Heavenly Book or Books ?

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

How many divine Books were sent by God?

It is commonly believed by Muslims that there are four divinely sent books. Earlier than these four books, some booklets were sent down which are known as Suhuf. Suhuf(plural of Sahifa) are generally thought to be smaller in volume than a full fledged divine book. It is not very clear which prophets were given Suhuf, though many people think that Prophet Ibrahim A.S was one of them. The reason for sending booklets was that in earlier times, the society was not mature enough to need a full fledged divine book. The first divine book is thought to be Taurat/Torah given to Prophet Moosa A.S, after that Psalms/Zaboor to Prophet Dawood A.S then Injeel/Gospel was given to Prophet Essa A.S, and then last and the final one, Quran to Propeht Mohammad P.B.U.H. The final Book is believed to be global in scope i.e covering all mankind and is sent as a guidance for all eternity. While some also believe that during the 23 years period in which the last Book was being revealed, due to changing circumstances, some Ayahs of the Book were abrogated. The present day Bible is thought to be the altered version of previously sent divine books of Torah/Taurat, Gospel/Injeel and Psalm/Zaboor. Present day Bible is composed of two main parts known as Old Testament and New Testament. Both Old and New Testaments comprise several chapters which are called books. Torah is believed to be comprising the first five books of Old testament called Pentateuch. These first five books are GenesisExodusLeviticusNumbers, and Deuteronomy.  The New Testament of present day Bible is generally considered to be altered version of Al-Injeel/Gospel. Zaboor/Psalm is thought to be first book of the (“Writings”), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and thus a book of the Christian Old Testament.

We will review all these beliefs in the light of Ayahs of Al-Kitab in this post.

First we will explore the concept that why there should be different books sent for guidance of mankind. Was the content different or the language of revelation different? Was it Allah’s practice to give details of names and places in earlier books and later He changed his practice in the last book? Were the other books revealed in different languages to match the language of the nation and the prophet? As prophets were sent to all the nations, were divine books sent in all languages of the World? Were the conditions of the world changing rapidly earlier, lets say in a period of time between 4000 to 1500 years ago, to warrant sending various books and booklets and making different Sharia’s/ways for different messengers. If the earlier divine books were not able to handle changing times and circumstances how come the final Divine Book was being able to handle all times to come while we know that conditions change more rapidly in later times than in earlier times.

Keeping these questions in mind, lets analyze the Ayahs of Al-Kitab, to find out if the Revelation and the Book, which God gave to mankind is one or many? All the prophets and messengers were given the Same Sharia/way or different Sharias/ways according to their books? Does the Book of Allah has only one name or many attributes similar to Allah’s who has many attributes/(Saffati names) such as Ar-Rahman (The Gracious), Ar-Raheem (The Merciful), Al-Wadood (the Loving) etc.

The names of the prophets who were given Al-Kitab/the Book are given in below Ayahs:

6:83-90  وَتِلْكَ حُجَّتُنَا آتَيْنَاهَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ ۚ نَرْفَعُ دَرَجَاتٍ مَّن نَّشَاءُ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ  وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ ۚ كُلًّا هَدَيْنَا ۚ وَنُوحًا هَدَيْنَا مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ  وَزَكَرِيَّا وَيَحْيَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَإِلْيَاسَ ۖ كُلٌّ مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ  وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَالْيَسَعَ وَيُونُسَ وَلُوطًا ۚ وَكُلًّا فَضَّلْنَا عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ  وَمِنْ آبَائِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّاتِهِمْ وَإِخْوَانِهِمْ ۖ وَاجْتَبَيْنَاهُمْ وَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ  ذَٰلِكَ هُدَى اللَّهِ يَهْدِي بِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَشْرَكُوا لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ  أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ ۚ فَإِن يَكْفُرْ بِهَا هَٰؤُلَاءِ فَقَدْ وَكَّلْنَا بِهَا قَوْمًا لَّيْسُوا بِهَا بِكَافِرِينَ  أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ ۖ فَبِهُدَاهُمُ اقْتَدِهْ ۗ قُل لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا ۖ إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا ذِكْرَىٰ لِلْعَالَمِينَ

That was our reasoning, which We gave to Ibraheem against his people. We raise whom We will, degree after degree, for your Lord is full of wisdom and knowledge. We gave him Ishaq and Yaqub: all guided: and before him, We guided Nooh, and among his progeny, Dauood, Suleman, Ayub, Yousuf, Moosa, and Haroon: thus do We reward the Mohsineen (those who do good). And Zakariya and Yahya, and Essa, and Ilyas: all in the ranks of the righteous. And Isma’il and Yas’a, and Yunus, and Lut: and to all We gave favor above the worlds. And from among their fathers, and progeny and brethren: We chose them, and we guided them to a straight path. That is the guidance of Allah: He guides with it to whom He pleases among His servants. If they were to join partners with Him, all that they did would be vain for them. These were those whom We gave The Book, and Authority, and Prophet hood: if these (their descendants) reject them, Behold! We shall entrust their charge to a nation (new people) who do not reject with them. Those were the people who received Allah’s guidance: Thus you (the messenger), follow the guidance they received; Say: “No reward for this do I ask of you: This is no less than a message/reminder for all worlds.”

The names of the prophets who received Al-Kitab/The Book are given in above Ayahs and the Messenger is ordered to follow the guidance they had received. The Book was given to all prophets from Nooh A.S onwards. Can we differentiate between what was given to some of the prophets mentioned above or say that some were given a different book or a different edition of the book ? Please see below Ayahs:

2:136-7 قُولُوا آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ  فَإِنْ آمَنُوا بِمِثْلِ مَا آمَنتُم بِهِ فَقَدِ اهْتَدَوا ۖ وَّإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا هُمْ فِي شِقَاقٍ ۖ فَسَيَكْفِيكَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

Say: “We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Ibraheem, Isma’il, Ishaq, Yaqoob , and the tribes, and that given to Moosa  and Essa, and that given to prophets from their Lord: we make no difference between any one of them: And we are Muslims/Submitters. So if they believe as you believe, they are indeed on the right path; but if they turn back, it is they who are in schism; but Allah will suffice thee as against them, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.

The Kalima/saying of Muslims is that we make no difference in the messengers and what is given to them. And in the above Ayat Allah insists to believe as such in order to get guidance.

10:94  فَإِن كُنتَ فِي شَكٍّ مِّمَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ فَاسْأَلِ الَّذِينَ يَقْرَءُونَ الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكَ ۚ لَقَدْ جَاءَكَ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ

Thus, if you (the Messenger) are in doubt from what We have revealed to you, then ask those who are reading Al-Kitab/The Book from before you, definitely there has come to you the truth from your Lord, so do not become from the doubtful ones.

People have been reading Al-Kitab before the Messenger (pbuh) times, as evident in the first set of Ayats that all prophets of Allah have been given Al-Kitab/the Book.

2:213   كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ فَهَدَى اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لِمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

Mankind is one single nation, and Allah sent Messengers with glad tidings and warnings; and with them He sent the Book in truth, to judge between mankind in matters wherein they differed; but the People of the Book, after the clear Signs came to them, did not differ among themselves, except through selfish contumacy. Allah by His Grace guided the believers to the Truth, concerning that wherein they differed.  For Allah guides whom He will to a path that is straight.

Please note in above Ayat, it is mentioned that Allah sent the prophets and sent with them Al-Kitab/the Book to order justly among the mankind.

The Shuraka/partners in Din/Judgment are those who promote the concept that there were different books sent according to the needs of earlier time and there were different Sharias for the earlier messengers (42:21). However please see below Ayat:

42:13  شَرَعَ لَكُم مِّنَ الدِّينِ مَا وَصَّىٰ بِهِ نُوحًا وَالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ وَمَا وَصَّيْنَا بِهِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ ۖ أَنْ أَقِيمُوا الدِّينَ وَلَا تَتَفَرَّقُوا فِيهِ ۚ كَبُرَ عَلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ مَا تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَيْهِ ۚ اللَّهُ يَجْتَبِي إِلَيْهِ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي إِلَيْهِ مَن يُنِيبُ

The same Sharah (Shariat) He has established for you which He enjoined on Nooh  – that We have sent by inspiration to you (Mohammad) – and that which We enjoined on Ibraheem, Moosa, and Essa:  that you should remain steadfast in Din/Judgment, and make no differentiations therein: to those who join others with Allah, hard is the (way) to which you call them. Allah chooses to Himself those whom He pleases, and guides to Himself those who turn (to Him).

The messenger informs that this (Quran) is the reminder with him and the reminder of those before him.

21:24  أَمِ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِهِ آلِهَةً ۖ قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ ۖ هَٰذَا ذِكْرُ مَن مَّعِيَ وَذِكْرُ مَن قَبْلِي ۗ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ الْحَقَّ ۖ فَهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ

Or have they taken other gods besides Him? Say, “Bring your proof, this is the reminder with me and the reminder of those before me.” But most of them know not the Truth, and so turn away.

Allah has protected the Zikr (15:9). Therefore the Zikr before and with the Messenger are the same and that’s what the messenger is emphasizing.

2:4 وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ

And who believe in the Revelation sent to you, and sent before you, and (in their hearts) have the assurance of the Hereafter.

What is revealed on the Messenger is the same as what had been revealed to other messengers before him.

Is Anything different said or given to the Messenger (pbuh) than earlier messengers? The below Ayat negates this concept:

41:43 مَا يُقَالُ لَكَ إِلَّا مَا قَدْ قِيلَ لِلرُّسُلِ مِن قَبْلِكَ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَذُو مَغْفِرَةٍ وَذُو عِقَابٍ أَلِيمٍ

“Nothing is said to You (Mohammad) that was not said to the messengers before you: verily your Lord has at His command (all) forgiveness as well as the most grievous vengeance.”

The Messenger (pbuh) confirms that he does not bring anything new which the earlier messengers did not bring:

46:9 قُلْ مَا كُنتُ بِدْعًا مِّنْ الرُّسُلِ وَمَا أَدْرِي مَا يُفْعَلُ بِي وَلَا بِكُمْ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَى إِلَيَّ وَمَا أَنَا إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ

“Say (O’ Mohammad) “I am no bringer of new doctrine among the messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or with you. I follow but that which is revealed to me by inspiration; I am but a warner open and clear.”

2:8  ذَٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَۛ فِيهِ ۛ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

That is the Book, there is no doubt in it, a guidance for those who take guard/fear (Allah)

When Quran mentions Al-Kitab, the Book is meant which is generally known to people as Al-Quran. Muslims adhere to Al-Kitab. Is it not surprising then why the term Ahlal-Kitab should be used for two other groups instead of, for the people who are holding on to this Book? When Allah specifically orders, not to say that Al-Kitab was sent to two groups before us.

6:156 أَن تَقُولُوا إِنَّمَا أُنزِلَ الْكِتَابُ عَلَىٰ طَائِفَتَيْنِ مِن قَبْلِنَا وَإِن كُنَّا عَن دِرَاسَتِهِمْ لَغَافِلِينَ

‘Do you say surely, Al-Kitab/The Book was revealed on the two groups before us, and that we remain unaware about their studies.’

Worth mentioning is that no body can alter Allah’s Book (6:34). The concept that before this Book, other Books were sent by Allah which were altered, cannot be true because Allah declares that his Kalima cannot be changed (6:115).

6:34  وَلَقَدْ كُذِّبَتْ رُسُلٌ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَصَبَرُوا عَلَىٰ مَا كُذِّبُوا وَأُوذُوا حَتَّىٰ أَتَاهُمْ نَصْرُنَا ۚ

وَلَا مُبَدِّلَ لِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَكَ مِن نَّبَإِ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

‘Rejected were the messengers before you. With patience they bore their rejection and their persecution, until Our aid reached them. there is none that can alter the Words of Allah. Already you have received some account of those messengers.’

Therefore if the other books were Allah’s books, they could not have been altered because Allah protects his Kalima and Zikr/Remembrance (15:9).

What happened was that these nations put Allah’s book on their back and wrote  books with their own hands and attributed those to be from inspiration of God (2:79). These other Books even have the names of human authors on them (Gospel by Luke, Mark etc). Whoever adheres to Al-Kitab should therefore be called Ahlal Kitab and not the people who were supposed to have different version of the Book at some early time. For example, as long as the people following prophet Essa adhered to Al-Kitab, they were Ahlal Kitab/People of the Book. However when they put Al-Kitab on their back and instead adopted a book they wrote by themselves, they no longer are Ahlal Kitab. Present day Ahlal Kitab are the people who adhere to Al-Kitab/the Book.

Attributes of Quran

As Allah has 99 beautiful attributes (e.g Rehman, Rahim, Wadood etc), so does Quran has several attributes. Some of these attributes which are mentioned in the Book are given below:

  1. Quran,             Reading
  2. Kitab                Book
  3. Taurat             Law
  4.  Injeel             Good News
  5. Zaboor            Piece
  6. Furqan           Criteria
  7. Burhan          Proof
  8. Hikma            Wisdom
  9. Wahi              Inspiration
  10. Majeed           Glorious
  11. Noor               Light
  12. Ahsan ul Hadith          Best narration
  13. Ahsan ul Qasa             Best of relationship
  14. Moizza          Sermon
  15. Zikr               Remembrance
  16. Alwah           Tablets
  17. Qual              Saying
  18. Haq               Truth
  19. Ilm                Knowledge
  20. Kalam            Word
  21. Suhuf             Pages

The Revelation and Al-Kitab is given to all prophets and messengers, however, some attributes of the Revelation are associated with the names of certain messengers, such as:

Al-Kitab, Al-Furquan, Alwah, Suhuf, associated with Prophet Moosa A.S, 7:145,

(2:53 وَإِذْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَالْفُرْقَانَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ   )

(53:36  أَمْ لَمْ يُنَبَّأْ بِمَا فِي صُحُفِ مُوسَىٰ)

Taurat, Injeel, Al-Kitab, Al-Hikma, with Essa A.S  (3:45-48  وَيُعَلِّمُهُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَالتَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ )

Zubur with Dawood A.S, 17:55

Al-Kitab, Suhuf, Al-Hikma with Ibraheem A.S (87:19 صُحُفِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَىٰ )

(4:54  أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلَىٰ مَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۖ فَقَدْ آتَيْنَا آلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَآتَيْنَاهُم مُّلْكًا عَظِيمًا)

Point to note is that, it is not stated in the Book, that Taurat was given to Moosa A.S and that 4 books were sent by Allah.

7:145  وَكَتَبْنَا لَهُ فِي الْأَلْوَاحِ مِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مَّوْعِظَةً وَتَفْصِيلًا لِّكُلِّ شَيْءٍ فَخُذْهَا بِقُوَّةٍ وَأْمُرْ قَوْمَكَ يَأْخُذُوا بِأَحْسَنِهَا ۚ سَأُرِيكُمْ دَارَ الْفَاسِقِينَ

“ And We wrote for him in the Alwah/the tablets, sermon from everything and explanation for everything. So hold fast to it with strength, and order your people that they should hold it beautifully soon I will show you the circles of dissolute/Immoral people.

The Quran is protected in the tablets. The memory held in human mind is also like a tablet. The collective remembrance of the believers preserve the Book as there is no standard calibrated version of the Book in existence.

85:21-22  بَلْ هُوَ قُرْآنٌ مَّجِيدٌ  فِي لَوْحٍ مَّحْفُوظٍ

But this is a glorious Quran/reading, In a loh/tablet preserved.

23:49  وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ

And without doubt, We gave Moosa, Al-Kitab/ The Book so that they may be guided.

56:77-78  إِنَّهُ لَقُرْآنٌ كَرِيمٌ  فِي كِتَابٍ مَّكْنُونٍ

That this is indeed a Qur’an (a Reading) most honorable, in a Book/writing well-guarded

The reading (Quran) is well guarded in writing (Book)

28:48  فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ عِندِنَا قَالُوا لَوْلَا أُوتِيَ مِثْلَ مَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ ۚ أَوَلَمْ يَكْفُرُوا بِمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ مِن قَبْلُ ۖ قَالُوا سِحْرَانِ تَظَاهَرَا وَقَالُوا إِنَّا بِكُلٍّ كَافِرُونَ

When the truth came to them from Our nearness, they said why is not given similar to what was given to Moosa/Moses; do they not reject with what was given to Moosa from before. They said these two are magics backing each other. And they said surely we reject with all of them.

When the Messenger delivers message from the Book of Allah, unbelievers of the message, say that why is this Book (Quran) not like what was given to Moosa (in their minds, like Bible, containing details of events, names of peoples etc). Allah says didn’t you reject and hid what was given to Moosa (The same Al-Kitab was given to Moosa but they instead attributed different Book/Bible to Moosa).

The two magics; one is the Spirit coming from Reading of the Book (Al-Quran) and the other which is between the hands confirming it (The Book),  they collaborate each other and the rejecters, reject both of them.

28:49  قُلْ فَأْتُوا بِكِتَابٍ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ هُوَ أَهْدَىٰ مِنْهُمَا أَتَّبِعْهُ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Say ,so come with a Kitab/Book from the nearness of Allah, which is more in guidance than both of them. I would follow it, if you are truthful

The challenge to them is to bring a book from Allah, (not from human authors) which is better in guidance than both the Book and the Spirit. (The Book of Allah provides guidance with the Spirit (Ar-Rooh) of the Book, not with man written exegeses/tafseers)

34:31  وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَن نُّؤْمِنَ بِهَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ وَلَا بِالَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ ۗ وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذِ الظَّالِمُونَ مَوْقُوفُونَ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يَرْجِعُ بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ الْقَوْلَ يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُوا لِلَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُوا لَوْلَا أَنتُمْ لَكُنَّا مُؤْمِنِينَ

The rejecters say. “We shall neither believe with this Al-Quran/the Reading nor with what is between his hands“.  If you could only see when the wrong-doers will be made to stand before their Lord, throwing back the word (of blame) on one another! Those who were weak, would say to the arrogant ones. “Had it not been for you, we should certainly have been believers!”

The rejecters don’t believe with Al-Quran (the Reading) and what is between the hands (The Book).

46:12  وَمِن قَبْلِهِ كِتَابُ مُوسَىٰ إِمَامًا وَرَحْمَةً ۚ وَهَٰذَا كِتَابٌ مُّصَدِّقٌ لِّسَانًا عَرَبِيًّا لِّيُنذِرَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُحْسِنِينَ

And book of Moosa/Moses from before was a leader and mercy and this Kitab/Book is confirming in the Arabic Language, so as to warn those who are oppressors and a good news for those who are good doers.

Book of Moosa exists from before as we saw in this post that the attribute of Revelation ‘Al-Kitab’ is associated with Prophet Moosa A.S and the Book was given to all prophets. Now this book (Quran) which is between our hands confirms this understanding in Arabic (meaning that the Spirit of the Book comes down with Arabic). When we read the Ayahs given in this post in Arabic we come to know that this Book was given to all the prophets and people were reading Al-Kitab in all times. While had we not read the above Ayahs in Arabic, some translations of these Ayahs presented a different picture, for example the word ‘Baina Yadahi (بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ) is translated differently as ‘before it’ giving the impression of different books existing before Al-Kitab/the Book.

14:4  وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا بِلِسَانِ قَوْمِهِ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمْ ۖ فَيُضِلُّ اللَّهُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

We have not sent a Messenger except in the language of his people, in order to make clear to them. Thus Allah leaves straying those whom He pleases: and He is exalted in power, full of wisdom.

Allah sends messengers to make clear to them the Spirit of the Book of Allah in their own language. Allah has sent messengers in all communities. He has not given them a separate book in all languages of the World. Messengers deliver the sermons and Spirit of the message of Allah from Al-Kitab (which is in Arabic language) and clarifies for them this understanding in the language of their nations.

4:136 يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ مِن قَبْلُ ۚ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا

O you people who believe! Believe in Allah and His messenger, and the Book which He sent down to His messenger and the Book which He sent down before. If any one denies Allah, His angels, His Books, His messengers, and the Day of Judgment, verily he went far, far astray.

Al-Kitab/the Book existed in all times and given to all prophets. Allah ask believers to believe in the the book revealed to the messenger and the book revealed before him which is the same book given to all messengers. Messenger and people should not doubt about Al-Kitab. People have been reading Al-Kitab before the Messenger (pbuh), as evident in the below Ayat:

10:94  فَإِن كُنتَ فِي شَكٍّ مِّمَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ فَاسْأَلِ الَّذِينَ يَقْرَءُونَ الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكَ ۚ لَقَدْ جَاءَكَ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ

Thus, if you (the Messenger) is in doubt from what We have revealed to you, then ask those who are reading Al-Kitab/The Book from before you, definitely there has come to you the truth from your Lord, so do not become from the doubtful ones.

10:37  وَمَا كَانَ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ أَن يُفْتَرَىٰ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِن تَصْدِيقَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَتَفْصِيلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ مِن رَّبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

And this Al-Quran / The Reading is not that can be produced from other than Allah, but it is a confirmation, that is between his two hands and the explanation of Al-Kitab / The Book there is no doubt in it from the Lord of the worlds.

This Reading/Al-Quran confirms what is between the hands, and it details the Book/Al-Kitab.

43:21  أَمْ آتَيْنَاهُمْ كِتَابًا مِّن قَبْلِهِ فَهُم بِهِ مُسْتَمْسِكُونَ

‘Have We given them a book before this, and they are upholding it?’

In below Ayat, Allah challenges that if there was a book before it (Quran) then bring it forth or bring some remnants of this knowledge. Had present day Bible an altered version of Allah’s Book, then it could have been presented as the older book and remnant of knowledge as response to this challenge.  So, the below Ayat confirms that present day Bible is not an altered from of Al-Kitab.

4:46   قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُم مَّا تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَرُونِي مَاذَا خَلَقُوا مِنَ الْأَرْضِ أَمْ لَهُمْ شِرْكٌ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ ۖ ائْتُونِي بِكِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ هَٰذَا أَوْ أَثَارَةٍ مِّنْ عِلْمٍ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Say: “Do you see what it is you call besides Allah? Show me what it is they have created on earth, or have they a share in the heavens. Bring me a Book before this, or any remnant of knowledge (you may have), if you are telling the truth!

Taurat and Injeel:

In order to know what At-Taurant and Al-Injeel are, lets see what Al-Kitab says about them in below Ayahs:

3:7 هُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ آيَاتٌ مُّحْكَمَاتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ ۖ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَابَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغَاءَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغَاءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ ۗ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ ۗ وَالرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ رَبِّنَا ۗ وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ

It is He who has revealed Al-Kitab / The Book over you. In it are muhkamat Ayahs ( signs containing orders). They are the mother of Al-Kitab / The Book, and others are mutashabehat / resembling (Ayahs / signs). So in whose heart is deviation, they follow what resembles from it, seeking Fitna/captivation and its interpretation and no one knows its interpretation except Allah. Those who are stable in knowledge they say we believe with it, all is from the nearness of our Lord. And none remembers except those who posses the core.

From the above Ayat we come to know that Al-Kitab/the Book contains two type of Ayahs. One type is Muhkamat i.e containing orders of Allah.

5:43 وَكَيْفَ يُحَكِّمُونَكَ وَعِندَهُمُ التَّوْرَاةُ فِيهَا حُكْمُ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يَتَوَلَّوْنَ مِن بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ ۚ وَمَا أُولَٰئِكَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ

And how can they make you (Mohammad pbuh) a judge? As they have the At-Taurat with them, in it is hukum / order of Allah. Then after that they turn away and they are not with the believers.

We come to know that At-Taurat has the Hukum/Orders of Allah. From Ayat 3:7 and 5:43, we can deduce that the Ayahs of Al-Kitab containing Hukum/orders of Allah are referred to as At-Taurat.

5:44  إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ ۚ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُوا لِلَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالْأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُوا مِن كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاءَ ۚ فَلَا تَخْشَوُا النَّاسَ وَاخْشَوْنِ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

Surely We have revealed the Taurat: therein is guidance and light. By it the prophets who were submitters to Allah’s Will, governed for the people who were Jews and the Rabbis and the Ahbar / the scholars: for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah’s book, and they were witnesses to it: therefore fear not people, but fear me, and sell not my signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah has revealed, they are the rejectors.

At-Taurat (Ayahs containing orders of Allah) has guidance and light. The prophets ordered with At-Taurat and they were entrusted with the protection of the Book of Allah.

5:46  وَقَفَّيْنَا عَلَىٰ آثَارِهِم بِعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ ۖ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْإِنجِيلَ فِيهِ هُدًى وَنُورٌ وَمُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَهُدًى وَمَوْعِظَةً لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

And We made the following in their footsteps by Essa, son of Marium, verifying what was  between his hands from the Taurat and We gave him the Injeel in which is guidance and light, and verifying what was between his hands from the Taurat and a guidance and an sermon for those who guard (against evil).

Injeel is stated as having guidance and light and a sermon for the Mutaqqin/those who take guard. Prophet Essa A.S is associated with the attribute of Al-Kitab, Al- Injeel, which is guidance, light and sermon.

Also please note for Al-Quran:

3:138  هَٰذَا بَيَانٌ لِّلنَّاسِ وَهُدًى وَمَوْعِظَةٌ لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

This is a statement for mankind, a guidance and sermon to those who take guard!

Allah is asking Ahle-Injeel (people of Gospel) to order by Injeel. Per religious leaders’ interpretation, if Al-Injeel is cancelled when Al-Quran is revealed, then why this order is in Al-Quran. This is possible only if Al-Anjeel is not a different book, but an attribute of the same Book.

5:47  وَلْيَحْكُمْ أَهْلُ الْإِنجِيلِ بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

‘Let the people of the Injeel  judge/govern by what Allah has revealed therein. If any do fail to judge by what Allah has revealed, they are wrongdoers/Fasiqeen.’

5:68  قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَسْتُمْ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ حَتَّىٰ تُقِيمُوا التَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۗ وَلَيَزِيدَنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنْهُم مَّا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ طُغْيَانًا وَكُفْرًا ۖ فَلَا تَأْسَ عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

Say O’ Ahlal-Kitab / People of the Book you are not on anything/ unless you establish At-Taurat and Al-Injeel and what is revealed from your Lord to all of you. And what is revealed from your Lord to you (the messenger) definitely increases amongst the majority of them in rebellion and rejection. Then you do not greave over the people who reject

Again in the above Ayat, the Ahlal Kitab are asked to establish Taurat and Injeel. If as per common belief, old sharias/old Books are cancelled, how come Allah and his messenger would ask to establish them. This wont be possible unless Al-Injeel and At-Taurat are attributes of the same revelation, Al-Kitab.  Second part of the Ayat can be practically confirmed on ground that this revelation will increase the majority of people in rebellion and they will not believe in it that Taurat and Injeel are not different books but attributes of Al-Kitab. If we consider in this Ayat, Taurat and Injeel as Bible or Bible when it was revealed in original form, how can the people establish it when Quran it self challenges to bring any remnant of knowledge of previous books (4:46), meaning there does not exists any.

3:65  يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لِمَ تُحَاجُّونَ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمَا أُنزِلَتِ التَّوْرَاةُ وَالْإِنجِيلُ إِلَّا مِن بَعْدِهِ ۚ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ

O’ People of the Book! Why you dispute in Abraham, when the Taurat/Law and the Injeel/Gospel were not revealed but after him? Do you not understand?

Ibrahim as described in Al-Quran is the Idol Breaker and his Muqam/place is clarified Ayas (3:97). You cannot reach or touch the spirit of the revelation unless you cleanse your self of the filth of idols (56:79). So the first step in the path of the Book and revelation is Ibrahim. You cannot attain the sprit of the Book, until you clean yourself of previous Idols held in high esteem in your Nafs/psyche. After these idols are broken, understanding of Taurat i.e the orders of Allah and Injeel i.e guidance, light and sermon can be attained.

16:123 ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ أَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

“Then We inspired thee (Mohammad), Follow the religion of Abraham the True in Faith, and he was not from the Polytheists.”

The Messenger confirms that God has guided him to the straight path of the religion of Ibrahim. So, is it possible that last Messenger with the greatest Book detailing all orders of the religion, was asked to follow the religion of Ibrahim, who was not given this Book? Can we imagine that the last messenger with the final Book was actually following the religion of Ibrahim A.S who had a supposedly different sharia and different book?

3:3-4  نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَأَنزَلَ التَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ  مِن قَبْلُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَنزَلَ الْفُرْقَانَ ۗ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ ذُو انتِقَامٍ

It is He Who sent down to you, in truth, the Book, confirming what is between his hands and He sent down the Taurat  and the Injeel. before this, for guidance to mankind, and He sent the Furqan/criterion (of judgment between right and wrong).Then those who reject Faith with the Ayahs/ Signs of Allah will suffer the severest penalty, and Allah is exalted in might, Lord of retribution.

Allah sent down the Book with confirms the written Word between the hands and He sent down the Taurat (orders of Allah) and the Injeel (guidance, light and sermon) from before and he sent down Al-Furqan (the criteria to judge).

If we visualize the above Ayat on individual basis, whenever Allah reveals the Book on a Bahar (human) messenger, the Al-Taurat i.e orders of Allah have already been existing for all times on Earth for the believers.  Injeel i.e the light, guidance and sermons exists as well. With this revealed book on him, the Bashar/human messenger can use the Furqan/criteria to judge between truth and falsehood and order with the Taurat and sermon with Injeel as previous messengers have done so in their times.

Zaboor

Zaboor means piece, the plural is Zubur meaning pieces and this is also an attribute of the revelation and Al-Kitab. This attribute is associated by name with prophet Dawood A.S

17:55  وَرَبُّكَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۗ وَلَقَدْ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَ النَّبِيِّينَ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۖ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا

And your Lord knows better all that are in the heavens and in the earth. We did bestowed on some prophets more than on others and We gave Zaboor/Piece to Dawood.

The Az-Zikr (the remembrance) is also an attribute of Al-Kitab and is protected by Allah.

15:9  إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ

Indeed, We have sent down the Remembrance; and indeed we are the guardians for it.

21:105  وَلَقَدْ كَتَبْنَا فِي الزَّبُورِ مِن بَعْدِ الذِّكْرِ أَنَّ الْأَرْضَ يَرِثُهَا عِبَادِيَ الصَّالِحُونَ

And indeed we wrote in Zaboor after the Zikr that My servants the righteous, shall inherit the earth.

Az-Zikr is written in Zaboor/Piece

26:192-197 وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ  نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ  عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنذِرِينَ  بِلِسَانٍ عَرَبِيٍّ مُّبِينٍ  وَإِنَّهُ لَفِي زُبُرِ الْأَوَّلِينَ  أَوَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُمْ آيَةً أَن يَعْلَمَهُ عُلَمَاءُ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ

This is a revelation from the Lord of the Worlds. Sent down the Ruh-ul-Ameen/Honest Spirit with it. On your heart, so that you may be of the warners, with the clear Arabic language. Verily, it is in the Zubur/Pieces of earlier people. Is it not an ayat/sign for them  that the scholars of the Bani Israel know it.

The revelation, which the Honest Spirit (Rooh ul Ameen) brought on the messenger’s heart, came with clear Arabic and this indeed was in the pieces of the earlier people.

35:25  وَإِن يُكَذِّبُوكَ فَقَدْ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ جَاءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُم بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَبِالزُّبُرِ وَبِالْكِتَابِ الْمُنِيرِ

And if they reject thee, so did their predecessors, to whom came their messengers with Bayyinat/Clear Signs, Zubur/Pieces and with the Book of enlightenment.

Unbelievers will however reject this as were the previous messengers who came with clarity, and Zubur/pieces and with enlightened Book.

16:44  بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالزُّبُرِ ۗ وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

(We sent them) with Bayyinat/Clear Signs and Zubur/Pieces; and We have sent down unto you the Zikr/remembrance that you explain clearly to men what is sent for them, and that they may reflect on it.

6:91  وَمَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ إِذْ قَالُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ بَشَرٍ مِّن شَيْءٍ ۗ قُلْ مَنْ أَنزَلَ الْكِتَابَ الَّذِي جَاءَ بِهِ مُوسَىٰ نُورًا وَهُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ ۖ تَجْعَلُونَهُ قَرَاطِيسَ تُبْدُونَهَا وَتُخْفُونَ كَثِيرًا ۖ وَعُلِّمْتُم مَّا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا أَنتُمْ وَلَا آبَاؤُكُمْ ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۖ ثُمَّ ذَرْهُمْ فِي خَوْضِهِمْ يَلْعَبُونَ

They did not value Allah as He should be valued. When they said, “Allah did not reveal anything to a bashar/human.” Say, “Who then sent down the Book which Moosa brought, with light and guidance for the people?” You made it to pieces of paper, you show something while concealing a lot of it. You were taught what you never knew-you and your parents. Say, “Allah (revealed it),” then leave them in their heedlessness, playing.

The revelation from Allah has been put down on pieces of papers by people.

Books of Allah:

The plural of Kitab/book is Kutub/books in Arabic.

2:285  آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۚ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ ۚ وَقَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ

The messenger believes in what has been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the believers. All of them believe in Allah, His angels, His books, and His messengers. “We make no distinction (they say) between any of His messengers.” And they say. “We hear, and we obey. (We seek) your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the destiny.”

The above Ayat mentions books. Lets see what could be meant by books of Allah:

98:2-3 رَسُولٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ يَتْلُو صُحُفًا مُّطَهَّرَةً  فِيهَا كُتُبٌ قَيِّمَةٌ

A messenger from Allah, reading pages purified. Wherein (these pages) are books established.

The books of Allah are established within the purified pages and the messenger reads from these pages. The suras/chapters of Al-Kitab are referred in plural form as books/kutub.

Notes:

بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ   The Arabic words ‘Baina Yadaihi’ means ‘between his hands’. Does not mean ‘Before it’ as found in some translations.

  • Part of the lecture of Scholar Mr. Ahmed Deedat informing about Bible is not actually Injeel or Taurat

 

Lecture by Scholar Br. Mohammad Shaikh on Al-Kitab/The Book:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/10/16/al-kitab-the-book-2007/
bLeLL

Tafseer/explanation of Quran

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

A divinely sent book by God is supposed to be perfect and free of errors. Is it logical to assume that this Book can be explained by other books which are written by man? in other words, other books which are written by man and therefore will certainly have errors in them, can they explain a divinely sent perfect Book?

An attribute of the divinely sent Book is the Furqan i.e the Criteria between the truth and falsehood. If the criteria itself is dependent upon other explanations for understanding it, then logically it cannot be the criteria over the things which are explaining it.

25:1  تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ الْفُرْقَانَ عَلَىٰ عَبْدِهِ لِيَكُونَ لِلْعَالَمِينَ نَذِيرًا

Blessed is He who sent down the Furqan/Criterion to His servant, to be an admonition to all the worlds;-

The True sprit of an Ayat of Al-Quran will be that which does not conflct with the understanding/sprit of other Ayahs. So, if the understanding of an Ayat conflicts with the understanding of other Ayas of the Book, it would mean there exists a problem and more study is required towards its understanding.

4:82 أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ اللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا

Do they not consider/ponder The Quran/The Reading, if it had been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy/contradictions.

7:52  وَلَقَدْ جِئْنَاهُم بِكِتَابٍ فَصَّلْنَاهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ هُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

And we have come to them with a Book, which We explained in detail with knowledge,- a guidance and a mercy to the believing nation.

The Tafseer of Al-Kitab is contained within The Book, i.e the Ayahs explain each other.

25:33  وَلَا يَأْتُونَكَ بِمَثَلٍ إِلَّا جِئْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَأَحْسَنَ تَفْسِيرًا

And no example do so they bring to you but We bring to you the truth and the best tafseer / explanation.

6:105  وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ وَلِيَقُولُوا دَرَسْتَ وَلِنُبَيِّنَهُ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ

And in this way  We do explain the Ayahs/signs, so that they may say, “you taught (this)” and that We may make the matter clear to those who know.

The below Ayat informs about the Prophet’s method of giving sermon from the Quran for clarification of a certain topic, i.e the topic was explained from Ayahs from various Soorahs/chapters,  not necessary in their original order in the Book. So when by this method the topic is clarified and  if it were not according to the wishes of the people, they would say that the Messenger made this up.

16:101  وَإِذَا بَدَّلْنَا آيَةً مَّكَانَ آيَةٍ ۙ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يُنَزِّلُ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُفْتَرٍ ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

When We substitute the place of one Ayat with another Ayat and Allah knows best what He reveals ,- they say, “You are but a forger”. But most of them donot understand.

Allah is asking; Is the Book not enough for you? why you seek then, other explanations outside Quran.

29:51  أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِهِمْ أَنَّا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَرَحْمَةً وَذِكْرَىٰ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

And is it not enough for them that we have sent down to you the Book which is rehearsed to them? Verily, in it is Mercy and a Reminder to those who believe.

49:1  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

O You who believe! Do not go beyond from before Allah and His messenger; but fear Allah,  for Allah is He Who hears and knows all things.

Majority of the people are following conjectures which cannot be confirmed from Allah’s Book; there are volumes of books with stories which are believed to be religious; so Allah is warning don’t go beyond Allah and his messengers i.e don’t make your beliefs other than what Allah has revelaed and which is the Qaul/saying of the honorable Messenger; 69:40 (إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلُ رَسُولٍ كَرِيمٍ)

10:36 وَمَا يَتَّبِعُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ إِلَّا ظَنًّا ۚ إِنَّ الظَّنَّ لَا يُغْنِي مِنَ الْحَقِّ شَيْئًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَفْعَلُونَ

But most of them follow nothing but conjecture. truly conjecture can be of no avail against truth. Verily Allah is well aware of all that they do.

12:111 لَقَدْ كَانَ فِي قَصَصِهِمْ عِبْرَةٌ لِّأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ ۗ مَا كَانَ حَدِيثًا يُفْتَرَىٰ وَلَٰكِن تَصْدِيقَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَتَفْصِيلَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

There is, in their stories, admonition for men endued with understanding. It is not an invented Hadith/narration, but a confirmation of what is between the hands,- a detailed explanation of all things, and a guide and a mercy to those who believe.

On the day of judgement the messenger shall be the witness on all the people, in order to testify what he delivered to people and what they have been attributing to him.

16:89  وَيَوْمَ نَبْعَثُ فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ شَهِيدًا عَلَيْهِم مِّنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ ۖ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ شَهِيدًا عَلَىٰ هَٰؤُلَاءِ ۚ وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ تِبْيَانًا لِّكُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ

One day We shall raise from all Peoples a witness against them, from amongst themselves. and We shall bring you (the messenger)  as a witness against these (your people). and We have sent down to you the Book explaining all things, a Guide, a Mercy, and Glad Tidings to Muslims.

And at that time the messenger will testify that alas my nation held the Quran as if like leaving it,  which means that while paying lip service to Quran in essence they made the Quran ineffective by indulging in traditions and mixing traditions with Quran.

25:30  وَقَالَ الرَّسُولُ يَا رَبِّ إِنَّ قَوْمِي اتَّخَذُوا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ مَهْجُورًا

And the Messenger will say, O my Lord! Surely, my people took this AL-QURAN and abandoned it.

7:53 هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا تَأْوِيلَهُ ۚ يَوْمَ يَأْتِي تَأْوِيلُهُ يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ نَسُوهُ مِن قَبْلُ قَدْ جَاءَتْ رُسُلُ رَبِّنَا بِالْحَقِّ فَهَل لَّنَا مِن شُفَعَاءَ فَيَشْفَعُوا لَنَا أَوْ نُرَدُّ فَنَعْمَلَ غَيْرَ الَّذِي كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ ۚ قَدْ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ

Do they just wait for its’ Taweel (explanation)? The day when the Taweel shall come, those who forgot it before, will say. “The messengers of our Lord did indeed come with the truth. Now, do we have any intercessor to intercede on our behalf? Or could we be sent back? Then we would behave differently from our behaviour in the past.” In fact they have put themselves in loss, and the things they invented will leave them in the lurch.

Shane Nazool:

Another concept being propagated is that of Shane Nazool (i.e the conditions of revelation). The concept is that we have to understand  the causes of revelation of Quranic Ayahs i.e historic background, in order to understand why a certain verse was revealed, and its intentions.

However, We know that Qur’an is not a book restricted to time and space. It’s injunctions are applicable in all times and eras. To suggest that the Qur’an is in need of the historical tales dominant in certain time of history for its exegesis is to limit the Qur’an to just one particular era. It is tantamount to saying it as  ‘Asateer ul Awaleen/tales of the past. Quran states that the Book is a reminder to all the nations (81:27)  and “Guidance for all mankind” (2:185). These values do not change with the circumstances of time. The narrations in Quran are not tales of the past, but they teach principles, for present day solutions and are not meant for digging historical tales from outside sources.

83:13 إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ آيَاتُنَا قَالَ أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ

When Our Ayahs/signs are recited on him, he says these are but lines/tales of the earlier ones.

Harut, Marut and Magic in Quran

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

When Al-Quran uses the word ‘Sahar’ (magic) it does not mean black magic or Voodoo. Black magic and voodoo may exist however, Quran does not use the word ‘Sahar’ in this context. Magic (Sahar) in Quran is stated to be something which is false (batil). The magicians are those who present the falsehood which they have fabricated, in such a way that it appears alive and thriving. A person who comes under the influence of magic is not able to reason and use his intellect.

People who are much accustomed to magic/falsehood, when Al-Haq (the Truth) comes to them via a Messenger of Allah, they think it to be actually magic, because the Messenger shows the Ayahs of Allah, alive and thriving, which the magicians had convinced them to be archaic and tales of the past (83:13). The Haq/Truth presented by the Messenger engulfs and swallows the falsehood with which the magicians mesmerize the people. However, the people still bent on falsehood and with vested interests, believe in the magic/falsehood of their magicians and they accuse instead, the messenger of Allah for putting forth falsehood and magic:  

38:4  وَعَجِبُوا أَن جَاءَهُم مُّنذِرٌ مِّنْهُمْ ۖ وَقَالَ الْكَافِرُونَ هَٰذَا سَاحِرٌ كَذَّابٌ

So they wonder that a Warner has come to them from among themselves! and the rejecters say, “This is a sorcerer telling lies!

51:52  كَذَٰلِكَ مَا أَتَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا قَالُوا سَاحِرٌ أَوْ مَجْنُونٌ

Similarly, no Messenger came to the People before them, but they said (of him) in (like manner), “A sorcerer, or one possessed/psycopath”!

The falsehood is so perfected by their fabricators that it actually looks true to the onlookers. Only Allah’s help and Spirit of His Book can help overpower and engulf this falsehood.

20:66  قَالَ بَلْ أَلْقُوا ۖ فَإِذَا حِبَالُهُمْ وَعِصِيُّهُمْ يُخَيَّلُ إِلَيْهِ مِن سِحْرِهِمْ أَنَّهَا تَسْعَىٰ

He (Moosa) said, “Nay, throw ye first!” Then behold their ropes and their rods-so it seemed to him on account of their magic – to be in lively motion!

It also depends how we visualize the narrative in Quran. If we visualize it like a competition of sorcery then we may conclude like Pharaoh, who said that Moosa A.S was a bigger sorcerer (20:71). However, if we visualize it as a battle between truth and fabrications, then we will see it like the magicians who attained solid faith after witnessing the Truth from Allah engulfing their fabrications (7:126, 20:72).

10:82  وَيُحِقُّ اللَّهُ الْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُجْرِمُونَ

“And Allah by His Kalamat/Words establish His truth, however much the criminals may hate it!”

20:69  وَأَلْقِ مَا فِي يَمِينِكَ تَلْقَفْ مَا صَنَعُوا ۖ إِنَّمَا صَنَعُوا كَيْدُ سَاحِرٍ ۖ وَلَا يُفْلِحُ السَّاحِرُ حَيْثُ أَتَىٰ

(Allah said) “And put forth from your Right. It will swallow what they have faked; what they have faked is but a magician’s trick, and the magician thrives not, (no matter) where he goes.”

Allah has sent prophets to people and sent with the prophets, Al-Kitab/the Book, to judge between them with Haq/Truth. However, after this Truth came to the people through the Book and Prophets, they started differing among each other.

2:213   كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ فَهَدَى اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لِمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

‘Mankind is one single nation, and Allah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings; and with them He sent the Book in truth, to judge between mankind in matters wherein they differed; but the people given the Book, after the clear Signs came to them, did not differ among themselves, except through selfish contumacy. Allah by His grace guided the believers to the Truth, concerning that wherein they differed, for Allah guides whom He wills to a straight path.’

The corrupt clergy in order to gain control of masses and spread their own fabrications, hid the original Book behind their backs: 

2:101  وَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ نَبَذَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

And when there came to them a Messenger from Allah, confirming what was with them, a party of the people who were given the Book threw away the Book of Allah behind their backs, as if they did not know it!

The corrupt clergy after hiding Allah’s Book behind their back put forth an alternative, i.e a book which they wrote with their own hands and attributed it to be by divine inspiration.

2:79  فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَكْتُبُونَ الْكِتَابَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هَٰذَا مِنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ لِيَشْتَرُوا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا كَتَبَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ

Then woe to those who write the book with their own hands and they say, this is from Allah, to earn with it a small price! woe to them for what their hands write, and woe to the gain they make thereby.

Kingdom of Sulieman A.S is an era of advanced technological developments in mining, electricity, industries, air travel, entertainment industry and innovations. A reading of previous post about ‘who are Jinns as per Quran’ will be useful. Satan Jinns are those from advanced nations who are rejecters and hide their true personalities. Many people after putting the Book of Allah behind their backs, followed what these satans were reciting towards the Kingdom of Sueliman A.S.

2:102  وَاتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَىٰ مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ ۖ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَٰكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ ۚ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ ۖ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ ۚ وَمَا هُم بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنفَعُهُمْ ۚ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُوا لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْا بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ

And they followed what satans recited towards the kingdom of Suleiman/Solomon. And Suleiman did not reject but the satans rejected and taught the people the magic; and was not sent down on two angels with Babel, Harut and Marut.

And neither of the two, taught  anyone without saying. “We are but temptation; so do not reject”. Thus they learned from both of them what causes differences between man and wife. But they could not thus harm anyone except by the will of Allah. And they learned what harmed them, and not profited them. And they knew that whosoever bought it, would have no share in the Hereafter. And vile was the price for which they did sell their nafs/psyche, if they but knew!

The people followed what the satans of advanced nations kept on reciting towards the Kingdom of Sulieman. The satans managed to mesmerize the people with their teaching deviant to the teachings of God.

‘Babel’ is a proper name. In most exegeses, it is said to be the name of  an ancient city ‘Babylon’. However, when we read the previous verse 2:101, it says that the people had put the Book of Allah behind their backs as if they did not know it. This Ayat 2:102 is a continuation, stating that after putting the Book of Allah behind their back, they followed something alternative to Allah’s Book. ‘Babel’, mentioned in Quran should not be the name of a city but it should be the name of this alternative book which these mischievous ones brought forth. The ancient city with the name of ‘Babylon’ cannot be ‘Babel’ of Quran, because as per Quran, Suleiman A.S has been granted a Kingdom, the grandeur of which cannot be surpassed in present or future. Ruins of ancient city Babylone, don’t given indications of high-rise buildings which we see in present day mega cities, therefore this ancient city can not be the Kingdom of Suleiman. A city representing King Suleiman Kingdom, will have such grandeur which will be unsurpassable in all times to come (38:35).

38:35  قَالَ رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَهَبْ لِي مُلْكًا لَّا يَنبَغِي لِأَحَدٍ مِّن بَعْدِي ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ

He (Suleiman) said, “O my Lord! Forgive me, and grant me a kingdom (likes of ) which is not attained by any one after me; for You are the grantor of bounties.

Therefore ‘Babel’  is the name which Quran refers to that alternative book, which people of the world most commonly know as ‘Bible’.  Then Quran states that Suleiman did not reject but actually the satans are the rejecters. We observe that in Bible, satans recite lies towards Suleiman A.S, that Solomon was a sinful prophet who practiced idolatry. This lie in bible is rejected in this Ayat by Quran that Sulieman was not a rejecter.

Considering this part of the Ayat (وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ). There are two schools of thoughts one stating that the ( مَا) is ‘ما الموصولة‘ (relative pronoun) which means ‘what/which’ and the other school saying that this is the ( مَا)/’Ma’ of negation. As satans don’t follow angelic revelation, we will consider the ( مَا) as the negation and thus the above statement is translated as below :

And was not sent down on two angels with Babel, Harut and Marut

This is a statement that Babel (Bible) is not an angelic revelation. It was not revealed on two Angels. (by the way there are only two angels mentioned by name in Bible). Also, Harut and Marut should be separate entities from the angels mentioned in the Ayat and they are associated with Babel. The roots words of Harut and Marut indicate the meanings Harut as the ‘one who tears/splits’ and Marut as the one ‘who makes barren’. These negative names indicate that Harut and Marut are not angles, but those associated with teaching of alternative to the Book of Allah (Babel). Please consider that it is stated in Quran that Malaika/angels only comes with Haq/truth (15:8). So Harut and Marut should not be Malaika if they came with false hood and satans were following them.  

15:8 مَا نُنَزِّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَمَا كَانُوا إِذًا مُّنظَرِينَ

We do not send the angels down except with Haq/truth, and at that time the (rejecters) will not be given any respite.

So we deduce from above that Harut and Marut mentioned in above Ayat are separate entities from the angels mentioned. Harut and Marut are associated with teaching Bible. They apparently say that we all are temptations (of the world) so people should not reject. However, the preachers of bible also teach some thing which causes separation between man and wife. This thing which causes separation between man and wife is the concept of celibacy for priesthood which discourages marriages for the priests and at one time those priest who were already married were forced to forego their marriages.

The people casting the spells and teachings magical falsehood (Batil)  under the garb of religion, mostly are cheaters. Their motivation most of the times is not reward of the hereafter, but worldly gains and other vested interests. This is a very low price they sell their souls for against the reward of hereafter.  

3:187    وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَتُبَيِّنُنَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَكْتُمُونَهُ فَنَبَذُوهُ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ وَاشْتَرَوْا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَبِئْسَ مَا يَشْتَرُونَ

And Allah took the covenant of those who were given the Book: You will make it clear to the people and not conceal it, but they placed it behind their backs and purchased with it a cheap price. Miserable indeed is what they have purchased.

Notes:

The Bible portrays Solomon as the King who was a sinner of idolatry. These are the lies being spreads by the satans. In this Ayat Quran, confirms that Solomon was not a rejecter but those who are propagating these lies are in fact the rejecters.

Quote from Wiki:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon

“The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem,[5] beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel.[7] He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom’s being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam.[8]”

Roots of Harut and Marut:

Harata To spear, slit, widen, impair (reputation), have a wide mouth, have wide sides of the mouth, tear up. Hârût: A descriptive name one who tore up. Marata To break, make barren, Maratun: Barren and stripped land; Man without eyebrows. Mart: Hairless beast. Mârût:

Al-Injeel and Bible:

Important thing to note that Al-Injeel is an attribute of Al-Kitab, i.e the book revealed by God. Al-Injeel is not to be confused by the book known as Bible. Bible is not the altered version of Al-Injeel as Allah Kalima and Words cannot be changed and Bible cannot be presented as remnant of knowledge of Allah’s Book (46:4). See previous post of ‘Who are Ahlal Kitab (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/26/who-are-ahlal-kitab/)

Celibacy initiation:

Evolution of Rules on Celibacy

Because of the doctrine that sexual intercourse with a woman makes a man unclean, married priests were prohibited from celebrating the Eucharist for a full day after sex with their wives. Because the trend was to celebrate the Eucharist more and more often, sometimes even daily, priests were pressured to be celibate just to fulfill their basic religious functions—and eventually, they were prohibited from ever having sex with their wives. Celibacy was thus somewhat common by 300 CE, when the Spanish Council of Elvira required married bishops, priests, and deacons to permanently abstain from sex with their wives. The pressure this put on marriages was not important and the consequences for the wives would only get worse.

The final blow against priests’ ability to marry came through a technicality at the Council of Trent (1545-1563). The church asserted that a valid Christian marriage must be performed by a valid priest and in front of two witnesses. Previously, private marriages performed by priests or, indeed, just about anyone else, were common in some areas. Sometimes the only ones present were the officiant and the couple. Banning such clandestine marriages effectively eliminated marriage for the clergy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Verse about striking women 4:34

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The Ayat 4:34 has been the subject of heated debate and controversy as critics object that it allows beating of women by men while apologists try to assign alternative meanings to the Arabic word ‘Daraba’ in the Ayat. We will review this Ayat and its implication in this post.

4:34  الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ ۚ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَاللَّاتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا

Men take stand over women with what Allah has provided bounty to some over others and with what they spend from their wealth. Thus women are those who amend / correct and who are devout and they are preservers in absence, with what Allah has preserved. And those women from whom you fear of rebellion then sermon them, and abandon them in the beds and strike them. So if they obey you then do not seek over them a way. Surely Allah is all high, all great.

Men are those who take a stand over the women i.e protect them with a sense of belonging and spend on them. The women protect their home and it’s possessions in the absence of men. For those women, who men fear that they are not doing this, then they should sermon them according to the Ayas of Al-Quran and not with their own ideas and philosophies normally prevalent in society. In case the problem is not solved,  next step is to be separated from sleeping together. Women psychologies are based predominantly on emotions. They can sometimes become locked in their own emotions. The word strike in the above Ayat is in the sense of a shock treatment, to bring them out of a locked emotional state. In no case, the strike should cause bodily harm or fall within legal jurisdiction. The men who are not themselves acting on Ayahs of Allah i.e not taking a stand for their woman will not have any right to carry out this strike any way because it will not be effective.

4:59  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا

O’ you people who believe, obey Allah and obey the messenger and obey those among you who have the authority to give orders then if you dispute in anything then refer it towards Allah and the messenger, if you believe with Allah and the last day, that is better and the most beautiful interpretation

The above Ayat asks to obey Allah, the Messenger and those who can implement orders. Government has the power to implement orders therefore people should obey the law of land otherwise there will be chaos in the land. In case there is conflict with the law of the land, then the matter should be referred to Allah and Messenger i.e a plausible solution should be sought in the light of Ayahs. In essence, the law of the land should be respected.

The law of the land in all countries would prohibit domestic violence and physical beating. The shock treatment stated in the Ayat is to be such that it should not cause a legal implication. An example will be the treatment which we see sometimes on TV that  when people get in a state of shock (frozen state), then a sudden light strike or jostling would bring them back to normal state. The person carrying out this treatment is not blamed by any one for wrongdoing.  

Notes:

A link to a related lecture by scholar Mohammad Shaikh is given below:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/10/25/husband-and-wife-relationship-2006/

 

Sunnate Rasool/Practice of the Messenger

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

33:21 لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا

Without doubt for you, in the Rasool/Messenger of Allah is most beautiful pattern, who has hope in Allah and the last day and frequently remembers Allah.

The confirmed sunnate rasool/practice of the messenger,  is what Allah ordered the messenger to do in Al-Quran and most definitely the messenger complied with the orders of Allah. Therefore Ayahs of Quran will tell us the most confirmed sunnate-rasool i.e the confirmed practice which the messenger pbuh followed. As Quran is the only book in the world, in which there is no doubt, therefore the practice of the Messenger as described in Quran is more authentic than in any other book.

We will review in Quran, the orders which were given to the messenger to know about the confirmed practice of the messenger from Quran. These Ayahs let us know that the Messenger always leads to the straight path and advises with Al-Quran and not without Al-Quran. So those who follow the true sunnat/practice of the messenger, should always guide and order with the Quran and not associating other orders with Quran. The personality and practice described in the Quran are the best practice of the messenger:

3:79  مَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَن يُؤْتِيَهُ اللَّهُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ ثُمَّ يَقُولَ لِلنَّاسِ كُونُوا عِبَادًا لِّي مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِن كُونُوا رَبَّانِيِّينَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تُعَلِّمُونَ الْكِتَابَ وَبِمَا كُنتُمْ تَدْرُسُونَ

It is not for a human who is given the Book, and Wisdom, and the Prophet-hood; to say to people. “Be you my servants rather than Allah’s”. On the contrary (he would say) “Be you the servants of the Lord. For you have taught the Book and you have studied it.”

The prophet would not say to people; that ‘You make me your Master/Aaqqa/Maula!’, instead he would say that you be the people belonging to God/Allah.

9:33  هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ

It is He, who has sent His messenger with the guidance and with the judgment of truth so that he may make it obvious on every (other) judgment and even if those who associate (with Him) dislike it.

The purpose of sending the Messenger is that, the Messenger, makes the true judgment obvious and over, all other prevailing judgments existing in the world. Messenger has the aid of the Spirit of the Book. With the aid of the Spirit of the Book, the true Din/Judgment that the messenger brings forth, prevails over all other contradictory man- made judgments.

7:2  كِتَابٌ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ فَلَا يَكُن فِي صَدْرِكَ حَرَجٌ مِّنْهُ لِتُنذِرَ بِهِ وَذِكْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

A Book revealed to you,- it should not cause any tightening in your breast,- that you warn (the people) with it, and it is remembrance for the believers.

The messenger always reminds and advises with the Book.

5:49  وَأَنِ احْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَن يَفْتِنُوكَ عَن بَعْضِ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ ۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَن يُصِيبَهُم بِبَعْضِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ لَفَاسِقُونَ

And Judge/order among them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their vain desires, but beware of them lest they beguile you from any of that (teaching) which Allah has sent down to you. And if they turn away, be assured that for some of their sins it is Allah’s intention to put them into difficulty. And certainly the majority of the people are Fasiqeen/evil doers.

The messenger always judges and orders among the people with what has been revealed by Allah (Quran) and does not follow the vain desires of people.

27:92  وَأَنْ أَتْلُوَ الْقُرْآنَ ۖ فَمَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدِي لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَن ضَلَّ فَقُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُنذِرِينَ

And that I  recite the Quran, and if any one accept guidance, he does it for the good of his own self, and if anyone goes astray, say “I am only a warner”.

The messenger always warns by reciting from the Quran.

5:99  مَّا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا تَكْتُمُونَ

The Messenger’s duty is but to convey (the message). But Allah knows all that you reveal and you conceal.

Messenger’s duty is to convey the message. What people hide and what they show is known by Allah.

6:161  قُلْ إِنَّنِي هَدَانِي رَبِّي إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ دِينًا قِيَمًا مِّلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۚ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Say,  Surely my Lord has guided me to a Straight way a Judgment established. The Millat (Religion) of true Ibrahim (Abraham) and he was not from the polytheists/associators.

The Messenger follows the religion of Ibrahim A.S.

6:19  قُلْ أَيُّ شَيْءٍ أَكْبَرُ شَهَادَةً ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۖ شَهِيدٌ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَأُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ لِأُنذِرَكُم بِهِ وَمَن بَلَغَ ۚ أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ مَعَ اللَّهِ آلِهَةً أُخْرَىٰ ۚ قُل لَّا أَشْهَدُ ۚ قُلْ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ وَإِنَّنِي بَرِيءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ

Say what thing is greatest evidence, say Allah is witness between me and you and this Quran is inspired to me to warn you with it and to whom it is delivered. Do you surely bear witness, that with Allah there are other gods, Say I do not bear witness, say surely He is one God and surely I am exempted from what you associate (with Him).

Messenger confirms that what is inspired to him, is the Quran and he reminds with it i.e the Quran.

6:50  قُل لَّا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ عِندِي خَزَائِنُ اللَّهِ وَلَا أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ وَلَا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ إِنِّي مَلَكٌ ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ ۚ قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الْأَعْمَىٰ وَالْبَصِيرُ ۚ أَفَلَا تَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Say. “I do not tell you that with me are the treasures of Allah, nor do I know what is Ghaib/hidden, nor do I tell you I am an angel. I only follow what is revealed to me.” Say. “can the blind be held equal to the seeing?” Will you then consider not?

The messenger confirms that he does not know the knowledge of Ghaib/unseen and he follows only what is inspired to him i.e Al-Quran (6:19)

43:43  فَاسْتَمْسِكْ بِالَّذِي أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ ۖ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

So hold thou fast to the Inspiration/Revelation sent down to you (the Messenger); verily you are on a Straight Way.

The messenger holds fast the inspiration i.e the Quran (6:19)

28:85  إِنَّ الَّذِي فَرَضَ عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ لَرَادُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ ۚ قُل رَّبِّي أَعْلَمُ مَن جَاءَ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَمَنْ هُوَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ

Surely He Who has ordained (as mandatory) the Qur’an for you, will definitely restore you to a Place of Return(To a place you are accustomed to). Say. “My Lord knows best who it is that brings true guidance, and who is in manifest error.”

Quran is mandatory/Faraz on the Messenger with all his do’s and don’ts and therfore in his Sunnah to all believers.

21:45  قُلْ إِنَّمَا أُنذِرُكُم بِالْوَحْيِ ۚ وَلَا يَسْمَعُ الصُّمُّ الدُّعَاءَ إِذَا مَا يُنذَرُونَ

Say, “I do but warn you with the revelation”. But the deaf will not hear the call, (even) when they are warned!

Again and again the Messenger confirms that he warns with the inspiration/revelation i.e the Quran (6:19), however, the people seems oblivious to this fact.

75:16  لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ

Move not your tongue concerning the (Qur’an) to make haste therewith.

There should not be any haste with the Quran. It comes gradually.

7:203  وَإِذَا لَمْ تَأْتِهِم بِآيَةٍ قَالُوا لَوْلَا اجْتَبَيْتَهَا ۚ قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَتَّبِعُ مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ مِن رَّبِّي ۚ هَٰذَا بَصَائِرُ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

If you don’t come to them with a revelation, they say. “Why don’t you yourself chose it be (a revelation)?” Say. “I but follow what is revealed to me from my Lord. this is (nothing but) enlightened perception from your Lord, and Guidance, and mercy, for those who have faith.”

If the messenger doesn’t come (bring to people) with an Ayat (probably in a given situation), people would say that why not you choose anything (that would then become a Sunnat for them to follow), however, the messenger would always says, follow the Wahi/Quran not anything else. Also, this Ayat is a confirmation that everything that the prophet says or does is not Wahi/inspiration.

5:15  يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيرًا مِّمَّا كُنتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ ۚ قَدْ جَاءَكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ

O people of The Book! There has come to you our Messenger, revealing to you much that you used to hide in The Book, and passing over much: There has come to you from Allah a light and a perspicuous Book

Sunnate/Practice of the Messenger is to reveal clearly what people try to hide from The Book.

16:64  وَمَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ ۙ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

And We sent down the Book to you (the messenger) for the express purpose, that you should make clear to them those things in which they differ, and that it should be a guide and a mercy to those who believe.

Another practice of the Messenger is to clarify from the Book,  to the people who differ in it’s various matters.

10:15  وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ ۙ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا ائْتِ بِقُرْآنٍ غَيْرِ هَٰذَا أَوْ بَدِّلْهُ ۚ قُلْ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أُبَدِّلَهُ مِن تِلْقَاءِ نَفْسِي ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ ۖ إِنِّي أَخَافُ إِنْ عَصَيْتُ رَبِّي عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ

But when Our Clear Ayats are rehearsed unto them, those who rest not their hope on their meeting with Us, Say. “Bring us a Quran/Reading other than this, or change this,” Say. “It is not for me, of my own accord, to change it. I follow naught but what is revealed unto me. if I were to disobey my Lord, I should myself fear the penalty of a Great Day (to come).

The Messenger does not change what is sent down on his Nafs (i.e the inspiration/Wahi/Quran). He follows the inspiration and is afraid of the penalty of the great day.

18:28  وَاصْبِرْ نَفْسَكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُم بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ ۖ وَلَا تَعْدُ عَيْنَاكَ عَنْهُمْ تُرِيدُ زِينَةَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَا تُطِعْ مَنْ أَغْفَلْنَا قَلْبَهُ عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ وَكَانَ أَمْرُهُ فُرُطًا

And persevere yourself (the Messenger) with those who call on their Lord morning and evening, seeking His Presence; and let not your eyes pass beyond them, seeking the pomp and glitter of this Life;  and Don’t obey the one whose heart We have permitted to neglect the remembrance of Us, one who follows his own desires, and whose case has gone beyond all bounds.

The Messenger perseveres in the company of devout people, he does not long for worldly life’s glitter, and he does not obey ones who are oblivious to the remembrance of Allah.

39:11  قُلْ إِنِّي أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصًا لَّهُ الدِّينَ

Say. “Verily, I am commanded to serve Allah with judgment exclusively for Him.

The practice of the Messenger is to serve Allah in judgment purely and exclusively for Allah.

46:35  فَاصْبِرْ كَمَا صَبَرَ أُولُو الْعَزْمِ مِنَ الرُّسُلِ وَلَا تَسْتَعْجِل لَّهُمْ ۚ كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ مَا يُوعَدُونَ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا سَاعَةً مِّن نَّهَارٍ ۚ بَلَاغٌ ۚ فَهَلْ يُهْلَكُ إِلَّا الْقَوْمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

Therefore patiently persevere, as stead fast Messengers did earlier; and be in no haste about the (Unbelievers). On the Day that they see the (Punishment) promised to them, (it will be) as if they had not tarried more than an hour of a day. (You are but) to proclaim the Message, thus shall any be destroyed except those who transgress?

The Messenger patiently persevere against the adversities and does not make haste with the unbelievers.

50:45  نَّحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَقُولُونَ ۖ وَمَا أَنتَ عَلَيْهِم بِجَبَّارٍ ۖ فَذَكِّرْ بِالْقُرْآنِ مَن يَخَافُ وَعِيدِ

We know better what they say; and you are not a compeller over them. So remind (them) with the Qur’an those who fear My warning!

The Messenger does not forcefully compel people to believe or to do something. He only reminds with Quran.

9:73  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

‘O’ Prophet! Strive with the rejecters and the hypocrites and be strict over them. And their refuge is hell and a bad destination.

The prophet engages the rejectors and hypocrites for their false interpretations about Allah, and is not lenient on them in this matter. The prophet instructs with the Ayahs of Quran. If the Ayahs increase the rejecters and hypocrites in rejection, the prophet deals them with firmness.

8:64  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ حَسْبُكَ اللَّهُ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

O Prophet! Sufficient for you is Allah,-  and unto those who follow you among the believers.

The prophet’s support is basically Allah and after Him the believers who follow him. He is indifferent to worldly powers to support him in his mission.

33:28  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ إِن كُنتُنَّ تُرِدْنَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا وَزِينَتَهَا فَتَعَالَيْنَ أُمَتِّعْكُنَّ وَأُسَرِّحْكُنَّ سَرَاحًا جَمِيلًا

O Prophet! Say to your wives. “If you desire the life of this World, and its adornment,- then come! I will provide it to you and set you free in a beautiful manner.”

33:59  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَن يُعْرَفْنَ فَلَا يُؤْذَيْنَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

O Prophet! say to your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers that they let down upon them their over-garments; this will be more proper, that they may be known, and thus they will not be given trouble; and God is Forgiving, Merciful.

Prophet asks the women of his family and the believing ones to draw an over-garment over their dresses for their safety.

The above are some of Ayahs presented here as an example. All orders in Al-Kitab are basically the practice of the messengers and prophets.

45:6  تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَ اللَّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Such are the Ayats/Signs of Allah, which We rehearse to you in Truth; then in what Hadith/narration they will believe after Allah and His Ayahs?

These are the Ayahs of Allah which are revealed in truth by Allah. Allah then asks on which Hadith/narration, they will believe after Allah and His Ayahs?

Satan/Shaitan/Devil

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

16:98  فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

When you read the Quran/the Reading, seek Allah’s protection from Satan the stoned one.

Allah has warned mankind that Satan is their open enemy and that Satan will eventually be able to lead a majority of mankind to delusion and destruction. Therefore it is imperative for us to be able to identify the attacks of Satan in order to protect ourselves  Especially so, as Satan is relentless in his attacks and he is sitting at the ‘Sirate-Mustaqim’ (Straight Path). Quran gives us a lot of information about Satan for our protection. In this post we will review the Ayahs related to the story of Adam and his pair and the tree from which they ate and lost their place in Janna. Also, we will analyze various aspects of the personality of Satan and his delusion tactics.

38-71-76  إِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي خَالِقٌ بَشَرًا مِّن طِينٍ  فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ  فَسَجَدَ الْمَلَائِكَةُ كُلُّهُمْ أَجْمَعُونَ  إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ اسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ  قَالَ يَا إِبْلِيسُ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَن تَسْجُدَ لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ ۖ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ أَمْ كُنتَ مِنَ الْعَالِينَ  قَالَ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ ۖ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ

When your Lord said to the angels; ‘Surely I am creating a human from clay. When I have made him even and breathed into him from My spirit, then you all fall down prostrating for him.” So the angels prostrated, all of them together, except Iblis who showed arrogance and became from the rejecters. He (Allah) said: O’ Iblis, what prevented you to prostrate for what I have created with my hands. Did you show arrogance or are you from the higher class? He (Iblis) said. “I am better than him. You have created me from fire, and created him from clay.”

In the above Ayahs, we come to know about one aspect of the personality of Satan; The personality called ‘Iblis’. The root word of ‘Iblis’ is (ب ل س ) which means ‘in grief and hurts’. Iblis is the personality who considers himself superior based on criteria not given by Allah. Allah ordered the angels that you all prostrate to human when He breathes into the ‘human/bashar’ from His Sprit. The criteria which Iblis makes to compare, is made by himself for example fire is better than clay. While making the criteria he focuses on the body form and misses the essence/spirit. When he perceives injustice being done to him from things beyond his control, he rebels against Allah and thinks he is justified in doing so because he has been dealt unjustly. The lesson to recognize this aspect of Iblis is that, not to follow in his footsteps and be dejected and complexed in matters on which we have no control.  Creation is only from Allah so there should be no complexes and grudges from Allah, in people in what has been created or provided by Allah.

17:62  قَالَ أَرَأَيْتَكَ هَٰذَا الَّذِي كَرَّمْتَ عَلَيَّ لَئِنْ أَخَّرْتَنِ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَأَحْتَنِكَنَّ ذُرِّيَّتَهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

He (Iblis) said: “Do you see! this is the one you have honored over me! Definitely If you will give me respite till the day of resurrection, I will bring his descendants under my control except a few”.

The word  لَأَحْتَنِكَنَّ  is from root (ح ن ك ) which also means to make worldly experienced. The plan of Iblis/devil is to bring the descendent of Adam under his control by making them going after the worldly life. While Allah has always emphasized upon the Hereafter/Akhira over worldly life.

7:19  وَيَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ فَكُلَا مِنْ حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلَا تَقْرَبَا هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ

And “O Adam You and your pair stay in the garden, thus both of you eat from wherever you wish and do not go near this tree so you will become from the oppressors.

20:117-119  فَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ إِنَّ هَٰذَا عَدُوٌّ لَّكَ وَلِزَوْجِكَ فَلَا يُخْرِجَنَّكُمَا مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ فَتَشْقَىٰ إِنَّ لَكَ أَلَّا تَجُوعَ فِيهَا وَلَا تَعْرَىٰ  وَأَنَّكَ لَا تَظْمَأُ فِيهَا وَلَا تَضْحَىٰ

Then We said. “O Adam! verily, this is an enemy to thee and your pair. So let him not get you both out of the Garden, so that you land in misery. Surely you are not to be hungry and naked in it, and surely you are not to be thirsty and victimized in it.

Adam and his pair were in Al-Janna/the garden. Quran says that what is described as Jannat in Quran is an example (13:35 مَّثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ ۖ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ أُكُلُهَا دَائِمٌ وَظِلُّهَا ۚ تِلْكَ عُقْبَى الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا ۖ وَّعُقْبَى الْكَافِرِينَ النَّارُ ). The example of the Janna in which they were in, had the following characteristics as per Ayahs 20:117-119:

  1. Free from hunger as there is no shortage of food.  Hunger is also associated with the hunger for power, prestige and excelling others. In Janna there is no competition with any one, there-fore there is no desire for man to excel, exceed or compare with any one.
  2. No Nakedness. Nakedness is associated with covering one’s blemishes and weaknesses. In Janna, there is no need to cover ones’ shortcomings as again no comparison with others.
  3. No thirst. Thirst is also associated with ones thirst for knowledge to excel and compete with others. There is no desire in Janna for that.
  4. No victimization. In the example of Janna, people are not victimized as there is no  desire to leave others behind.

As Janna is an example, the tree of Janna is also an example. The example of the exit tree in Janna is something that when you experience it, you lose the Janna and along with it the characteristics mentioned above of Janna.  So this tree. which they were asked to avoid is associated with worldly life. Once they taste it, the protection of Janna which they were enjoying is withdrawn and they are exposed to worldly life. Worldly life is associated with competition with others to excel. They have to strive to compete with others to do better than others. They have to have the hunger and thirst to do better for themselves and get materials things for making their worldly life better. They have to cover themselves for their blemishes and shortcomings from people’s eyes. So, this tree is the tree of worldly life and competition, and after getting the taste of this tree all rigors of worldly life were exposed for them.

20:120  فَوَسْوَسَ إِلَيْهِ الشَّيْطَانُ قَالَ يَا آدَمُ هَلْ أَدُلُّكَ عَلَىٰ شَجَرَةِ الْخُلْدِ وَمُلْكٍ لَّا يَبْلَىٰ

Then Satan tempted him by saying: “O Adam, should I show you the tree of immortality, and a kingdom that will never know any wane?”

Satan tempted Adam and his pair, by suggesting them they should work for their worldly life, so that they become immortals. We often hear similar statements, that we should do something so that world would remember us even after our death. Similarly people have an inclination to leave their progeny behind so that their lineage would continue. However, God advises that what ever is in the world will be left here when you leave the world.

7:20 فَوَسْوَسَ لَهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ لِيُبْدِيَ لَهُمَا مَا وُورِيَ عَنْهُمَا مِن سَوْآتِهِمَا وَقَالَ مَا نَهَاكُمَا رَبُّكُمَا عَنْ هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةِ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَا مَلَكَيْنِ أَوْ تَكُونَا مِنَ الْخَالِدِينَ

Then Shaitan/Satan whispered so that he made for them appear from their ills which were behind them and said “that Your Lord has forbidden from this tree so that you become angels or you become eternal.

Sometimes we hear similar rhetoric that there is no hereafter and those who target hereafter are left behind in the World and this is just an illusion that religions creates to restrain mankind from development.

20:121  أَكَلَا مِنْهَا فَبَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْآتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ الْجَنَّةِ ۚ وَعَصَىٰ آدَمُ رَبَّهُ فَغَوَىٰ

And both ate of (its fruit), and their hidden evils were exposed to one another, and they patched the leaves of the garden (to hide them). Adam disobeyed his Lord, and went astray.

After eating from that tree, Adam and his pair, lost the protections of Janna as mentioned above. When they were exposed to the world and competition with others, they realized their short comings in comparison with others, and like all others started covering their short comings and blemishes from the world. Once they are exposed to the worldly life, they have to endure the hardships therein, and live the worldly life.

2:36  فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ ۖ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۖ وَلَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ

Then did Satan make them slip and got them out of the state (of felicity) in which they had been. We said. “Get down, all,  for you are enemies to one another. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood – for an appointed time.”

After getting out of Jannat, Adam had to live his life on Earth, which is associated with struggle and strife for the worldly life.

36:60  أَلَمْ أَعْهَدْ إِلَيْكُمْ يَا بَنِي آدَمَ أَن لَّا تَعْبُدُوا الشَّيْطَانَ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

“Did I not covenant to you, O Children of Adam, that you will not serve the Satan; for that he is a clear enemy to you?

7:27  يَا بَنِي آدَمَ لَا يَفْتِنَنَّكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ كَمَا أَخْرَجَ أَبَوَيْكُم مِّنَ الْجَنَّةِ يَنزِعُ عَنْهُمَا لِبَاسَهُمَا لِيُرِيَهُمَا سَوْآتِهِمَا ۗ إِنَّهُ يَرَاكُمْ هُوَ وَقَبِيلُهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا تَرَوْنَهُمْ ۗ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

O children of Adam, do not let the Satan dupe you as he did when he caused the eviction of your parents from the Garden, and the removal of their garments to expose their ills. He and his tribe see you, while you do not see them. We appoint the satans as companions of those who do not believe.

In the above Ayat, Allah advises us to be cautious of arguments from Satan to keep us involved in worldly life to the maximum. We are under constant scrutiny from him and the likes of him. Those who don’t believe in Allah’s advise, invariably become companions of Satan.

2:268  الشَّيْطَانُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُم بِالْفَحْشَاءِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَعِدُكُم مَّغْفِرَةً مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلًا ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Satan promises you of poverty and orders you with shameful acts. Allah promises you His forgiveness and bounties. And Allah  is bounteous for all and He knows all things.

Satan tries to scare you of poverty and keeps us involved in worldly affairs so that we are continuously working for this life. He makes doing shameful acts, alluring. While Allah promises forgiveness and bounties for the believers.

Means give to Satan to delude people in the world:

17:63-64  قَالَ اذْهَبْ فَمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ فَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ جَزَاؤُكُمْ جَزَاءً مَّوْفُورًا  وَاسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ مِنْهُم بِصَوْتِكَ وَأَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِم بِخَيْلِكَ وَرَجِلِكَ وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَوْلَادِ وَعِدْهُمْ ۚ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا

He (Allah) said (to Satan): “Go away, whosoever follows you from them, surely Hell is your reward, an abundant reward. And you can excite, with your sound; whosoever you can from them, and bring over them your horses and infantry (i.e overwhelm them with your ideologies), and be their partner in wealth and children. And make promises with them, and Satan promises them nothing except delusion.

The tools by which Satan delude, are the sounds which stirs up emotions, his ideologies, wealth and children i.e the worldly life adornments.

17:65  إِنَّ عِبَادِي لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانٌ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِرَبِّكَ وَكِيلًا

“Surely My servants, over them, you will never have any authority and sufficient advocate is your Lord.

7:16-17  قَالَ فَبِمَا أَغْوَيْتَنِي لَأَقْعُدَنَّ لَهُمْ صِرَاطَكَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ  ثُمَّ لَآتِيَنَّهُم مِّن بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ وَعَنْ أَيْمَانِهِمْ وَعَن شَمَائِلِهِمْ ۖ وَلَا تَجِدُ أَكْثَرَهُمْ شَاكِرِينَ

He (Satan) said. “so with what you have tempted me, definitely I will sit on Your straight path for them. Then definitely I will come to them from between their front and from their behind and about their right and about their left and you will not find the majority of them thankful.”

Satan sits on Allah’s ‘Sirate Mustaqim’/straight path. He is not sitting in places of shameful and criminal acts as there are others substituting him at those places.  As soon as one starts inclining towards the right path, Satan’s relentless attacks shall target him. Satan will give argument from both left and right side in order to sway him from the right path. The only way to guard off is to recognize Satan and his schemes is through the Ayahs of Allah.

4:19  وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمْ وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمْ وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ آذَانَ الْأَنْعَامِ وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ الشَّيْطَانَ وَلِيًّا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ خَسِرَ خُسْرَانًا مُّبِينًا

“And I will lead them astray, and I will make them wishful and I will order them so definitely they will cut off the ears of cattle, and I will order them so definitely they will alter the creation of Allah. And who takes the Satan a protector from other than Allah then without doubt he is at loss, a clear loss.

Satan promised that he will definitely make people desirous in the world. He will order them to make changes in the creations of Allah. The reference of phrase about ‘cutting ears of cattle’,  is metaphorical. In some languages this phrase means to ‘exceed in mischievous antics in a negative sense. On Satan’s instigation, people would exceed in carnal behaviors which can even put animals to shame.

7:18  قَالَ اخْرُجْ مِنْهَا مَذْءُومًا مَّدْحُورًا ۖ لَّمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

(Allah) said. “Get out from this, disgraced and expelled. I will fill Hell with all of you, whoever follows you from them,-

16:63  تَاللَّهِ لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمَمٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمُ الْيَوْمَ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

By Allah, We sent (Our messengers) to nations before you; but Satan made, their own acts seem alluring. He is also their patron today, but they shall have a most grievous penalty.

Satan provides justification to people in order to make their bad acts alluring in their eyes.

5:90  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

The works of Satan are Intoxicants and gambling, stones, statues and arrows; an abomination,- of Satan’s handwork. eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper.

The touch of Satan causes psychological problems. Satan is not physical.

2:275  الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا ۗ وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا ۚ فَمَن جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىٰ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Those who eat Ar-Riba/the increase  do not take a stand except like that he stands to madness from the touch of Satan. That is because they say that Al-Bai/the deal  is the example of Ar-Riba . And Allah has made Al-Bai/the deal  lawful and has made Ar-Riba/the increase unlawful so he to whom comes the sermon from his lord then forbids, that is past for him. And his affair is towards Allah, and whosoever returns , then they are the companions of the fire. They will live forever in it.

17:27  إِنَّ الْمُبَذِّرِينَ كَانُوا إِخْوَانَ الشَّيَاطِينِ ۖ وَكَانَ الشَّيْطَانُ لِرَبِّهِ كَفُورًا

Squanderers are the brothers of satans, and the Satan is to his Lord, a rejecter.

3:175  إِنَّمَا ذَٰلِكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ يُخَوِّفُ أَوْلِيَاءَهُ فَلَا تَخَافُوهُمْ وَخَافُونِ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

Verily it is the Satan who make you fear his protectors so do not be afraid of them, but fear Me, if you are the believers.

5:91  إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَاءَ فِي الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلَاةِ ۖ فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّنتَهُونَ

Satan intends to create among you enmity and hatred through intoxicants and gambling, and to divert you from the remembrance of Allah and the prayer. Will you therefore not desist?

58:19  اسْتَحْوَذَ عَلَيْهِمُ الشَّيْطَانُ فَأَنسَاهُمْ ذِكْرَ اللَّهِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ حِزْبُ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ أَلَا إِنَّ حِزْبَ الشَّيْطَانِ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

Satan has got the better of them so he has made them forget the remembrance of Allah. They are the Party of the Satan. Truly, it is the Party of the Satan that will perish!

7:30  فَرِيقًا هَدَىٰ وَفَرِيقًا حَقَّ عَلَيْهِمُ الضَّلَالَةُ ۗ إِنَّهُمُ اتَّخَذُوا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ

One party He (Allah) has guided, others, on them the loss of the way has been established; as they took the satans, not Allah, for their protectors, and assume that they are the guided ones.

34:20  وَلَقَدْ صَدَّقَ عَلَيْهِمْ إِبْلِيسُ ظَنَّهُ فَاتَّبَعُوهُ إِلَّا فَرِيقًا مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

And without doubt Iblis/Devil made true his conjecture over them, so they followed him except a division from the believers.

16:98-99 فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ  إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ سُلْطَانٌ عَلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ  إِنَّمَا سُلْطَانُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَوَلَّوْنَهُ وَالَّذِينَ هُم بِهِ مُشْرِكُونَ

When you read the Quran/the Reading, seek Allah’s protection from Satan the stoned one. No authority has he over those who believe and put their trust in their Lord. His authority is over those only, who take him as protector and who join partners with Allah.

7:200-202  وَإِمَّا يَنزَغَنَّكَ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ نَزْغٌ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا إِذَا مَسَّهُمْ طَائِفٌ مِّنَ الشَّيْطَانِ تَذَكَّرُوا فَإِذَا هُم مُّبْصِرُونَ  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا إِذَا مَسَّهُمْ طَائِفٌ مِّنَ الشَّيْطَانِ تَذَكَّرُوا فَإِذَا هُم مُّبْصِرُونَ

And if you are incited from the Satan to incitement, so seek refuge with Allah, surely He is all hearing, all knowing. Those who are pious/take guard, when any evil from the Satan touches them, they remember (Allah), then they get the insight. Their (Satan’s) brothers keep on expanding them in the wrong and they do not relax.

If any evil thought comes across your mind, remember Allah at that moment.

Satan efforts with prophets and messengers and Golden words:

22:52  وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ وَلَا نَبِيٍّ إِلَّا إِذَا تَمَنَّىٰ أَلْقَى الشَّيْطَانُ فِي أُمْنِيَّتِهِ فَيَنسَخُ اللَّهُ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ ثُمَّ يُحْكِمُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ  لِّيَجْعَلَ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ فِتْنَةً لِّلَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَفِي شِقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ

And We have not sent  before you a Messenger nor a Prophet except when he wishes, Satan encounters in his wishes. So Allah cancels what Satan encounters, then Allah confirms His Ayahs/Signs and Allah is knowing, wise. That He may make the suggestions thrown in by Satan, a captivation for those in whose hearts is a disease and who are hardened of heart. verily the wrong-doers are in a schism far (from the Truth).

6:112-113  وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ عَدُوًّا شَيَاطِينَ الْإِنسِ وَالْجِنِّ يُوحِي بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ زُخْرُفَ الْقَوْلِ غُرُورًا ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ مَا فَعَلُوهُ ۖ فَذَرْهُمْ وَمَا يَفْتَرُونَ  وَلِتَصْغَىٰ إِلَيْهِ أَفْئِدَةُ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ وَلِيَرْضَوْهُ وَلِيَقْتَرِفُوا مَا هُم مُّقْتَرِفُونَ

And likewise ,We have made for every Prophet the satans of mankind and the satans of jin-kind an enemy, some of them inspire golden words (as sayings of prophets) on some, for the purpose of delusion, and if your Lord had willed they would have not done it, so leave them and what they have invented. To such (deceit) let the hearts of those incline (towards those golden words), who have no faith in the hereafter. let them delight in it, and let them earn from it what they may.

43:36-37  وَمَن يَعْشُ عَن ذِكْرِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ نُقَيِّضْ لَهُ شَيْطَانًا فَهُوَ لَهُ قَرِينٌ  وَإِنَّهُمْ لَيَصُدُّونَهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ

And whosoever turns away from the remembrance of the most Merciful, We appoint for him a Satan to be his constant companion. And they will definitely oppose  about the way (of Allah) and they will think that they are the guided ones.

Any one, who is not in constant touch with God remembrance/Quran, Satan will become his companion and he will be assuming that he is the guided one. The way to  Allah is through His Book. The obstacles creators in the way of Allah are termed as satans/shiateen. Recognize, what are these obstacles; Are there some who say that you cannot understand this Book unless you get this knowledge or that degree or you know about situation when the Aya was revealed or you get knowledge of history books etc.

23:96-98  ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ السَّيِّئَةَ ۚ نَحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَصِفُونَ  وَقُل رَّبِّ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ هَمَزَاتِ الشَّيَاطِينِ  وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ رَبِّ أَن يَحْضُرُونِ

Repel the ills with that which is good. We know very well with what they describe. And say O my Lord I seek refuge with you from the spurs/impulsive action of satans. And I seek refuge with you O my Lord! that they (satans) attend me.

Impulses from Satan, do much damage as people normally act impulsively on them. It is advisable to ask Allah’s refuge from Satan’s impulses.

Khannas:

Khuannas is one who withdraws and leaves you in a lurch. This is another aspect of the personality of Satan.

114-4-6  مِن شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ  الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ  مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ

(say I seek refuge) from the mischief of the Whisperer (of Evil), who withdraws (after his whisper), who whispers into the hearts of Mankind, Among Jinns and among men.

He (khunnas) can be both from Jinns (hidden/covered) and Inns (people)

14:22  وَقَالَ الشَّيْطَانُ لَمَّا قُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَعَدَكُمْ وَعْدَ الْحَقِّ وَوَعَدتُّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ ۖ وَمَا كَانَ لِيَ عَلَيْكُم مِّن سُلْطَانٍ إِلَّا أَن دَعَوْتُكُمْ فَاسْتَجَبْتُمْ لِي ۖ فَلَا تَلُومُونِي وَلُومُوا أَنفُسَكُم ۖ مَّا أَنَا بِمُصْرِخِكُمْ وَمَا أَنتُم بِمُصْرِخِيَّ ۖ إِنِّي كَفَرْتُ بِمَا أَشْرَكْتُمُونِ مِن قَبْلُ ۗ إِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

And Satan says when the order is complete,  “Surely Allah promised you the promise of truth and I also made promise with you then I turned back on my promise to you,  and I did not have any authority over you except to invite you, so you accepted my invitation, so you do not blame me and blame your self. My complaining cannot help you, nor can your complaining help me. Surely I reject with what you have been associating me from before. Surely for the oppressors is a grievous punishment.

When you have acted upon Satan’s advise then he will go back at once and will make you repent over your misdeed.

59:16  كَمَثَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِذْ قَالَ لِلْإِنسَانِ اكْفُرْ فَلَمَّا كَفَرَ قَالَ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّنكَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Like the Satan, when he says to man, “reject”. but when (man) rejects, (Satan) says, “I am free of you. I do fear Allah, the Lord of the Worlds!”

2:208  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

O’ People who believe, Enter into Peace completely; and follow not the footsteps of Satan for he is an open enemy to you.

Allah ordered the angels to prostrate when he invoked His Sprit in Adam, but Iblis did not look at the sprit (of the message), instead he saw only the body form of Adam, and in his later conversation with Allah he mentioned only the body form and not the Sprit. This is exactly what happens  now , whenever the message of Allah is delivered to people, they don’t look at the message (which is Ayats of Allah) instead they start looking at the person who is delivering the message and find faults in him. This happened with all the prophets mentioned in Quran. That’s why Allah forbids that don’t follow the footsteps of Satan.

2:169  إِنَّمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِالسُّوءِ وَالْفَحْشَاءِ وَأَن تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

For he commands you what is evil and shameful, and that you should say about Allah that of which you have no knowledge.

6:43  فَلَوْلَا إِذْ جَاءَهُم بَأْسُنَا تَضَرَّعُوا وَلَٰكِن قَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

Then why it was not that when Our suffering reached them they did not show humility? On the contrary their hearts became hardened, and Satan made their acts seem alluring to them.

36:60-62  أَلَمْ أَعْهَدْ إِلَيْكُمْ يَا بَنِي آدَمَ أَن لَّا تَعْبُدُوا الشَّيْطَانَ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ  وَأَنِ اعْبُدُونِي ۚ هَٰذَا صِرَاطٌ مُّسْتَقِيمٌ  وَلَقَدْ أَضَلَّ مِنكُمْ جِبِلًّا كَثِيرًا ۖ أَفَلَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْقِلُونَ

“Did I not covenant to you, O Children of Adam, that you will not serve the Satan; for that he is a clear enemy to you? and that you serve me, this is a straight path and without doubt he led astray the temperament of  majority from you, so will you not at all use your intellect?”

Sometimes a person does a bad act for experiment sake and gets hooked on it. After sometimes the bad act would become second nature to him i.e ingrained in him and then will be very difficult to get rid of.

Was Iblis a Jinn or Angel?

2:34  وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ

And when, We said to the angels. “Bow down to Adam” and they all bowed down except for Iblis, he refused and was arrogant. He was from the Kafireen/rejecters.

Allah ordered the angels to bow down to Adam so they all bowed down except for Iblis. The order to bow down was to angels and they all did so except for one of them who was Iblis. After that he was termed as a rejecter.

18:50  وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ كَانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ….

And when! We said to the angels, “Bow down for Adam:” they bowed down except Iblis. He was/became from the jinns…..

So Iblis, after he disobeyed the order of the Lord he was termed as rejecter in 2:34  and a Jinn in 18:50. He is termed a Jinn, because his personality is hidden from man and he poses himself as his well wisher while suggesting evil to man.

Notes:

Link to a lecture on Satan/Devil from scholar brother Mohammad Shaikh:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/09/09/satan-devil-2004/

https://www.iipccanada.com/category/urdu-video-lectures/page/8/

Ayat un Noor/The verse of the light

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

24:35  اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ ۖ الْمِصْبَاحُ فِي زُجَاجَةٍ ۖ الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ زَيْتُونَةٍ لَّا شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلَا غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِيءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ ۚ نُّورٌ عَلَىٰ نُورٍ ۗ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

Allah is the Light/reflection of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His light is of a niche and in it is a lamp. The lamp enclosed in glass. the glass as it were a brilliant planet. Lit from a blessed olive tree, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil is about to light up, though fire did not touch it. Light upon Light! Allah guides whom He wills to His light. Allah sets forth parables for people, and Allah  knows all things.

Light is a parable of knowledge, enlightenment and reflection while darkness is a parable of ignorance. Everything in the Universe reflects upon an intelligent design with which it has been created. Every single thing and its place in the perfect grand scheme of the Universe, helps us reflect on the Creator’s wisdom. From the grandest to the most minute part of the Universe including living beings, these complex intricate systems, working harmoniously together, speaks volumes about the intelligent design of the Creator. Science is making every day new discoveries about what has been created by the Creator. The discoveries are mind boggling and still we know that we know so little.  We don’t have any idea about the farthest frontier of the Universe, nor about the smallest particle on the micro scale. All systems within living organisms and the universe are so meticulously designed to work in harmony, it is unthinkable for a believer to consider it coming together as an act of random chance without the intervention of an intelligent designer. This is what the Ayat states that Allah is the light/reflection of the skies and the earth, i.e every thing in the Universe bears the signature of the Creator and Allah’s design is reflected from everything in the Universe.

This light and reflection of Allah is in something which is a parable of a niche, i.e some people may not be able to reflect upon it.  The unbelievers and atheists assume that the intricately balanced system of the Universe came into existence by random act of chance and is running without the intervention of an intelligent Designer. So they are unable to see the reflection or light of Allah in the Universe. The believers however are able to perceive this light in the niche. For them, this light and wisdom is the example of a lamp which is a source of light. The fuel of this light bearing lamp is their faith, which is the example of a blessed beneficial olive tree. They see the light through the parable of bright glass i.e not directly exposed to it, but they are able to perceive the light by inference. The light of Allah is knowledge/wisdom and reflection which is not dependent upon worldly source of knowledge. It’s fuel is the blessed faith, focused on the Creator and does not waiver to East or West side. Pure faith is able to manifest without the need of a  trigger or ignition every time. The faith leads to the light of Wisdom. Allah increases the light of Wisdom for those who strive to see this light and keeps on increasing it for their guidance. Allah teaches with the help of examples and He is the knower of all things.