Ahlal-Bait in Al-Quran

 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Bait (بَيْت) in Arabic means ‘house’. Al-Bait when mentioned in Al-Quran refers to a  specific house which is Allah’s House. This House has been identified in Quran as the first House established for man-kind (3:96), and is situated in Bakka/Makka. Other identification for this House of Allah is that it is situated  in a non-agricultural valley, where fruits are brought from all over (14:37). This House of Allah is for guidance of all man-kind (3:96).

House in general is associated with providing protection to its inhabitants. Similarly a spiritual house is the one which is associated with faith. Most people in the world, have a spiritual house of faith, the foundations of which are built upon the religious or philosophical beliefs they adhere to. The people who have built their houses of faith not on the basis of Ayas of Allah but on the teaching of their leaders of faiths, their houses have the similitude of the house of a spider which is inherently weak (29:41) and will not be able to sustain when confronted with the force of Ayas of Allah.

Allah advise that the House of Allah is the guidance for all mankind and whosoever enters His House will be lead to security ( وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا 3:97). To enter the house of Allah, first you have to set your direction correctly towards the Masjid Ul Haram, where the House of Allah is situated. From whichever faith/philosophy you were before or are now, after clarification of these Ayas, you have to make your orientation towards Masjid ul Haram ( 2:144 وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ ۗ ). You should not be opposing system of Masjid ul Haram (8:34 وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلَّا يُعَذِّبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُوا أَوْلِيَاءَهُ ۚ إِنْ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُ إِلَّا الْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ) and not taking guidance from it if you want to be associated with the House of Allah.

The word ‘Ahl’ means ‘people’. The people associated with the House of Allah (in Al-Quran) will be ‘Ahlal Bait’ (As the people associated with Allah’s Book are Ahlal Kitab). The messengers of Allah who clarify the Ayas of Allah are obviously associated with the House of Allah as they invite towards Allah’s House and are Ahlal Bait. Likewise, the family of the Ibrahim A.S and the Prophets’ family are called Ahlal Bait in Quran.

3:96  إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِي بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكًا وَهُدًى لِّلْعَالَمِينَ

The first House appointed for mankind is that at Bakka/Makkah: Full of blessings and of guidance for all worlds.

The Bait/House in Quran is the House of Allah in Bakka/Makka.

3:97  فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّنَاتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۖ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا ۗ وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا ۚ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ

In it are clear Ayas / signs, the standing position of Ibraheem whoever enters it attains security. and for Allah is pilgrimage of the house on people, those who can afford the journey but if anyone denies, surely Allah is not in need of any of His beings in the worlds.

Who ever enters the House of Allah will attain security. ‘Ahl’ means people, who-ever enters the House of Allah spiritually will therefore be ‘Ahlal Bait’ in Quran. As Al-Bait in Quran is the House of Allah and ‘Ahlal Bait would be the people of the House of Allah.

29:41  مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ كَمَثَلِ الْعَنكَبُوتِ اتَّخَذَتْ بَيْتًا ۖ وَإِنَّ أَوْهَنَ الْبُيُوتِ لَبَيْتُ الْعَنكَبُوتِ ۖ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ

The example of those who take protectors other than Allah is that of the spider, who builds a house; and truly the flimsiest of houses is that of the spider;- if they but knew.

The people who will take an alternative house instead of Allah’s House based on teachings other than Allah’s and His Ayas, will have a weak house without solid foundations.

22:26  وَإِذْ بَوَّأْنَا لِإِبْرَاهِيمَ مَكَانَ الْبَيْتِ أَن لَّا تُشْرِكْ بِي شَيْئًا وَطَهِّرْ بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْقَائِمِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ

And when We pointed out the place of the house to Ibrahim “associate not anything with Me; and purify My house for those who go around, and who stand and bow, prostrate.”

The House of Allah is associated with removal of all sort of associations with Allah and bowing and prostrating on the Ayas of Allah. All messengers of Allah, order this to the believers and lead them towards the House of Allah to be Ahlal Bait. Ibrahim’s A.S and his family (his wife and sons) is specifically named in Quran to be Ahlal Bait/People of the House.

11:71 -73  وَامْرَأَتُهُ قَائِمَةٌ فَضَحِكَتْ فَبَشَّرْنَاهَا بِإِسْحَاقَ وَمِن وَرَاءِ إِسْحَاقَ يَعْقُوبَ  قَالَتْ يَا وَيْلَتَىٰ أَأَلِدُ وَأَنَا عَجُوزٌ وَهَٰذَا بَعْلِي شَيْخًا ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عَجِيبٌ  قَالُوا أَتَعْجَبِينَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ ۖ رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ ۚ إِنَّهُ حَمِيدٌ مَّجِيدٌ

And his wife was standing and she laughed then We gave her the good news with Ishaq A.S and after Ishaq, Yaqoob A.S. She said : O Alas, shall I bear a child? And I am an old woman, and my husband is an old man. Surely this would be an amazing thing. They said : are you amazed at the order of Allah, the mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you, O’People of the House! Surely, He is praiseworthy, Glorious.

In the below Ayat the family and wives of the Prophet pbuh are stated to be Ahlal Bait.

33:32-33 يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ ۚ إِنِ اتَّقَيْتُنَّ فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا   وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَىٰ ۖ وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِينَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا

O’women of the Prophet, you are not like any one from the (other) women, if you take guard, do not be subjugated with the saying (conversation) so the one who has disease in his heart will have desire, and you should speak an acknowledged saying. And keep link with your houses and you do not decorate yourself as you decorated previously in ignorance and establish Salah/Prayers and give Zakat/justification and obey Allah and His messenger surely Allah wants to take away the filth from you O’people of the house and to purify you as purified ones.

 

 33:40  مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا

Mohammad is not the father / ancestor of any one of you men but he is the messenger of Allah and the seal of prophets. And Allah has knowledge of everything.

As per Quran, Mohammad pbuh is not the father/forefather of any man. Therefore Allah does not accept claim of anyone to be in the lineage of the messenger Mohammad PBUH, why because Ayat further says that ‘But he is a Messenger of Allah and Seal of Prophets’. So Allah has projected the role of Mohammad pbuh as the Messenger and seal of prophets and not as a founder of a family. Now of course, Mohammad pbuh as a person/bashar may have a lineage, however, this lineage is not spiritually considered by Allah associated with Mohammad the messenger.

28:12  وَحَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِ الْمَرَاضِعَ مِن قَبْلُ فَقَالَتْ هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَىٰ أَهْلِ بَيْتٍ يَكْفُلُونَهُ لَكُمْ وَهُمْ لَهُ نَاصِحُونَ

And we ordained that he (Moosa) refused suck at first, until (His sister came up and) said. “Shall I point out to you the people of a house that will nourish and bring him up for you and be sincere to him?”

When the word used in Quran is Ahle Bait, instead of Ahlal Bait, it means a ‘household’.

 

Notes:

What guidance can the World take from the House of Lord? Allah has established place of Ibrahim at the House/Kaaba and ordered mankind to take their ‘mussala’ from the place of Ibrahim, who is the Imam for mankind. See earlier post about procedure of As-Salat from Quran (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/21/salat-procedure/ ).

2:144 قَدْ نَرَىٰ تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ ۖ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْلَةً تَرْضَاهَا ۚ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۚ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ ۗ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۗ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ

Without doubt, We see the movements of your face in the sky, so, We will revert you to a Qiblah/direction (of faith) that shall please you. So revert yourself to the intersection/portion of the Sacred Mosque: and from wherever you come, revert yourselves to its intersection/portion. Surely, those who are given the Book definitely know that this is the truth from their Lord. and Allah is not unaware of what they are doing.

8:34 وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلَّا يُعَذِّبَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُوا أَوْلِيَاءَهُ ۚ إِنْ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُ إِلَّا الْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

But what plea they have, that Allah should not punish them when they are in opposition about the Sacred Mosque and they are not its protectors (Walis). No one can be its protectors except those who guard, but most of them do not understand.

3:103  وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا ۚ وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنتُمْ أَعْدَاءً فَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُم بِنِعْمَتِهِ إِخْوَانًا وَكُنتُمْ عَلَىٰ شَفَا حُفْرَةٍ مِّنَ النَّارِ فَأَنقَذَكُم مِّنْهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

And hold fast all together to the rope of Allah and do not be divided among yourselves, and remember the favor of Allah on you when you were enemies and He joined your hearts in love; you became brethren and you were on the brink of the pit of fire and He saved you from it. Likewise Allah make His Ayats/Signs clear to you that you may be guided.

Believers when leaving the sectarian teachings and holding to one rope of Allah, will get rid of hatred with each other in their hearts and will be saved after being very near to be fallen off from the edge of the pit of fire.

Ar-Riba / The Increase

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The word Riba / رِبَا  is from root word (ر ب و). This root word conveys the meanings of  increased/augmented, excess/addition, to grow/swell etc. Ar-Riba (الرِّبَا) when used in Quran, means ‘the increase’ referring to a specific increase. Lets review Ayas of Quran to see what is this specific increase:

4:161 وَأَخْذِهِمُ الرِّبَا وَقَدْ نُهُوا عَنْهُ وَأَكْلِهِمْ أَمْوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالْبَاطِلِ ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

And they took Ar-Riba / The Increase and without doubt they were prohibited about it. And they ate the wealth of the people (the categories) with falsehood and We have prepared for the rejecters among them a painful punishment.

The above Ayat states that Ar-Riba/the increase is prohibited. Also we come to know that Ar-Riba/the increase is related to the wealth of the people and eating Ar-Riba is related to eating wealth of the people. So we try to find where the wealth of the people is defined in Al-Quran.

8:41  وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُم مِّن شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ إِن كُنتُمْ آمَنتُم بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

And know that whatever Ghanim / Profit / gain you get from anything, if you believe in Allah then surely, One Fifth is for Allah and for the Messenger and for the relatives and for the orphans and for the needy (poor) and for the sons of the way, and whatever We sent down over Our servant on the day of the division, the day when the two accumulations meet. And Allah has power over everything.

In the above Ayat we see that Allah is ordering what ever we gain from anything, the fifth portion of that wealth is for certain categories e.g Allah, Messenger (i.e propagation of message of Allah), orphans, poors and for way-farers. So Allah has ordered that one fifth portion of our savings (gain=which is saved after expenses over a certain period of time) is the defined wealth for these categories, to be distributed among them. However, if one does not pay the defined portion of his savings as per above instruction then he is increasing his own wealth by holding back on Allah’s prescribed portion, and this is therefore the increase (Ar-Riba) which Allah has forbidden.  

2:278  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَذَرُوا مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الرِّبَا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

O’ you who believe, take guard of Allah and leave off, what remains from Ar-Riba/the increase, if you are believers.

When the Ayas related to Ar-Riba are clear to believers they are asked to leave that portion of the wealth which they have been holding back from the deserving categories. That is if they have been paying less than 1/5th portion of their savings on the deserving categories, then they are now advised to pay the prescribed amount.

2:280  وَإِن كَانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظِرَةٌ إِلَىٰ مَيْسَرَةٍ ۚ وَأَن تَصَدَّقُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

And if he is in difficulties, then respite is given to him towards easiness and that you give sadaq / charity, that is better for you if you would have known.

If some one is not currently able to pay the prescribed amount to the categories after doing calculations of 1/5th of savings, (the gain is the increase in your net worth from the last calculation period) then the same will remain in his account to pay, and he can pay them later on, upon ease of his financial situation. Please see previous post on Zakat (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/11/04/zakatcharity/ )

3:130  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا الرِّبَا أَضْعَافًا مُّضَاعَفَةً ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

O’ you who believe! eat not Ar-Riba, double redouble and take guard of Allah so that you may prosper.

Warning to believers not to pay less than the amount of charity prescribed in Quran. If you are paying 2.5% only, instead of prescribed 20% then you are eating the ‘wealth of the categories of people’ multiple times.

2:279  فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا فَأْذَنُوا بِحَرْبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۖ وَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُءُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُمْ لَا تَظْلِمُونَ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ

Then if you do not, (leave off, what remains from Ar-Riba/the increase),so take a notice of war from Allah and His messenger. And if you turn back, so for you are the heads of your wealth. You do not oppress and you will not be oppressed.

Please note that the notice of war has been given by Allah to the people who believe but eat Riba/Increase. The notice of war is given only in this Aya in the whole Quran and it is issued to the momineen/believers. And when you pay heed, for you are the heads of the wealth i.e 80% of the savings and the remaining 20% is for the categories of people (deserving of Sadqa/Zakat).

8:69  فَكُلُوا مِمَّا غَنِمْتُمْ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

So, enjoy what you have saved, lawful and good. But fear Allah. For Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

80% of the savings after paying the 20% portion to the categories, is lawful for us to spend. The Ayat 2:279 informs that for you is the heads of the wealth i.e after paying the prescribed portion in Zakat.

2:261  مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ حَبَّةٍ أَنبَتَتْ سَبْعَ سَنَابِلَ فِي كُلِّ سُنبُلَةٍ مِّائَةُ حَبَّةٍ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يُضَاعِفُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

The example of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is like the example of grain that grows seven ears and in every ear is 100 grains. And Allah multiplies for whom He wills. And Allah is All spacious, All knowing

The money spent from your wealth (after paying the due share of categories) increases in multiples in the nearness of Allah.

3:39  وَمَا آتَيْتُم مِّن رِّبًا لِّيَرْبُوَ فِي أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ فَلَا يَرْبُو عِندَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا آتَيْتُم مِّن زَكَاةٍ تُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَ اللَّهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُضْعِفُونَ

And what you give from Riba/increase,  to increase in the wealth of people (the categories) then it does not increase in the nearness of Allah and what you give from Zakah/ justification) intending the face of Allah so they are those who will get manifolds.

If you have not paid the full due share of 20% from savings then any charity you give is being given from Ar-Riba/the increase which you are holding back from the wealth of categories (by not giving from the Allah’s allotted share to them). So this charity does not grow in the nearness of Allah, as it was already their share, not your wealth.

2:276  يَمْحَقُ اللَّهُ الرِّبَا وَيُرْبِي الصَّدَقَاتِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ أَثِيمٍ

Allah removes Ar-Riba/the increase , and increases Sadqa/charities , and Allah does not love any rejecter, sinner.

There exists an inverse relationship for the Al-Riba and Al-Sadqat. As you spend from Sadqat the Ar-Riba decreases  (if you have held the due share to be paid from savings)

2:275  الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا ۗ وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا ۚ فَمَن جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىٰ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Those who eat Ar-Riba/the increase,  do not take a stand except like one, who stands to madness from the touch of Satan. That is because they say that Al-Bai/the deal  is the example of Ar-Riba . And Allah has made Al-Bai/the deal  lawful and has made Ar-Riba/the increase unlawful so he to whom comes the sermon from his Lord then he abstain, that is past for him. And his affair is towards Allah, and whosoever returns , then they are the companions of the fire. They will live forever in it.

The common perception however in the society is that Ar-Riba is the interest i.e a periodical charge on the original amount of loan. They say that if you loan some one money and charge an amount in addition to the original amount, then this is Ar-Riba. Most people think, that the interest bank charges on loans, is Ar-Riba, while Al-Bai is ‘a deal’ i.e a normal trade transaction. Normally when banks give a loan they make a deal with the loanee and both parties agree on the loan amount and the interest to be charged on the loan. Those people who equate Ar-Riba (which is the increase in wealth by not paying the prescribed charity) with Al-Bai (that is the deal which, is made with the bank or any other loaner or trading partner), are declared as crazy people. They are two different things. Deals are lawful and Ar-Riba is not lawful.

We know that there is a time value of money. If you loan some one a certain amount of money in currency and if he returns the same denomination of currency, in lets say 20 years time, the purchasing power of that amount of currency would have been reduced multiple times. In fact it will not be fair to you to be returned the same amount of currency, loaned several years earlier keeping in view the factor of depreciation of currency.

Also we know that any thing of value when we borrow it from the owner, we have to pay rent for it. For example if we live in some one’s house, we pay rent for it. Similarly if we rent someone’s car we have to pay rent for it. Will it be fair to the person whose house we are borrowing, not to pay him any rent? Similar is the case of money, as it has a value attached to it. Will it be fair to get a loan from someone and not to pay any rent on that loan? Consider the example of a house valued at one million dollars. When you rent this house, you will pay a certain amount of rent on it. If instead of a house, you borrow, one million dollars in currency, is there no obligation on you to pay the due amount of rent to the loaner?  If you borrow a thing of value and do not pay any rent for it, is definitely not fair to the lender.

The justification we normally hear is that instead of making a deal of paying fixed amount interest, we should share in profit and loss of that business. However, we know that a majority of people in the society are not business oriented people. They don’t have the capability of carrying out a business profitably. At best they will be sleeping partners and then depend upon the active partners for the fair returns and the fees charged for being active partners. Many people in the society simply cannot take the risk of being involved in businesses e.g widowers and retired people, they do not have the risk taking capability nor any risk taking is suitable for them. Then why should they be forced to take un-necessary risks on which they don’t have any control. Similarly it is banks’ business to give loans to people who can do business and take risks. However, banks cannot be in partnership of profit and loss sharing with all those people who take loans from banks. It is simply not possible to handle so many businesses and risks for banks. Therefore interest is the factor which keeps the economic cycle running i.e deposits by general public to the banks or Government institutions and operation of banks, in turn by lending the money to prospective people or groups who can invest and  run businesses and utilize loans for their businesses.

Usury i.e very high interest rates is definitely a social evil as the poorest of people fall victims to it. Normally, the interest rate you will get depends upon your credit rating. The people with the best credit ratings will get the best rate of interest on their loans. Those people who are at the highest risks of being able to return the loan, get the highest rates of interests on their loans. These very people are the ones who deserve the charity of people (20% share for categories)or subsidies from the Government, instead of getting loans from loan sharks on high interest rate. While Quran does not prohibits interests or deals that people make with one another, it is the duty of the Government to curb un-fair deals as like other social or criminal evils.

Notes:

The Arabic Word for ‘Interest’ is (فائده ).

 

links to a lecture by scholar Mohammad Shaikh on Ar-Riba:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/10/26/riba-increase-2007/

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/12/02/riba-2006/       (in Urdu)

Usage of root word (ر ب و) in Quran:

raba vb. (1) perf. act. 22:5, 41:39 impf. act. 30:39, 30:39 pcple. act. 13:17, 16:92, 69:10  rabwah n.f. 2:265, 23:50  riba n.m. 2:275, 2:275, 2:275, 2:276, 2:278, 3:130, 4:161, 30:39  rabba vb. (2) perf. act. 17:24 impf. act. 26:18  arba vb. (4) impf. act. 2:276  LL, V3, p: 189, 190

 

Al-Ijl/ the Calf of Bani-Israeel

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Ijl ( عِجْل) in Arabic translates to ‘calf’. The root of this word is ( ع ج ل ) which in its core means ‘to be hasty’ or ‘hastiness’. There is a hadith in Al-Kitab relating people of Prophet Moosa A.S, to a ‘calf’, which they clung to for worship after Prophet Moosa went away from them for a certain period of time. The narration informs that the people of prophet Moosa A.S went through an ordeal in the form of the Pharaoh being very oppressive to them. When Allah emancipated them from the ordeal of Pharaoh and they crossed the sea, they went pass a people who were serving their beloved Idols ( أَصْنَامٍ). Bani Israeel were impressed by them and they asked Moosa A.S to assign similar idols for them. Moosa told them not to act like Jahil/Ignorant nation. After some time Moosa A.S went away from them for a certain period of time. During this time, a character which Quran calls ‘Samiri’, misguided the people to serve/worship a ‘calf’. Prophet Haroon A.S, was unable to dissuade the nation from the worship of the calf, due to overwhelming emotional attachment of the people with ‘the calf’.

We will analyze some of the terms used in this narration as below.

‘Samiri’ is from root word ( س م ر ) which in its core means idle or vain talk. Samiree is the name given to a character who leads others astray by making vain stories. Also he colored these stories from the ‘effect’ of the ‘Messenger’ as per what the ‘Nafs’ of Samiri suggested to him. So, these idol talks about the messenger that Samiri invented were from the suggestions of his own ‘nafs’ instead of the facts about the messenger. Moosa A.S, on this return, confronted Samiri and told him that what he had invented will be destroyed and thrown away and he will be saying to people not to touch him. That is what the people of Samiri’s character do; they tell people that they are ‘untouchables’. With the effect of the messenger in their vain talks, they make their vain talks appear as ‘unquestionable’ and themselves as ‘untouchables’.

The root of the word ( ع ج ل ) conveys meanings of ‘hastiness’. The term Al-Ijl/the calf represents some thing which people of Moosa clung to, in his absence. Quran states that these people’s hearts were made to drink ‘the calf’. It is not possible to drink a calf. Therefore ‘the calf’ in Quran is representative of something, towards which Quran wants our attention drawn. Quran further states that ‘the calf’ was a ‘Jasad/body with sounds’. Jasad refers to a mere body, i.e a body without ‘spirit’. So Al-Ijl is a body without spirit and when this body emits sounds, these sounds are lacking ‘spirit’ also and unable to guide people to the right path. Therefore ‘Al-Ijl’ can be deemed as representing a body of a system, which is based on vain talks and lacking the spirit of Book of Allah. When this system speaks, it makes strange sounds which are not able to guide the people to the right path. The people making this body of system induce effects of the Messenger in order to appeal to people emotions to make them cling to this body without spirit. The people making this body, make sure that they are considered ‘untouchable’ and their system unquestionable.

7:138 وَجَاوَزْنَا بِبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ الْبَحْرَ فَأَتَوْا عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ يَعْكُفُونَ عَلَىٰ أَصْنَامٍ لَّهُمْ ۚ قَالُوا يَا مُوسَى اجْعَل لَّنَا إِلَٰهًا كَمَا لَهُمْ آلِهَةٌ ۚ قَالَ إِنَّكُمْ قَوْمٌ تَجْهَلُونَ

We took the Children of Israeel across the sea. They came upon a people devoted to some idols they had. They said. “O Moses! make for us a god like unto the gods they have.” He said. “Surely ye are a people without knowledge.”

2:92  وَلَقَدْ جَاءَكُم مُّوسَىٰ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ مِن بَعْدِهِ وَأَنتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ

There came to you Moosa with clear (Signs); yet you took the Ijl/calf after that, and you were the wrong-doers.

Allah is lamenting, why after having clear Signs, you people grabbed the Ijl/calf? Why is it they don’t consider the clear Ayas enough for them and have to seek the Ijl/calf?

2:54  وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ يَا قَوْمِ إِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُم بِاتِّخَاذِكُمُ الْعِجْلَ فَتُوبُوا إِلَىٰ بَارِئِكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ عِندَ بَارِئِكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

And remember Moosa said to his people. “O my people! You have indeed wronged your nafs/souls by your taking the Ijl/calf. So turn (in repentance) towards your Maker, and slay your nafs (soul); that will be better for you in the sight of your Maker.” Then He turned towards you (in forgiveness), for He is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.

2:93  وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ خُذُوا مَا آتَيْنَاكُم بِقُوَّةٍ وَاسْمَعُوا ۖ قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَأُشْرِبُوا فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْعِجْلَ بِكُفْرِهِمْ ۚ قُلْ بِئْسَمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِهِ إِيمَانُكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

And remember We took your covenant and We raised above you, At-Toor.  “Hold firmly to what We have given you, and listen”. They said.” We hear, and we disobey.” And they were made to drink into their hearts the Ijl/calf because of their rejection. Say, “Vile indeed are the orders of your faith if you are the believers!”

The Ijl represent something which they drank in their hearts with so much emotional attachment because of the vain talks with effects of the messenger, that when they were ordered to hold with power what Allah has given them, they said that they will disobey. Allah says it is bad what their faith orders them to do.

7:148  وَاتَّخَذَ قَوْمُ مُوسَىٰ مِن بَعْدِهِ مِنْ حُلِيِّهِمْ عِجْلًا جَسَدًا لَّهُ خُوَارٌ ۚ أَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّهُ لَا يُكَلِّمُهُمْ وَلَا يَهْدِيهِمْ سَبِيلًا ۘ اتَّخَذُوهُ وَكَانُوا ظَالِمِينَ

The people of Moosa grabbed a calf, after him, from their ornamentations. A body with sound. Don’t they see that it did not speak to them, nor guided them to a path? They took it and they were oppressors.

Ornamentations are things which are made to appear good in the eyes of people. In 16:63 it is stated that Satan makes the works of the people appear attractive to them(تَاللَّهِ لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمَمٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمُ الْيَوْمَ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ )

7:150  وَلَمَّا رَجَعَ مُوسَىٰ إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ غَضْبَانَ أَسِفًا قَالَ بِئْسَمَا خَلَفْتُمُونِي مِن بَعْدِي ۖ أَعَجِلْتُمْ أَمْرَ رَبِّكُمْ ۖ وَأَلْقَى الْأَلْوَاحَ وَأَخَذَ بِرَأْسِ أَخِيهِ يَجُرُّهُ إِلَيْهِ ۚ قَالَ ابْنَ أُمَّ إِنَّ الْقَوْمَ اسْتَضْعَفُونِي وَكَادُوا يَقْتُلُونَنِي فَلَا تُشْمِتْ بِيَ الْأَعْدَاءَ وَلَا تَجْعَلْنِي مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ

When Moses came back to his people, angry and grieved, he said. “Evil it is that ye have done in my place in my absence. did ye make haste to bring on the judgment of your Lord?” He put down the tablets, seized his brother by (the hair of) his head, and dragged him to him. Aaron said. “Son of my mother! the people did indeed weakened me, and they were near to kill me! Make not the enemies gloat over me, nor count me amongst the wrong doers.”

When Prophet Moosa A.S returned to his nation, he was furious by the action of his people, and he asked them did they make haste in the orders of the Lord? So the calf’ is also associated with the ‘hastiness’ in orders of the Lord. The Spirit of the orders of the Lord does not come with the wishes of people, it only comes with the Will of Allah. Anyone wishing to get understanding of the Allah’s orders quickly, cannot attain by studying books from a huge body of religious system made by people. ‘The Spirit’ only comes to a pure heart, with the Will of Allah and it does not come in haste (75:16 لَا تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ ) .

7:152  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا الْعِجْلَ سَيَنَالُهُمْ غَضَبٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَذِلَّةٌ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُفْتَرِينَ

Those who took the Ijl/calf will indeed be overwhelmed with wrath from their Lord, and with shame in this life. thus do We recompense those who invent (falsehoods).

The people who take Al-Ijl/the calf are Muftareen/makers of false hood they will experience the wrath of Allah in this world as well.

20:85  قَالَ فَإِنَّا قَدْ فَتَنَّا قَوْمَكَ مِن بَعْدِكَ وَأَضَلَّهُمُ السَّامِرِيُّ

(Allah) said. “We have tested your people after you. the Samiri has led them astray.”

Samiri is the vain talker/story teller who leads the people astray.

20:87  قَالُوا مَا أَخْلَفْنَا مَوْعِدَكَ بِمَلْكِنَا وَلَٰكِنَّا حُمِّلْنَا أَوْزَارًا مِّن زِينَةِ الْقَوْمِ فَقَذَفْنَاهَا فَكَذَٰلِكَ أَلْقَى السَّامِرِيُّ

They said. “We broke not the promise to thee, as far as lay in our power, but we were made to carry the weight of the ornamentation of the nation, and we dropped it, and that was what the Samiri suggested.

The nation was carrying a huge weight of things which were made alluring in their eyes (16:63). The used it in the making of the calf as suggested by Samiri.

20:88  فَأَخْرَجَ لَهُمْ عِجْلًا جَسَدًا لَّهُ خُوَارٌ فَقَالُوا هَٰذَا إِلَٰهُكُمْ وَإِلَٰهُ مُوسَىٰ فَنَسِيَ أَفَلَا يَرَوْنَ أَلَّا يَرْجِعُ إِلَيْهِمْ قَوْلًا وَلَا يَمْلِكُ لَهُمْ ضَرًّا وَلَا نَفْعًا

Then he brought out Ijl/calf before the (people) a body with sounds. So they said, This is your god, and the god of Moses, but (Moses) has forgotten! Could they not see that it could not return them a word (for answer), and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good?

Calf was a mere body (without Spirit) emitting sounds (deprived of guidance). He made the people believe that this body is the lord for the people and also the lord of Moosa, however Moosa forgot (so Samiri preserved it for the people). That’s what Samiri made people to believe.

20:95-96  قَالَ فَمَا خَطْبُكَ يَا سَامِرِيُّ  قَالَ بَصُرْتُ بِمَا لَمْ يَبْصُرُوا بِهِ فَقَبَضْتُ قَبْضَةً مِّنْ أَثَرِ الرَّسُولِ فَنَبَذْتُهَا وَكَذَٰلِكَ سَوَّلَتْ لِي نَفْسِي

(Moses) said. “What then is your case, O Samiri?” He replied. “I saw what they did not see. so I took a handful of from the effects of the Messenger, and threw it in,  thus did my nafs/psyche suggested to me.”

Samiri told that he saw an opportunity. So, he took a only a handful from the effects/teachings of the Messenger and threw it in the mix of Ijl (The body of hasty and false teachings)

20:97  قَالَ فَاذْهَبْ فَإِنَّ لَكَ فِي الْحَيَاةِ أَن تَقُولَ لَا مِسَاسَ ۖ وَإِنَّ لَكَ مَوْعِدًا لَّن تُخْلَفَهُ ۖ وَانظُرْ إِلَىٰ إِلَٰهِكَ الَّذِي ظَلْتَ عَلَيْهِ عَاكِفًا ۖ لَّنُحَرِّقَنَّهُ ثُمَّ لَنَنسِفَنَّهُ فِي الْيَمِّ نَسْفًا

(Moses) said. “Go (from here)! For you in this life will be that, you will say, ‘touch me not’; and moreover you has a promise that will not fail. Now look at your god, of whom you had become a devout . We will certainly put it in a blazing fire and scatter it in the sea!”

Samiri the story teller, will say to the people ‘Don’t touch me’ probably in the sense that,  he is ‘un-touchable’.

21:37  خُلِقَ الْإِنسَانُ مِنْ عَجَلٍ ۚ سَأُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِي فَلَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونِ

Man is a creature of haste. soon (enough) will I show you My Signs; thus ye should not hasten/rush!

Allah will show His signs to man at the right time. People cannot make haste in their eagerness to get the essence of Allah’s Ayas by studying books written by people.

20:14  فَتَعَالَى اللَّهُ الْمَلِكُ الْحَقُّ ۗ وَلَا تَعْجَلْ بِالْقُرْآنِ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يُقْضَىٰ إِلَيْكَ وَحْيُهُ ۖ وَقُل رَّبِّ زِدْنِي عِلْمًا

High above all is Allah, the King of the Truth! Be not in haste with the Qur’an before its inspiration to thee is completed, but say, “O my Lord! advance me in knowledge.”

We have to pray to Allah supplicating to increase us in knowledge.

48:20  وَعَدَكُمُ اللَّهُ مَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً تَأْخُذُونَهَا فَعَجَّلَ لَكُمْ هَٰذِهِ وَكَفَّ أَيْدِيَ النَّاسِ عَنكُمْ وَلِتَكُونَ آيَةً لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا

Allah has promised you many gains that ye shall acquire, and He has given you this (some of it) beforehand; and He has restrained the hands of people from you; that it may be a Sign for the believers, and that He may guide you to a straight path.

The gains for the believers are also the secrets which Allah opens up for them. Some of the gains they get quickly and some come with time. Allah make these gains a sign for the believers, He protects them and leads them to a straight path.

 

Quranic Duas/Supplications

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

As we saw in the last post of As-Salat, Allah taught Adam ‘words’ to ask forgiveness and when Adam prayed with these words, Allah accepted his supplication (2:37). In this post we will see some duas/prayers in Quran which we can use in various situations normally encountered in life. By identifying our situation and appropriate prayer/dua in Quran for the situation, we can pray to Allah in Quran Words. We should honestly mean these Words, and repeat these Words/Ayas in As-Salat.

7:55 ادْعُوا رَبَّكُمْ تَضَرُّعًا وَخُفْيَةً ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ

Call on your Lord with humility and privately, for Allah does not like those who trespass beyond bounds.

Supplication to Allah to increase our knowledge:

20:114   رَّبِّ زِدْنِي عِلْمًا

“O my Lord! Advance me in knowledge.”

Prayers to make us and our offspring steadfast in As-Salat and asking forgiveness for ourselves and our parents:

14:40-41  رَبِّ اجْعَلْنِي مُقِيمَ الصَّلَاةِ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۚ رَبَّنَا وَتَقَبَّلْ دُعَاءِ  رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الْحِسَابُ

“O’ my Lord! Make me the one who establish As-salah/the prayer and also from my offspring and O my Lord! You accept my call.”

Asking for betterment in this world and hereafter:

2:201   رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ

Our Lord! give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and save us from the torment of the fire!”

When engulfed in problems in life, the below supplication makes us realize that the problems will not exceed our capacity to handle them and we supplicate to Allah to lessen our burden and grant us His forgiveness, blessings and help.

2:286  لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ ۗ رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْرًا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ ۖ وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا ۚ أَنتَ مَوْلَانَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

Allah does not put to task a nafs/soul except to his capacity;  what he earns is for him, and what he has earned is on him.  O’ our Lord, do not catch us if we forget and we make a mistake , O’ our Lord, do not load a burden on us like you burdened on those from before us ,  O’ our Lord, do not burden us with that we do not have the strength to bear, pardon us, and forgive us and have mercy on us! ,  You are our protector, so help us over the nation of rejecters.

On realization of a committed blunder and honestly seeking forgiveness and turning back to the Lord:

7:23  رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

O Our Lord! We have oppressed our nafs/pshyce and if You do not have forgiveness for us and mercy for us, definitely we will be from the losers.”

On seeking Allah’s intervention for providing right guidance in an affair:

18:10  رَبَّنَا آتِنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً وَهَيِّئْ لَنَا مِنْ أَمْرِنَا رَشَدًا

“Our Lord! bestow on us Mercy from Yourself, and dispose of our affair for us in the right way!”

Supplication  to keep us steadfast after we receive guidance from our Lord:

3:8  رَبَّنَا لَا تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ

“Our Lord!, Let not our hearts be crooked after You have guided us, and grant us mercy from Your nearness; for You are the Grantor.”

When persecuted by rejectors, prayers to Allah to grant patience, perseverance and help against the oppressors.

2:250  رَبَّنَا أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَنَا وَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

“Our Lord! Pour out patience on us and make our steps firm. Help us against the nation of rejecters.”

Prayers asking for authority and joining with the righteous people:

26:83  رَبِّ هَبْ لِي حُكْمًا وَأَلْحِقْنِي بِالصَّالِحِينَ

“O my Lord! Grant me authority, and join me with the righteous/reformers

Prayers to make one’s family a source of pride and for one to become a guide to  righteous people.

25:74  وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا هَبْ لَنَا مِنْ أَزْوَاجِنَا وَذُرِّيَّاتِنَا قُرَّةَ أَعْيُنٍ وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ إِمَامًا

And those who say, “O’ our Lord, grant for us the cooling of eyes from our pairs and our offspring and make us an Imam / Leader for those who guard.”

Prayers on start of travel:

43:13-14   سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي سَخَّرَ لَنَا هَٰذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لَهُ مُقْرِنِينَ وَإِنَّا إِلَىٰ رَبِّنَا لَمُنقَلِبُونَ

Glory to Him, Who has subjected these to our (use), for we could never have accomplished this (by ourselves), “And to our Lord, surely, we are to go back!”

When taking up a challenging task or speaknig to a formidable audience:

20:25-28   رَبِّ اشْرَحْ لِي صَدْرِي  وَيَسِّرْ لِي أَمْرِي  وَاحْلُلْ عُقْدَةً مِّن لِّسَانِي  يَفْقَهُوا قَوْلِي

“O! my Lord expand my chest for me and make my task easy and open the knot from my tongue So they may understand what I say.”

For lessening of parents’ difficulties in their old age:

17:24  رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي صَغِيرًا

“My Lord! bestow on them your Mercy as they cherished me in childhood.”

To become grateful for the blessings that Allah bestowed on us and our parents:

27:19   رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِي أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ وَعَلَىٰ وَالِدَيَّ وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَالِحًا تَرْضَاهُ وَأَدْخِلْنِي بِرَحْمَتِكَ فِي عِبَادِكَ الصَّالِحِينَ

“O my Lord! direct me that I should be grateful for your favours, which thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may work the righteousness that will please Thee. And admit me, by your Grace, to the ranks of your righteous Servants.”

After getting blessings from the Lord:

27:40   هَٰذَا مِن فَضْلِ رَبِّي لِيَبْلُوَنِي أَأَشْكُرُ أَمْ أَكْفُرُ ۖ وَمَن شَكَرَ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ رَبِّي غَنِيٌّ كَرِيمٌ

“This is by the Grace of my Lord!- to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And if any is grateful, truly his gratitude is (a gain) for his own self; but if any is ungrateful, truly my Lord is Free of all needs and is Gracious !”

Seeking guidance from the Lord:

37:99   إِنِّي ذَاهِبٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّي سَيَهْدِينِ

“I am a goer towards my Lord! He will surely guide me!

Seeking help from oppressive surroundings and country:

4:75   رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هَٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ وَلِيًّا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ نَصِيرًا

Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and appoint from your nearness a wali/protector/guardian for us; and appoint  from your nearness a helper for us!”

10:85   عَلَى اللَّهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا رَبَّنَا لَا تَجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً لِّلْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ

“In Allah do we put out trust. Our Lord! make us not a trial for those who practise oppression;

When being ousted of the circles of faith because of one’s beliefs:

7:89   وَسِعَ رَبُّنَا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا ۚ عَلَى اللَّهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا افْتَحْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ قَوْمِنَا بِالْحَقِّ وَأَنتَ خَيْرُ الْفَاتِحِينَ

Our Lord can reach out to the utmost recesses of things by His knowledge. In Allah is our trust. our Lord! decide Thou between us and our people in truth, for You are the best to decide.”

After getting out of a sad and painful situation in life:

35:34   الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَذْهَبَ عَنَّا الْحَزَنَ ۖ إِنَّ رَبَّنَا لَغَفُورٌ شَكُورٌ

And they will say. “Praise be to Allah, Who has removed from us (all) sorrow. for our Lord is indeed Oft-Forgiving, Appreciative.

For recovery from illness:

26:80  وَإِذَا مَرِضْتُ فَهُوَ يَشْفِينِ

“And when I am ill, it is He Who cures me;

Childless couples desiring children can make below supplication:

21:89 رَبِّ لَا تَذَرْنِي فَرْدًا وَأَنتَ خَيْرُ الْوَارِثِينَ

O my Lord! leave me not without offspring, though thou art the best of inheritors.”

After making the prayers/supplications we may ask for acceptance.

2:124  رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

Our Lord! Accept from us for you are All hearing, All knowing.”

 

As-Salat / The Prayers

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

‘Salat’ in Arabic is translated as ‘Prayer’. Any one, irrespective of what religion he follows, when he wants to connect to God, uses some sort of prayers. In His Book, Allah teaches believers how to establish communication with Allah. A great way to establish communication with Allah is As-Salat (The Prayer). In As-Salat, believers communicate to Allah in words which are taught by Allah in a specific format which is established in the House of Allah in Makkah. This House of Allah is made a guidance for all worlds and Prophet Ibraheem A.S and Prophet Ismaeel A.S were ordered to keep the House of the Lord clean for people who do rukoo(bowing down), sujjood (prostrating) and tawaf/Hajj.

To make As-Salat/the prayer an effective communication tool, it is imperative that we understand what the words mean which we recite. Allah has taught many supplications in His Book for various situations which a person encounters in life. It is important that we recognize the proper supplication, know the meanings, and repeat the supplication in our prayers in order to ensure response from Allah. As prayers are enjoined on believers several times a day, it is an excellent tool, to enhance familiarity with Quran.  We can learn and grow in our understanding Ayas, and repeat them in As-Salat. If we learn and repeat even a few new verses of Quran in prayers, our understanding of Quran Insha Allah will grow rapidly.  By learning more Ayas, understanding them and repeating them in As-Salat, prayers will not be a burden but can become an interesting experience. Quran warns that As-Salat is a burden on Munafiqeen/hypocrites.

In As-Salat we have to pray in words taught by Allah. For example Allah taught Adam some words to ask forgiveness. When Adam made the supplication in these words, Allah responded to him.

2:37  فَتَلَقَّىٰ آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

Thus Adam received ‘Words’ from his Lord, and his Lord turned towards him; for He is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.

7:23  قَالَا رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

They both said. “O Our Lord! We have oppressed our nafs/pshyce and if You do not have forgiveness for us and mercy for us, definitely we will be from the losers.”

Format of Prayers:

There is also a specific format for As-Salat/the prayers, enjoined in Quran. In this format, Ayas/Kalamat of Allah are recited while standing, then the believer bows down and prostrate, symbolizing bowing and submitting to the Ayas that he just recited. This system of prayers is established in Allah’s house in Bakka/Makka. The House of Allah is declared to be for the guidance of the entire World.

3:96  إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِي بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكًا وَهُدًى لِّلْعَالَمِينَ

The first House appointed for mankind is that at Bakka/Makkah: full of blessings and of guidance for all Worlds.

What guidance can the World take from the House of Lord? Allah has established place of Ibrahim at the House/Kaaba and ordered mankind to take their ‘mussala’ from the place of Ibrahim, who is the Imam for mankind. See earlier post about procedure of As-Salat from Quran (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/21/salat-procedure/ ).

Allah has also ordered Ibrahim A.S and Ismaeel A.S to purify His house for people. The system of As-Salat is established in this House (2: 125  وَاتَّخِذُوا مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى   ), however in many people’s mind, the House is highjacked by impure people and they have established their incorrect format of As-Salat in the House (8:34). Allah declares that the protectors of Majid Ul-Haram are Muttaqeen and those people who adhere to a different format of As-Salat and oppose the Masjid ul Haram, their salat near Masjid is tantamount to clapping and whistling (8:35). Some people say the Messenger (pbuh) established As-Salat in different formats/ways, (which are followed by different sectarian Muslims). Had it been a true statement, then the Sunnat/practice of the Messenger (pbuh) is to establish Salat in all different formats, instead of sticking to one way according to one’s sect. The sectarian muslims should establish salat in all sectarian formats if they are true followers of the Messenger. But they are actually followers of the Imams of their sect therefore they will not do that. We see that as per Quran, there is only one format of As-Salat/the prayer which is established in Masjidul Haram.

7:29  قُلْ أَمَرَ رَبِّي بِالْقِسْطِ ۖ وَأَقِيمُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ عِندَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ وَادْعُوهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ ۚ كَمَا بَدَأَكُمْ تَعُودُونَ

Say; “My lord has ordered with justice; and you establish your faces/souls near every mosque and call Him, making your judgment pure for Him. As He originated you, so you will return”.

In the above Ayat, Allah orders to establish yourselves in all mosques. What we practically see that people who go to mosques for prayers they normally prefer to go in the mosques of their sects and subsects. When you know the format of As-Salat from Quran then you can go to mosques of all sects and pray there. In case there is a discussion and engagement about the particular format of As-Salat, you can provide your justification of praying according to the format of As-Salat as per Quran.

Salat is not a new phenomena brought by the beloved Messenger Mohammad (PBUH), all messengers and prophets of Allah since day one, have been performing the same As-Salat. Some examples of mention of As-Salat with prophets and people of earlier times in Quran is given below:

Prophet Ibrahim’s supplication:

14:37  رَّبَّنَا إِنِّي أَسْكَنتُ مِن ذُرِّيَّتِي بِوَادٍ غَيْرِ ذِي زَرْعٍ عِندَ بَيْتِكَ الْمُحَرَّمِ رَبَّنَا لِيُقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ فَاجْعَلْ أَفْئِدَةً مِّنَ النَّاسِ تَهْوِي إِلَيْهِمْ وَارْزُقْهُم مِّنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَشْكُرُونَ

“O’ our Lord surely I have settled from my offsprings within the valley without cultivation/agriculture near your Sacred House, O’ Our Lord, so that they establish As-Salat/The prayer, so make the hearts of people loving towards them and provide them with fruits so that they will be thankful.”

Ibrahim, Ishaq, Yaqub are the Imams:

21:73  وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْرَاتِ وَإِقَامَ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاءَ الزَّكَاةِ ۖ وَكَانُوا لَنَا عَابِدِينَ

And We made them the Imams/leaders that they guide with Our order and We inspired towards them to do good deeds and establish As-Salat/the prayer and give zakat/justification and to Us they served.

Prophet Ismail:

19:54-55  وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صَادِقَ الْوَعْدِ وَكَانَ رَسُولًا نَّبِيًّا  وَكَانَ يَأْمُرُ أَهْلَهُ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَكَانَ عِندَ رَبِّهِ مَرْضِيًّا

Also mention in the Book, Ismail: He was true to what he promised, and he was a messenger (and) a prophet. He enjoined on his people As-Salat/the prayer and Az-Zakat, and he was most acceptable in the sight of his Lord.

Salat is enjoined on Bani-Israeel:

2:83  وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ لَا تَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَقُولُوا لِلنَّاسِ حُسْنًا وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنكُمْ وَأَنتُم مُّعْرِضُونَ

When We took a covenant with the Bani-Israeel/Children of Israel that you will serve none but Allah and be good with your parents and with relatives and the orphan and the needy and say to mankind good words and establish As-Salat/the prayer and give Az-Zakat/the Justification then except few from you, turn away avoiding it.

Salat of Prophet Shoaib A.S:

11:87  قَالُوا يَا شُعَيْبُ أَصَلَاتُكَ تَأْمُرُكَ أَن نَّتْرُكَ مَا يَعْبُدُ آبَاؤُنَا أَوْ أَن نَّفْعَلَ فِي أَمْوَالِنَا مَا نَشَاءُ ۖ إِنَّكَ لَأَنتَ الْحَلِيمُ الرَّشِيدُ

They said, “O Shoaib, does your salat/prayer dictates upon you that we must abandon what our forefathers served, or running our businesses in any manner we choose? Surely, you are known for being clement, wise.”

Prophet Zakarya’s Hadith:

3:38  فَنَادَتْهُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَهُوَ قَائِمٌ يُصَلِّي فِي الْمِحْرَابِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُبَشِّرُكَ بِيَحْيَىٰ مُصَدِّقًا بِكَلِمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَسَيِّدًا وَحَصُورًا وَنَبِيًّا مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ

Thus the angels called unto him while he was establishing prayer in the chamber, . “Allah gives you glad tidings of Yahya, confirming the truth of a Word from Allah, and Syed (Leader), chaste, and a prophet,- of the company of the righteous.”

Prophet Moosa and Haroon’s Salat:

10:87  وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ مُوسَىٰ وَأَخِيهِ أَن تَبَوَّآ لِقَوْمِكُمَا بِمِصْرَ بُيُوتًا وَاجْعَلُوا بُيُوتَكُمْ قِبْلَةً وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

And We inspired to Moosa and his brother that you appoint for your people, houses in Egypt and make your houses a Qiblah. And establish As-Salat/the prayer and give good news to the believers.

Group prayers for women:

3:43 يَا مَرْيَمُ اقْنُتِي لِرَبِّكِ وَاسْجُدِي وَارْكَعِي مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ

“O Maryam! Be obedient to your Lord devoutly. Prostrate yourself, and bow down (in prayer) with those who bow down.”

Prophet Essa/Jesus words:

3:31  وَجَعَلَنِي مُبَارَكًا أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُ وَأَوْصَانِي بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيًّا

And he has made me blessed where-ever I be, And has enjoined on me As-Salat(the prayer) and Az-zakat as long as I live.

Wise man Luqman’s advise to his son in Quran:

31:17  يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا أَصَابَكَ ۖ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ

“O my son! establish As-Salat/the prayer, enjoin what is just, and forbid what is wrong. and bear with patience whatever befalls on you; for this is firmness (of purpose) in (the conduct of) affairs.

Also, in 19:58-59, it is stated that those who came after the blessed people from the children of Adam, Nooh and Ibrahim and Isreael, wasted their salat.

24:41  أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالطَّيْرُ صَافَّاتٍ ۖ كُلٌّ قَدْ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَهُ وَتَسْبِيحَهُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَفْعَلُونَ

Have you not seen that whatsoever is in the skies and in the earth, praises for Allah and the birds in the rows. Everyone knows his salat/prayers and his praise. And Allah knows with what they do.

Even the birds and other creatures in the Universe know their prayers. We humans don’t know their prayers, Allah has instilled their prayers into them and He knows their prayers. We should be concerned with our prayers which Allah has taught us in His Book.

Timings of Prayers:

4:103  فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُمُ الصَّلَاةَ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ قِيَامًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِكُمْ ۚ فَإِذَا اطْمَأْنَنتُمْ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ ۚ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَابًا مَّوْقُوتًا

So when you complete the (shortened) As-Salat then remember Allah in standing and sitting and on your sides, so when you are in tranquility then establish As-Salat/prayer, surely As-salat is written over the believers on appointed times.

Every person has a biological clock built in him, which is tuned to a 24 hours day. According to this clock we get up in the morning, eat food, do work, take rest and finally go back to sleep. If a person for example  goes to a place where the Sun last for 6 month at a strech, he will still be following his 24 hour internal clock for sleeping, working and eating food.

30:17-18  فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَعَشِيًّا وَحِينَ تُظْهِرُونَ

So gloryify Allah’s praises, when you make your evenings and when you make your mornings; and the night and when you make your noons, and for him is the praise in the heavens and the earth.

The above Ayas states that when ever you do you mornings, evenings, days and nights, glorify Allah’s praise. Even if you are at a place where the time is different than 24 hours day, you are to follow your biological clock inside you, which follows the 24 hours day system.

The 24 hours day is according to the movement of Sun. We experience different times in it, a reference of which we can find in different Ayas of Quran; some given as below:

89:1 وَالْفَجْرِ

(FAJR) By the day when it breaks.

81:18 وَالصُّبْحِ إِذَا تَنَفَّسَ

And the Dawn as it breathes

92:2 وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّىٰ

By the day when it shines.

103:1  وَالْعَصْرِ

By the (time of) squeeze/summary

92: 1  وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَىٰ

By the night when it envelopes

93:2  وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا سَجَىٰ

By the night when it darkens

74:33  وَاللَّيْلِ إِذْ أَدْبَرَ

By the night when it retreats

 

11:114  وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ طَرَفَيِ النَّهَارِ وَزُلَفًا مِّنَ اللَّيْلِ ۚ إِنَّ الْحَسَنَاتِ يُذْهِبْنَ السَّيِّئَاتِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ ذِكْرَىٰ لِلذَّاكِرِينَ

And establish As-Salat/the prayer,the two sides of the day and in the advances of the night. Surely the goodness will take away the badness. That is the remembrance for those who remember.

We had previously seen that the Mussla i.e the system of Salat is to be taken from Masjidul Haram. That system  comprises 5 mandatory prayers  during 24 hours cycle. There are different interpretations for the timings of Salat in the above Ayat. One interpretation could be that this Ayat is referring to the three out of 5 salats which are Fajr, Maghrib and Isha.   

17:78  أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا

Establish As-salat by the sun’s decline till the darkening of the night and the reading (of Quran) at dawn, (Fajr) surely the reading (of the Quran) at the dawn is witnessed.

The above Ayat further states that the Salat to be established from the decline of the Sun to the darkening of the night. During day time when the sun reaches its peak and begins to decline from the peak until the beginning of darkness, This is the time of the two day prayers Zuhar and Asar.

17:79  وَمِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَتَهَجَّدْ بِهِ نَافِلَةً لَّكَ عَسَىٰ أَن يَبْعَثَكَ رَبُّكَ مَقَامًا مَّحْمُودًا

And in some hours of the night, strive with it (Quran), This is additional for you, so it may be that your Lord will raise you to a standing position of praise.

Nafal is optional. Night time is a peaceful time without expected disturbance, to strive with Quran.

Conditions when one is not to establish As-Salat:

4:43  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلَا جُنُبًا إِلَّا عَابِرِي سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىٰ تَغْتَسِلُوا ۚ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰ أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِّنكُم مِّنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا

“O’ you who believe, you do not go near to As-Salat/the prayer with a mind befogged, until you can understand what you say; and nor in a state of stranger except you are crossing the way until you have washed yourselves, if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you come from offices of nature, or you have been in contact with women, and you find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand, and therewith rub your faces and hands, for Allah does blot out sins and forgive again and again.”

Sukara is a condition of either intoxication, or confusion, when your mind is not focused and you are not able to understand  and focus on what you are saying. In this state it is not permissible to establish Salat.

Purpose of Salat:

20:14  إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِي وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِي

“Surely I am Allah, there is no god except Me, so serve Me and establish As-Salat/the prayer for My remembrance”.

As-Salat is for remembering Allah and his Kalamat/Words.

29:45  اتْلُ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ ۖ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ تَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنكَرِ ۗ وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ

Recite what is inspired to you from The Book and establish As-Salat/the prayer. Surely As-Salat/the prayer stops from obscenity and that which is disguised. and definitely remembrance of Allah is great. And Allah knows what you fabricate.

Salat is about getting the spirit of Ayas of Allah. The below Ayat states that the people who are rewarded, when they hear what is recited in Ayas of Allah they fall in prostration, crying. You can only get the feel of the Ayas of Quran when you understand the spirit of the Ayas. Without understanding them, is like being deaf and dumb to the Ayas. So the rewarded people don’t fall upon the Ayas of Quran like deaf and dumb people.

19:58  أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِن ذُرِّيَّةِ آدَمَ وَمِمَّنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْرَائِيلَ وَمِمَّنْ هَدَيْنَا وَاجْتَبَيْنَا ۚ إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ خَرُّوا سُجَّدًا وَبُكِيًّا ۩

Those were among the prophets for whom Allah has blessed from the offspring of Adam and from those whom We carried with Nooh and from the offspring of Ibraheem and Israel and from those whom We guided and We chose, when the ayats/signs of the Most Gracious were recited on them they fall down prostrating, weeping. ۩(Sajda)

25:73  وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِّرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ لَمْ يَخِرُّوا عَلَيْهَا صُمًّا وَعُمْيَانًا

And when they are reminded with the ayas / signs of their Lord they do not fall down over them, deaf and blind.

How can one waste his Salat/prayer? by not understanding the spirit of the Ayas, he is reciting and not using Ayas to correct one’s mistakes by acting on them. Just doing as ritual to desire ‘Sawab’ from prayers will have little benefit.

19:59  فَخَلَفَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ أَضَاعُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّبَعُوا الشَّهَوَاتِ ۖ فَسَوْفَ يَلْقَوْنَ غَيًّا

From after them, then succeeded successors who wasted the As-Salat/the prayer and followed the desires, so soon they shall encounter wrong.

If As-salat is getting burdensome, it is a characteristic trait of hypocrites. If it is performed as a ritual with rote repletion of few suras, and is not being used to increase awareness of Allah’s Aays, it is likely to become burdensome.

4:152  إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ وَإِذَا قَامُوا إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ قَامُوا كُسَالَىٰ يُرَاءُونَ النَّاسَ وَلَا يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

The hypocrites (think that they) are deceiving Allah, but He deceives them. When they stand for As-salat/the prayer they stand without earnestness/sluggishly, to be seen by men, but little do they hold Allah in remembrance.

The mention of funeral prayers is in Sura 9: Funeral prayers are not for hypocrites but for believers.

9:84 وَلَا تُصَلِّ عَلَىٰ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُم مَّاتَ أَبَدًا وَلَا تَقُمْ عَلَىٰ قَبْرِهِ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ

Nor do you ever pray for any of them who dies, nor stand at his grave; for they rejected Allah and His Messenger, and died in a state of perverse rebellion.

Shortened Prayer:

4:101  وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَقْصُرُوا مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ إِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَن يَفْتِنَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ إِنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ كَانُوا لَكُمْ عَدُوًّا مُّبِينًا

When you strike in the earth, there is no blame on you if you shorten your prayers, if you fear that those people who disbelieved would inflict you with Fitna/temptation. Verily the Unbelievers are for you, open enemies.

When you are striving on earth i.e at work in offices or sites (does not necessarily mean travelling 2:273), where management is mainly non-muslim or establishing As-Salat may not be looked upon favorably or interfere with work/site work/meeting etc, then it is permissible to shorten the prayers. The shortened prayer will follow the practice established during Hajj in Makkah. In offices or work places there is usually a lunch break. During that break the Zuhar prayer and Asar prayers may be combined with 2 rakas each. If the work has extended time in the evening, then you may combine Maghrib and Isha prayers when you come back home from work, offering Maghrib prayers at Isha’s time with Maghrib 3 Raka and Isha as 2 rakas.

2:239  فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ فَرِجَالًا أَوْ رُكْبَانًا ۖ فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَمَا عَلَّمَكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ

So if you are in fear, then (pray) on foot or riding. So when you are in security remember Allah as He taught you, which you knew not.

If you are travelling and you fear or are concerned that you may not be able to establish As-Salat in time, then you may do As-salat mentally while on a vehicle or walking during your travel. This is an exception for travelers. However, safety first therefore if you are driving your self then better to stop at the side for a break and do prayers in the car.

The prophet Ibraheem’s prayers:

14:40-41  رَبِّ اجْعَلْنِي مُقِيمَ الصَّلَاةِ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۚ رَبَّنَا وَتَقَبَّلْ دُعَاءِ  رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الْحِسَابُ

“O’ my Lord! make me one who establishes As-Salah/the prayer and also from my offspring and O my Lord! you accept my call. O’ our Lord! have forgiveness for me, for my parents and for the believers when the day of account is established!”.

Notes:

A detailed lecture explaining, Salat, timing of Salat, procedure of Salat in Quran by Scholar Mohammad Shaikh in in below link. This post is mainly an excerpt of this lecture:

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/11/06/salah-namaz-prayer-2008/

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/12/12/salah-namaz-2011/    (in Urdu)

Giving Witness of the Messenger

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

When we give witness of the Messenger as in Shahada, ‘I bear Witness that Mohammad (pbuh) is a messenger of Allah’, do we give the witness of the Messenger of Allah as Allah described him in Al-Quran or are we giving witness of a historical figure of Mohammad pbuh from sources other than Quran?, there are no sources as reliable as Quran and also Quran warns in 23:69, that do they not recognize their Messenger?. If we are holding on to a personality of the Messenger which is different from what is described in Al-Quran, then we are not witnessing for the Messenger of Allah but to a different personality of Messenger which is a historical figure. In order to believe in the correct personality of Mohammad PBUH, we need to believe that personality of Messenger which is depicted in Quran. Some people are so much into the other personality of the Messenger of history, that when Ayas of Quran are presented to them about true personality of Messenger Pbuh, they just refuse to believe in those Ayas.

Sura Munafiqun 63:1 informs that when Munafiqs/Hypocrites come to the Messenger, they witness that he is the Messenger of Allah. However, Allah witnesses that indeed he is the Messenger of Allah but indeed the Munafiqs/hypocrites are liars.

It is possible that a person is not telling a lie but what he is saying is not true. This could be because of his incomplete knowledge about the subject. Similarly it is also possible that a person is telling a lie but what he is saying is actually true, that could also be because of the person’s incomplete knowledge of the subject. For example an atheist believing there is no God, states that ‘Bible is not the book of God’. What he is saying is true that Bible is not a Book of God, however, he is lying as in his perception there is no Book sent by God as God does not exists and He cannot send a book therefore.

63:1  إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ قَالُوا نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُهُ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَكَاذِبُونَ

When the Hypocrites come to you, they say, “We bear witness that you are indeed the Messenger of Allah.”  And, Allah knows that you are indeed His Messenger, and Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are indeed liars.

13:43  وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَسْتَ مُرْسَلًا ۚ قُلْ كَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ وَمَنْ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ الْكِتَابِ

The Unbelievers say. “You are not sent (by Allah).” Say. “Enough for a witness between me and you is Allah, and the one with knowledge of the Book.”

The above Ayat states that in order to give witness of the Messenger, one must have knowledge of the Book.

Giving witness of the Messenger without the knowledge of the Book will be tantamount to giving witness of wrong personality of Messenger which is not described by Allah in his Book, but rather which is developed through historical accounts and heresay.

21:107  وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِينَ

We sent you not, but as a Mercy for all worlds.

The Messenger of Allah is mercy for all the people. Therefore he would not be attacking or killing people in Holy wars, or committing genocides of a particular community. If any books give such account they must be false.

68:4  وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَىٰ خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ

And you are on an exalted standard of behaviour/character.

The Messenger is on an extremely high level of character. One way of assassinating the character of the Messenger is to ascribe him to be fond of marrying under-aged girls. A person on a high standard of character for all times (whose character is exemplary for all times not restricted to particular time in history) will not be marrying under aged girls as any reasonable person can tell. Those who believe in these accounts attributed to the Messenger are true should reflect, will they like to follow this practice in their families and communities?

23:69  أَمْ لَمْ يَعْرِفُوا رَسُولَهُمْ فَهُمْ لَهُ مُنكِرُونَ

Or do they not recognize Their Messenger, that they deny him?

The personality of the Messenger is not to be recognized and witnessed from historical accounts of his words and practice. His personality should be recognized from the Book. Those people who take great inspiration from the ‘Golden Words’/ Aqwal e Zarrin/ Zukhrufal Qaul, are stated to be actually enemy of the Prophet.

6:112  وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ عَدُوًّا شَيَاطِينَ الْإِنسِ وَالْجِنِّ يُوحِي بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ زُخْرُفَ الْقَوْلِ غُرُورًا ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ مَا فَعَلُوهُ ۖ فَذَرْهُمْ وَمَا يَفْتَرُونَ

And likewise ,We have made for every Prophet the shayateen/satans of mankind and the shayateen/satans of jinkind an enemy, some of them inspire golden words (as sayings of prophets) on some, for the purpose of delusion, and if your Lord had willed they would have not done it, so leave them and what they have invented.

Below are some of the Ayas which describe aspects of the Messenger’s personality which is the true personality of the Messenger as per Al-Kitab. However, the Shiateen who want to disguise the personality of the Messenger of the Book, with another personality (Historical Messenger) normally would not propagate these Ayas as they want to present a different (surrogate) personality of the Messenger. Some of these Ayats are given below:

5:115  يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيرًا مِّمَّا كُنتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ ۚ قَدْ جَاءَكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ

O people of The Book! There has come to you our Messenger, revealing to you much that you used to hide in The Book, and passing over much: There has come to you from Allah a light and a perspicuous Book,

The Messenger exposes from the Book, which people usually try to hide.

Please consider these Ayas, which gives true personality of the Messenger from the Book. If you reject any of these personality trait and believe in other personality traits of the Messenger than instead of believing in the Messenger of God you may be believing in the Messenger of ‘other’ books:

7:188  قُل لَّا أَمْلِكُ لِنَفْسِي نَفْعًا وَلَا ضَرًّا إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَلَوْ كُنتُ أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ لَاسْتَكْثَرْتُ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ وَمَا مَسَّنِيَ السُّوءُ ۚ إِنْ أَنَا إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ وَبَشِيرٌ لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Say. “I have no power over any good or harm to myself except as Allah willeth. If I had knowledge of the unseen, I should have multiplied all good, and no evil should have touched me. I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings to those who have faith.”

The Messenger does not possess the power to bring good or bad fortune for himself. He does not have the knowledge of the unseen. He is a warner and bringer of good tidings for the believers.

18:110  قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ مِّثْلُكُمْ يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ أَنَّمَا إِلَٰهُكُمْ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا

Say. “I am but a human like yourselves, (but) the inspiration has come to me, that your God is one God. whoever expects to meet his Lord, let him work righteousness, and, in the service of his Lord, admit no one as partner.

The messenger is a bashar/human being like other human beings with all Bashari/human implications. This fact should not be painful to the believers that he is not a super human. Believers should work for good deeds for their salvation instead of expecting intercession by Messenger.

12:3  نَحْنُ نَقُصُّ عَلَيْكَ أَحْسَنَ الْقَصَصِ بِمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ وَإِن كُنتَ مِن قَبْلِهِ لَمِنَ الْغَافِلِينَ

We relate to you the most beautiful of stories, in that We inspire to you this Qur’an,  before this, you were among those who are in Ghaflat (ignorance).

Before the inspiration of the Quran, the Messenger was among the Ghafleen/ people who are in ignorance.

42:52  وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ رُوحًا مِّنْ أَمْرِنَا ۚ مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِي مَا الْكِتَابُ وَلَا الْإِيمَانُ وَلَٰكِن جَعَلْنَاهُ نُورًا نَّهْدِي بِهِ مَن نَّشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا ۚ وَإِنَّكَ لَتَهْدِي إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

And Likewise, We have inspired you the ROOH/THE SPIRIT from our order, you did not have the perception, what is THE BOOK and the BELIEF, but We have made it light, We guide with it whom We will from Our servants. And surely you guide towards the straight path.

Allah inspired the Rooh/the Spirit (of the Words of Quran). Before this inspiration of the Spirit, the Messenger did not know what Al-Kitab and what Iman/belief is.

28:86  وَمَا كُنتَ تَرْجُو أَن يُلْقَىٰ إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابُ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً مِّن رَّبِّكَ ۖ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ ظَهِيرًا لِّلْكَافِرِينَ

And you did not expected that the Book will be delivered towards you except as a mercy from your Lord so you do not back those who reject.

The Messenger did not expect that he will be given the Al-Kitab from the Lord.

10:94  فَإِن كُنتَ فِي شَكٍّ مِّمَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ فَاسْأَلِ الَّذِينَ يَقْرَءُونَ الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكَ ۚ لَقَدْ جَاءَكَ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ

so, if you (Mohammad) are in doubt from what We have revealed to you, then ask those who are reading AL-KITAB/THE BOOK from before you, definitely there has come to you the truth from your Lord, so do not become from the doubtful ones.

People have been reading Al-Kitab from before as this Al-Kitab was given to all prophets. It is the spirit of the Book that the Messenger transfers into the people.

11:12  فَلَعَلَّكَ تَارِكٌ بَعْضَ مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيْكَ وَضَائِقٌ بِهِ صَدْرُكَ أَن يَقُولُوا لَوْلَا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْهِ كَنزٌ أَوْ جَاءَ مَعَهُ مَلَكٌ ۚ إِنَّمَا أَنتَ نَذِيرٌ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَكِيلٌ

Then, it may be that you (the Messenger) will give up part of what is revealed to you and your breast will become straitened by it because they say: Why has not a treasure been sent down upon him or an angel come with him? You are only a warner; and Allah is custodian over all things.

Messenger feels human emotions and his heart feels constrained and somewhat inclined to leave part of the Wahi/inspiration because of the silly things unbelievers say to him. However, Allah strengthen his heart with His Kalamats/words to remain steadfast with the revelation.

6:91  وَمَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ إِذْ قَالُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ بَشَرٍ مِّن شَيْءٍ ۗ قُلْ مَنْ أَنزَلَ الْكِتَابَ الَّذِي جَاءَ بِهِ مُوسَىٰ نُورًا وَهُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ ۖ تَجْعَلُونَهُ قَرَاطِيسَ تُبْدُونَهَا وَتُخْفُونَ كَثِيرًا ۖ وَعُلِّمْتُم مَّا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا أَنتُمْ وَلَا آبَاؤُكُمْ ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۖ ثُمَّ ذَرْهُمْ فِي خَوْضِهِمْ يَلْعَبُونَ

They did not value ALLAH as He should be valued. When they said, “ALLAH did not reveal anything to a person.” Say, “Who then sent down THE BOOK which Moses brought, with light and guidance for the people?” You made it to pieces of paper, you show something while concealing a lot of it. You were taught what you never knew-you and your parents. Say, “ALLAH (revealed it),” then leave them in their heedlessness, playing

Some people complain that certain personalities deserve more valuation than people value them. This they say according to their sectarian beliefs. However, Allah here declares that they don’t value Allah as He should be valued, when they do not consider the Messenger as Bashar/human. Many people consider the Messenger as a super Bashar, not like any other Human/Bashar with all human strengths and weaknesses that humans have. Some even consider the Messenger as incapable of committing any mistake. So, this Ayat exposes these beliefs.

93:7  وَوَجَدَكَ ضَالًّا فَهَدَىٰ

And He found thee misguided, and He gave thee guidance.

God found the Messenger as wandering and then He guided him.

46:9  قُلْ مَا كُنتُ بِدْعًا مِّنَ الرُّسُلِ وَمَا أَدْرِي مَا يُفْعَلُ بِي وَلَا بِكُمْ ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ وَمَا أَنَا إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ

Say (O’ Mohammad) “I am no bringer of new doctrine among the Messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or with you. I follow but that which is revealed to me by inspiration; I am but a Warner open and clear.”

The messenger does not give glad tidings of Jannat to his companions. Instead he says that he does not know what will be done with me or with you. He only follows the inspiration to him.

53:3-4  وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ  إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَىٰ

Nor does he say of (his own) desire. It is only the Wahi/inspiration sent to him.

Messenger does not add from his desire any thing to the Wahi/inspiration. He only conveys the Message which is inspired to him.

69:43-46  تَنزِيلٌ مِّن رَّبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ  وَلَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ الْأَقَاوِيلِ  لَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِينِ  ثُمَّ لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ

This (Quran) sent down from the Lord of the Worlds. And if the Messenger were to invent any sayings in Our name, We should certainly seize him by his right hand, And We should certainly then cut off the artery of his heart:

Messenger only states what is Wahi/inspired on him, i.e Quran (as mentioned in 12:3), if he were to say other Aqwal/sayings about Allah, Allah would catch him and cut his jugular vein.

9:43  عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنكَ لِمَ أَذِنتَ لَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَتَعْلَمَ الْكَاذِبِينَ

Allah forgave thee! Why didst thou grant them until those who told the truth were seen by thee in a clear light, and thou hadst proved the liars

In his normal life the messenger is like a normal human being that is he is not being controlled by Wahi in all matters. He may make mistakes in decision making about normal life for which Allah may admonish him as in 9:43. However, in matters of conveying Wahi/Quran and its Spirit, Messenger does not make a mistake.

47:19  فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مُتَقَلَّبَكُمْ وَمَثْوَاكُمْ

Know, therefore, that there is no god but Allah, and ask forgiveness for your sin (O Prophet), and for the men and women who believe. for Allah knows how you move about and how you dwell.

Allah asks the prophet to ask forgiveness for his sin.

48:1-2  إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُّبِينًا  لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكَ وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا

 We opened/disclosed for you a clear/evident opening/victory. So, that Allah may forgive you (the Messenger) of your sin of the past and that to follow; fulfil His favour to you ; and guide you to the straight way.

Messenger can do mistakes and sin, which Allah will forgives after showing him a clear/evident opening/victory and guiding him to the straight path.

6:68  وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ يَخُوضُونَ فِي آيَاتِنَا فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ ۚ وَإِمَّا يُنسِيَنَّكَ الشَّيْطَانُ فَلَا تَقْعُدْ بَعْدَ الذِّكْرَىٰ مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ

When you (the Messenger) see people engaged in vain discourse about Our Ayats/signs, turn away from them unless they engage in a different discourse. And If Satan makes you forget, then after remembering, do not sit  in the company of Zalimeen/those who do wrong.

Satan can have effect on the Messenger can make him forget things.

17:73-75  وَإِن كَادُوا لَيَفْتِنُونَكَ عَنِ الَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ لِتَفْتَرِيَ عَلَيْنَا غَيْرَهُ ۖ وَإِذًا لَّاتَّخَذُوكَ خَلِيلًا  وَلَوْلَا أَن ثَبَّتْنَاكَ لَقَدْ كِدتَّ تَرْكَنُ إِلَيْهِمْ شَيْئًا قَلِيلًا  إِذًا لَّأَذَقْنَاكَ ضِعْفَ الْحَيَاةِ وَضِعْفَ الْمَمَاتِ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُ لَكَ عَلَيْنَا نَصِيرًا

They had almost led you (the Prophet) away from what has been revealed to you, that you may invent things about Us besides those revealed, then they would have taken you as friend. And If We had not kept you steadfast you had almost leaned towards them. In that case We would have made you taste a double punishment of life and a double of death, and then you would not have been able to find a helper against Us for yourself. 

People also with their constant persuasion may have caused the Prophet to incline towards their preferences if Allah had not made him steadfast in what has been revealed to him.

66:1  يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكَ ۖ تَبْتَغِي مَرْضَاتَ أَزْوَاجِكَ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

O Prophet! Why do you make forbidden for yourself which Allah has made lawful to you? You seek to please your wives. But Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

The Prophet in order to please his wives was not perusing a thing which was made halal for him.

 80:1-12  عَبَسَ وَتَوَلَّىٰ  أَن جَاءَهُ الْأَعْمَىٰ  وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّهُ يَزَّكَّىٰ  أَوْ يَذَّكَّرُ فَتَنفَعَهُ الذِّكْرَىٰ  أَمَّا مَنِ اسْتَغْنَىٰ  فَأَنتَ لَهُ تَصَدَّىٰ  وَمَا عَلَيْكَ أَلَّا يَزَّكَّىٰ  وَأَمَّا مَن جَاءَكَ يَسْعَىٰ  وَهُوَ يَخْشَىٰ  فَأَنتَ عَنْهُ تَلَهَّىٰ  كَلَّا إِنَّهَا تَذْكِرَةٌفَمَن شَاءَ ذَكَرَهُ

(The Prophet) frowned and turned away. Because there came to him blind one (in perception). But how would you know that perchance he may purify himself. Or that he remembers/takes heed, and the remembrance might profit him? As to one who regards himself as self-sufficient (does not care much), you give him attention, though no blame on you if he would not purify himself. But as to him who came to you striving earnestly, and with fear (in his heart), to him you were unmindful. By no means (should it be so)! For it is indeed a reminder/advisory, for any one who desires to bear it in mind.

The prophet may falter in his judgment of giving attention to the right persons for delivering remembrance.

25:30  وَقَالَ الرَّسُولُ يَا رَبِّ إِنَّ قَوْمِي اتَّخَذُوا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ مَهْجُورًا

And the Messenger will say, O my Lord! Surely, my people took this AL-QURAN and abandoned it.

If we believe on the personality of the Messenger from other books, we will believe him to be intercessing for us on the day of Judgment. However, if we believe in the personality of the Messenger from Quran, than we will be aware that the Messenger will be complaining to Allah, about his Ummat holding the Quran as if like abandoning it.

4:80  مَّن يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللَّهَ ۖ وَمَن تَوَلَّىٰ فَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا

He who obeys the messenger, obeys Allah. But if any turn away, then We have not sent you as a watcher over them.

To follow the messenger means to follow Allah. Allah has made the Quran mandatory on messenger (28:85 إِنَّ الَّذِي فَرَضَ عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ لَرَادُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ  ). Messenger is acting on all dos and don’ts in Quran. To follow the messenger of Allah is to follow the Quran and not to follow what other books tell about what messenger used to do. (Remember, Quran is protected by Allah by divine intervention, not history)

3:31  قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Say. If you love Allah thus follow me (the messenger), Allah will love you and forgive your sins. For Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most merciful.

Again Allah will love you when you follow the messenger whose actions and personality is described by Allah.

The Sacred/Forbidden Months

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The Haram, sacred or forbidden months are called haram or forbidden as some lawful things are made temporarily unlawful during these months. These months are not named in Quran therefore with the help of Ayas of Quran we will identify which months are the sacred months, in this post.

The Islamic calendar is lunar, therefore these sacred months are also lunar months. The lunar calendar is important with respect to the months of Ramadan and Hajj. Because of the lunar calendar, these months don’t always come in the same season but the seasons keep on changing, thus giving us the opportunity to experience the blessing of these months in all seasons.

2:217  يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ قِتَالٍ فِيهِ ۖ قُلْ قِتَالٌ فِيهِ كَبِيرٌ ۖ وَصَدٌّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَكُفْرٌ بِهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِخْرَاجُ أَهْلِهِ مِنْهُ أَكْبَرُ عِندَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ ۗ وَلَا يَزَالُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَرُدُّوكُمْ عَن دِينِكُمْ إِنِ اسْتَطَاعُوا ۚ وَمَن يَرْتَدِدْ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَيَمُتْ وَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فَأُولَٰئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

They ask you about fighting in the sacred / holy month. Say fighting in it is great (offence) and to oppose from the way of Allah and from the sacred Mosque and to reject with it and to expel its people from it is greater (offence) in the nearness of Allah and Fitna/temptation is greater (offence) than killing. If they have the capability, they will not cease to fight you until you return from your judgment (i.e. to establish Islam / Peace). And amongst you whosoever turns away from his judgment and he dies while he was a rejecter, then they are those whose works have failed in this World and in the last and they are the companions of fire, they will dwell in it.

The sacred/forbidden months are associated with a prohibition of fighting and temptation. We will further see below Ayas for identification of sacred months.

9:36  إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِندَ اللَّهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ ۚ فَلَا تَظْلِمُوا فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ ۚ وَقَاتِلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَافَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَافَّةً ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ

Surely in the nearness of Allah the number of the months are twelve months, in the book of Allah, the day He created the skies and the earth, from them four are sacred / forbidden.  That is the established judgment. So you do not oppress your nafs/psyche in them (by fighting) and you fight (in other than sacred months) the associaters entirely like how they fight you entirely. And know, Allah is with those who guard themselves.

The names of the twelve Islamic lunar months are given below.

01. Muharram,  02. Safar, 03. Rabi-ul-Awwal, 04. Rabi-ul-Thani, 05. Jumada-l-Ulawwal, 06. Jumada-th-Thaniyya,, 07. Rajab, 08. Shaaban, 09. Ramadhan , 10. Shawwal, 11. Dhul Qadah, 12. Dhul Hijja

Out of these 12 months, four are sacred/forbidden. Lets see which months are made sacred/forbidden in Quran:

2:185  شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَىٰ وَالْفُرْقَانِ ۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۗ يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Ramadan is the month in which Al-Quran/The Reading was sent down, a guide for mankind, and clarification from the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong), so whosoever is a witness amongst you of that month, then he should fast in it, but if any one is ill, or travelling, then the count (should be made up) in later days. Allah intends facility for you; He does not intend to put you to hardship. So that you to complete the prescribed period (of fasting), and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and you be grateful to Him.

From the above Ayat, we come to know about a month ‘Ramadan’ which is holy as Quran was revealed in this month and we are prescribed to do fasting in this month.

2:187  أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَىٰ نِسَائِكُمْ ۚ هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَّهُنَّ ۗ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ ۖ فَالْآنَ بَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَابْتَغُوا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۚ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ فَلَا تَقْرَبُوهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ

It is lawful for you to be intimate with your women in the night of fast, they are a covering for you and you are covering for them. Allah knows that you used to be dishonest with your nafs/psyche, so He returns over you and pardoned you about it. So now be in contact with them and seek what Allah has written for you, and eat and drink until from dawn the white thread clarifies for you from the black thread, then complete the fast towards the night and you do not be in contact with them (your women) when you are devoted/Aakif in the mosques. These are the boundaries of Allah so you do not go near them. Likewise Allah clarifies His Ayas / signs for people so that they may take guard.

During fasting, eating and drinking becomes temporarily unlawful from Dawn to Dusk. This is for training purpose of our ‘nafs’. We restrain our ‘nafs’ during this month from bad things. Therefore now we can identify  ‘Ramadan’ as one of the Sacred/Forbidden months.

Also, during Ramadan most men are reluctant to go to their women in the night as they are more into worship and sanctity of the month and thereby are declining their nafs/psychology. Allah addresses this point also in above Ayat.

2:194  الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَاتُ قِصَاصٌ ۚ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُوا عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ

The Sacred / Holy month is with the sacred / holy month and the sanctities are related (months and others) So whosoever aggresses against you so you aggress against him with the example of what he aggresses against you. And take guard of Allah and know that surely Allah is with those who guard them-selves.

The important point to note for identification of sacred months in the above Ayat, is that it states that a sacred month is with a sacred month. It means that we can deduce, all four sacred months are adjacent to one another. (The B/بِِ in above Ayat (بِالشَّهْرِ), means ‘with‘ in Arabic)

2:197  الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ ۚ فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلَا رَفَثَ وَلَا فُسُوقَ وَلَا جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللَّهُ ۗ وَتَزَوَّدُوا فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَىٰ ۚ وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ

The months of Hajj/Pilgrimage are known so whosoever imposes Hajj / Pilgrimage (on himself) in them so he should not commit obscenity nor commit immoralities and no bickering in the Hajj / Pilgrimage. And what you do from goodness, Allah knows it. And take provision, so surely the best of the provisions is to take guard and take guard from Me, O’ you who posses the core (to know the essence / spirit of anything).

One of the formality of Hajj is Ahram, which puts temporarily certain restrictions on pilgrims. Some normally lawful things become unlawful during Hajj and Ahram. Therefore the months associated with Hajj as also sacred and forbidden. The Ayat also informs that the months of Hajj are well known, because the system of Salat and Hajj is preserved in the Holy City of Makkah by divine intervention, please see previous post (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/21/salat-procedure/ ). We know that Hajj is performed in Dhul Hijja. First we had identified that Ramadan is a sacred month and ayat 2:194 informed us that sacred months are together, and then we know that Hajj is performed in Dhul Hijja. These facts lead us to identify the four sacred months as Ramadan, Shawwal, Dhul Qadah and Dhul Hijja. So we can highlight the sacred months from the list of names of 12 months as below:

01. Muharram,  02. Safar, 03. Rabi-ul-Awwal, 04. Rabi-ul-Thani, 05. Jumada-l-Ulawwal, 06. Jumada-th-Thaniyya,, 07. Rajab, 08. Shaaban, 09. Ramadhan , 10. Shawwal, 11. Dhul Qadah, 12. Dhul Hijja

9:5  فَإِذَا انسَلَخَ الْأَشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ وَخُذُوهُمْ وَاحْصُرُوهُمْ وَاقْعُدُوا لَهُمْ كُلَّ مَرْصَدٍ ۚ فَإِن تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَخَلُّوا سَبِيلَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

So when the sacred / holy months are ended then fight the mushrikeen/associaters  wherever you find them and catch them and confine them and sit for them at every place of ambush. So if they repent and establish salah/prayer and give zakah / justification so leave the way for them. Surely Allah is all forgiving, merciful.

After having identified the sacred months above,  what is for us to do in these sacred/forbidden months. The sacred months are for our training and killing of your own Nafs. After we have killed our own Nafs then only we are allowed to kill the Nafs of Mushrikeen/associaters. The sacred months are also for preparation i.e Jihad Akbar with Quran, in these months the associaters are not to be engaged in ideological fight. After the forbidden months are over then associaters are to be engaged in ideological fight with Quran, wherever they are encountered. It is ideological fighting only because physical fighting and bloodshed is not allowed.

2:84  وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ

And when We took a covenant with you, not to shed your blood and do not expel your souls/selves from your circles then you confirmed and you are witness to it.

9:37  إِنَّمَا النَّسِيءُ زِيَادَةٌ فِي الْكُفْرِ ۖ يُضَلُّ بِهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُحِلُّونَهُ عَامًا وَيُحَرِّمُونَهُ عَامًا لِّيُوَاطِئُوا عِدَّةَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ فَيُحِلُّوا مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ ۚ زُيِّنَ لَهُمْ سُوءُ أَعْمَالِهِمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ

Surely the postponing of the (sacred / holy month) is an increase in the rejection, those who reject are led astray with it. They make it (sacred month) un-lawful in a year and make it sacred in another year. So that they adjust the numbers (of the sacred  months) to what Allah has made forbidden. So they make it lawful what Allah has made forbidden. Their bad works are adornment for them. And Allah does not guide the people who are rejecters.

Exchanging sacred months with other months is not allowed. The prescribed sacred months are to be respected.

Notes:

A lecture by Scholar Mohammad Shaikh about Sacred/forbidden months:

https://www.iipccanada.com/category/english-video-lectures/direction-of-belief/

https://www.iipccanada.com/2017/12/12/muhtarum-mahiney-2006/