:36-37  وَمَن يَعْشُ عَن ذِكْرِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ نُقَيِّضْ لَهُ شَيْطَانًا فَهُوَ لَهُ قَرِينٌ  وَإِنَّهُمْ لَيَصُدُّونَهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ

And whosoever turns away from the remembrance of the most Merciful, We appoint for him a Satan to be his constant companion. And they will definitely oppose  about the way (of Allah) and they will think that they are the guided ones.

Any one, who is not in constant touch with God remembrance/Quran, Satan will become his companion and he will be assuming that he is the guided one. The way to  Allah is through His Book. The obstacles creators in the way of Allah are termed as satans/shiateen. Recognize, what are these obstacles; Are there some who say that you cannot understand this Book unless you get this knowledge or that degree or you know about situation when the Aya was revealed or you get knowledge of history books etc.

23:96-98  ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ السَّيِّئَةَ ۚ نَحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَصِفُونَ  وَقُل رَّبِّ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ هَمَزَاتِ الشَّيَاطِينِ  وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ رَبِّ أَن يَحْضُرُونِ

Repel the ills with that which is good. We know very well with what they describe. And say O my Lord I seek refuge with you from the spurs/impulsive action of satans. And I seek refuge with you O my Lord! that they (satans) attend me.

Impulses from Satan, do much damage as people normally act impulsively on them. It is advisable to ask Allah’s refuge from Satan’s impulses.

Khannas:

Khuannas is one who withdraws and leaves you in a lurch. This is another aspect of the personality of Satan.

114-4-6  مِن شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ  الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ  مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ

(say I seek refuge) from the mischief of the Whisperer (of Evil), who withdraws (after his whisper), who whispers into the hearts of Mankind, Among Jinns and among men.

He (khunnas) can be both from Jinns (hidden/covered) and Inns (people)

14:22  وَقَالَ الشَّيْطَانُ لَمَّا قُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَعَدَكُمْ وَعْدَ الْحَقِّ وَوَعَدتُّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ ۖ وَمَا كَانَ لِيَ عَلَيْكُم مِّن سُلْطَانٍ إِلَّا أَن دَعَوْتُكُمْ فَاسْتَجَبْتُمْ لِي ۖ فَلَا تَلُومُونِي وَلُومُوا أَنفُسَكُم ۖ مَّا أَنَا بِمُصْرِخِكُمْ وَمَا أَنتُم بِمُصْرِخِيَّ ۖ إِنِّي كَفَرْتُ بِمَا أَشْرَكْتُمُونِ مِن قَبْلُ ۗ إِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

And Satan says when the order is complete,  “Surely Allah promised you the promise of truth and I also made promise with you then I turned back on my promise to you,  and I did not have any authority over you except to invite you, so you accepted my invitation, so you do not blame me and blame your self. My complaining cannot help you, nor can your complaining help me. Surely I reject with what you have been associating me from before. Surely for the oppressors is a grievous punishment.

When you have acted upon Satan’s advise then he will go back at once and will make you repent over your misdeed.

59:16  كَمَثَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِذْ قَالَ لِلْإِنسَانِ اكْفُرْ فَلَمَّا كَفَرَ قَالَ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّنكَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Like the Satan, when he says to man, “reject”. but when (man) rejects, (Satan) says, “I am free of you. I do fear Allah, the Lord of the Worlds!”

2:208  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

O’ People who believe, Enter into Peace completely; and follow not the footsteps of Satan for he is an open enemy to you.

Allah ordered the angels to prostrate when he invoked His Sprit in Adam, but Iblis did not look at the sprit (of the message), instead he saw only the body form of Adam, and in his later conversation with Allah he mentioned only the body form and not the Sprit. This is exactly what happens  now , whenever the message of Allah is delivered to people, they don’t look at the message (which is Ayats of Allah) instead they start looking at the person who is delivering the message and find faults in him. This happened with all the prophets mentioned in Quran. That’s why Allah forbids that don’t follow the footsteps of Satan.

2:169  إِنَّمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِالسُّوءِ وَالْفَحْشَاءِ وَأَن تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

For he commands you what is evil and shameful, and that you should say about Allah that of which you have no knowledge.

6:43  فَلَوْلَا إِذْ جَاءَهُم بَأْسُنَا تَضَرَّعُوا وَلَٰكِن قَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

Then why it was not that when Our suffering reached them they did not show humility? On the contrary their hearts became hardened, and Satan made their acts seem alluring to them.

36:60-62  أَلَمْ أَعْهَدْ إِلَيْكُمْ يَا بَنِي آدَمَ أَن لَّا تَعْبُدُوا الشَّيْطَانَ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ  وَأَنِ اعْبُدُونِي ۚ هَٰذَا صِرَاطٌ مُّسْتَقِيمٌ  وَلَقَدْ أَضَلَّ مِنكُمْ جِبِلًّا كَثِيرًا ۖ أَفَلَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْقِلُونَ

“Did I not covenant to you, O Children of Adam, that you will not serve the Satan; for that he is a clear enemy to you? and that you serve me, this is a straight path and without doubt he led astray the temperament of  majority from you, so will you not at all use your intellect?”

Sometimes a person does a bad act for experiment sake and gets hooked on it. After sometimes the bad act would become second nature to him i.e ingrained in him and then will be very difficult to get rid of.

Was Iblis a Jinn or Angel?

2:34  وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ

And when, We said to the angels. “Bow down to Adam” and they all bowed down except for Iblis, he refused and was arrogant. He was from the Kafireen/rejecters.

Allah ordered the angels to bow down to Adam so they all bowed down except for Iblis. The order to bow down was to angels and they all did so except for one of them who was Iblis. After that he was termed as a rejecter.

18:50  وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ كَانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ….

And when! We said to the angels, “Bow down for Adam:” they bowed down except Iblis. He was/became from the jinns…..

So Iblis, after he disobeyed the order of the Lord he was termed as rejecter in 2:34  and a Jinn in 18:50. He is termed a Jinn, because his personality is hidden from man and he poses himself as his well wisher while suggesting evil to man.

Notes:

Link to a lecture on Satan/Devil from scholar brother Mohammad Shaikh:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/09/09/satan-devil-2004/

https://www.iipccanada.com/category/urdu-video-lectures/page/8/