Ummi Prophet and Ummi Nation

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Word ‘Ummi’ is from root ( ا م م ), the same root from which the word Umm/Mother is formed. Common perception is that this word means ‘un-lettered’ i.e someone who is ‘unable to read or write’. This word is not a common word in Arabic usage, therefore not well defined in dictionaries. We will see occurrences of this word in Al-Kitab, to see what could be the intended meanings of this word.

In Al-Kitab, the word ‘Ummi’ is used for a prophet and also for a nation in which the prophet was sent. The word is used in a positive sense for the prophet and in the negative sense for the nation. The traditional rendering of the word ‘Ummi’ is ‘un-lettered’. We will look into the Ayas to see if the ‘Un-lettered’ rendering of this word makes sense in light of Quran.

62:2  هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَإِن كَانُوا مِن قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ

It is He, Who sent amongst the Ummi people a messenger from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to purify them, and to instruct them in the Book and Wisdom,- although they had been, before, in manifest error;-

Allah sent down among the ‘Ummiyyin’, a messenger from among them who recites Ayas of Allah on them and teaches them Al-Kitab and Widsom and before that, they were in manifest error. In this Ayat, ‘un-lettered’ would not fit as meaning of ‘Ummiyyin’ because if the nation does not know how to read and write then what is the purpose of sending a book to them. Also, historically we know that, the whole community at that time was not unlettered. There were many people who knew how to read and write at that time. 

The word ‘Ummi’ is from the same root as of the word ‘Umm’ (mother). ‘Ummi’ could be referring to ‘motherly’ or ‘original’ state. ‘Ummiyyin’ in above Ayat seems to be those people who are at their original state of belief in which they were born. i.e they don’t get guidance from the Book. They just believe what their environment and people around them tell them to believe. They have not themselves studied the Book and gained knowledge from it. Does not necessarily mean that they don’t know how to read and write. It just implies that they did not change their direction of belief in the light of the Book (2:141) and remained on their original belief system on which they were born.

2:78  وَمِنْهُمْ أُمِّيُّونَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا أَمَانِيَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ

And there are among them Ummis, who donot know about the Book, but (see therein their own) desires, and they do nothing but conjecture.

Now what about Nabi Ummi mentioned in Al-Kitab?  Is there a prophet mentioned in Al-Kitab who also remained on his original belief system? When we study Al-Kitab, we find that, one prophet in Al-Quran is referred to by his mother i.e Essa ibne Mariam A.S. He is the one, who is prophet from birth as a sign of Allah, i.e he was not granted prophet-hood at a later stage in life, but was made prophet since birth and was able to talk to people since that time.

19:29-30  فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ ۖ قَالُوا كَيْفَ نُكَلِّمُ مَن كَانَ فِي الْمَهْدِ صَبِيًّا قَالَ إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ آتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلَنِي نَبِيًّا

But she (Mariam) pointed to the baby. They said. “How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?” Essa / Jesus said: “I am indeed a servant of Allah: He (Allah) has given me Al-Kitab / The Book and made me a prophet.

The Messenger of Allah  declares to all mankind to believe in that Ummi prophet, who believes in Allah and his Words. The Ummi prophet in Al-Kitab declares that he and his mother are no gods but they are only servants of God (5:72, 5:116-117)

7:158  قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا الَّذِي لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ ۖ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

Say. “O people! I am to you all, the messenger of Allah, to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. there is no god but He. It is He who gives life and death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the Ummi Prophet, who believes in Allah and His words. And follow him so that you may be guided.”

The Ummi prophet teaches them from Hikma, the Book (Al-kitab), Taurat and Injeel, informs them about lawful and unlawful things and removes un-necessary burdens on them (3:47-50)

7:157  الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِيَّ الْأُمِّيَّ الَّذِي يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِندَهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ يَأْمُرُهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَاهُمْ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبَائِثَ وَيَضَعُ عَنْهُمْ إِصْرَهُمْ وَالْأَغْلَالَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِهِ وَعَزَّرُوهُ وَنَصَرُوهُ وَاتَّبَعُوا النُّورَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ مَعَهُ ۙ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

“Those who follow the messenger, the Ummi Prophet, whom they find written in what is with them,- in the Taurat/law and the Injeel/Good News;- for he commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure); He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them. So it is those who believe in him, honor him, help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him,- it is they who will prosper.”

For clarity on Ahlal-Kitab please see previous post (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/26/who-are-ahlal-kitab/ ). The below Ayat mentions ‘Ahlal Kitab’ and ‘Ummiyyin’ as two groups. There can be some overlapping between the groups as well. Ahlal Kitab are those who have the Book. ‘Ummiyin’ are those who don’t change the direction of belief in which they were born, so they can be of any religion or sect. The below Ayat mentions a portion of Ahlal Kitab who are not very honest in financial dealings because they have made by themselves some rules of financial transactions based on religious beliefs. They have a tendency to treat people differently in financial transactions based on religion. Their rules are tilted disadvantageously to people belonging to different religion than theirs.

3:75  وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ مَنْ إِن تَأْمَنْهُ بِقِنطَارٍ يُؤَدِّهِ إِلَيْكَ وَمِنْهُم مَّنْ إِن تَأْمَنْهُ بِدِينَارٍ لَّا يُؤَدِّهِ إِلَيْكَ إِلَّا مَا دُمْتَ عَلَيْهِ قَائِمًا ۗ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا لَيْسَ عَلَيْنَا فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ سَبِيلٌ وَيَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

Among the People of the Book are some who, if entrusted with a hoard of gold, will pay it back; others, who, if entrusted with a single Dinar/silver coin, will not repay it unless you constantly stood demanding, because, they say, “there is no call on us with these Ummi people.” but they tell a lie against Allah, and they know it.

The message of the Messenger to Ahlal Kitab and Ummiyyin is  ‘submit to the Ayas of Al-Kitab. If they submit to Al-Kitab they get guidance, but if they deviate to other teachings, the duty of the Messenger is to convey the message only.

3:20  فَإِنْ حَاجُّوكَ فَقُلْ أَسْلَمْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّهِ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِ ۗ وَقُل لِّلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ وَالْأُمِّيِّينَ أَأَسْلَمْتُمْ ۚ فَإِنْ أَسْلَمُوا فَقَدِ اهْتَدَوا ۖ وَّإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَاغُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِالْعِبَادِ

So if they dispute with you, say. “I have submitted myself to Allah and so have those who follow me.” And say to the People of the Book and to Ummis. “Do you (also) submit yourselves?” If they do, they are in right guidance, but if they turn back, your duty is to convey the Message; and Allah is an observer of (all) His servants.

Notes:

3:47-50  قَالَتْ رَبِّ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لِي وَلَدٌ وَلَمْ يَمْسَسْنِي بَشَرٌ ۖ قَالَ كَذَٰلِكِ اللَّهُ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ ۚ إِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ  وَيُعَلِّمُهُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَالتَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ  وَرَسُولًا إِلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنِّي قَدْ جِئْتُكُم بِآيَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۖ أَنِّي أَخْلُقُ لَكُم مِّنَ الطِّينِ كَهَيْئَةِ الطَّيْرِ فَأَنفُخُ فِيهِ فَيَكُونُ طَيْرًا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَأُبْرِئُ الْأَكْمَهَ وَالْأَبْرَصَ وَأُحْيِي الْمَوْتَىٰ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَأُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا تَأْكُلُونَ وَمَا تَدَّخِرُونَ فِي بُيُوتِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ  وَمُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيَّ مِنَ التَّوْرَاةِ وَلِأُحِلَّ لَكُم بَعْضَ الَّذِي حُرِّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَجِئْتُكُم بِآيَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُونِ

She (Mariam) said. ‘O my Lord how shall I have a son when no man has ever touched me?’ He (Allah)  said. ‘This is how Allah creates what He wills. When He has decreed an order, He says it to, `Be` and it is!’ And (Allah) will teach him(Essa), Al-Kitab (The Book) and Al-Hikma (The Wisdom)  And At-Taurah (The Law) and Al-Injeel (The Good News). And a messenger to the children of Israel, that is I have come to you, with  Ayat (Sign) from your Lord, in that I make for you out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird (flyer), and breathe into it, and it becomes a bird (flyer) by Allah`s leave. and I heal the blind , and the lepers, and I give life to the dead, by Allah’s leave. And I inform you in what you consume, and what you store in your houses. Surely it is an Ayat(sign) for you if you are the believers. “‘(I have come to you), to attest the Taurat/Law which is between the hands and to make lawful to you part of what was forbidden to you; I have come to you with a Sign/Ayat from your Lord. So take guard of Allah, and obey me.

 

 

 

 

Hadith of the Cow

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Al-Quran mentions an incident of the Cow in Sura Baqara (2:67-71). In this incident Prophet Moosa (A.S) communicated an order by Allah to his people to slaughter a cow. Apparently this should be a simple thing to do, as obviously it was not the first time they were slaughtering a cow. But instead they adopted an attitude of over inquisitiveness. They started asking a lot of questions about the cow, and even stated their frustration at some point that things are getting confusing for them and they are not sure what type of cow they should be looking for, as according to them, Allah’s order was missing in details. In the end, when they finally did what they were asked to do, they ended up doing it in such a way which was very cumbersome for them.

Can we relate this incident in our lives as well. There are a number of things we do in our lives which are fairly normal e.g taking a bath, dining, sleeping and relieving our selves. Do we really need to ask a lot of questions about how to carry out these activities from religious point of view. The religious books contain a lot of detailed instructions for simple activities. Seems like people who wrote these were watching the prophets even in their most private times to obtain these detailed instructions, while Ayat 33:53 gives a clear message to companions not to indulge unnecessary in Prophet’s private life. When we relate the incident mentioned in the Hadith of Cow in Quran we can understand that the religion does not put too much obligations on people in terms of everyday ordinary matters. It is when the people become over inquisitive and over zealous, they impose un-necessary hardships on themselves.

The Messenger while communicating the spirit of the Book to people relieves them from these self imposed hardships (7:157) by governing them with the Ayas of Quran and cancelling the non Quranic orders and ideas with the help of Ayas of Al-Quran (2:106).

 

2:67-71  وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تَذْبَحُوا بَقَرَةً ۖ قَالُوا أَتَتَّخِذُنَا هُزُوًا ۖ قَالَ أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِينَ -قَالُوا ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا هِيَ ۚ قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لَّا فَارِضٌ وَلَا بِكْرٌ عَوَانٌ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ ۖ فَافْعَلُوا مَا تُؤْمَرُونَ -قَالُوا ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا لَوْنُهَا ۚ قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ صَفْرَاءُ فَاقِعٌ لَّوْنُهَا تَسُرُّ النَّاظِرِينَ -قَالُوا ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا هِيَ إِنَّ الْبَقَرَ تَشَابَهَ عَلَيْنَا وَإِنَّا إِن شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَمُهْتَدُونَ -قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لَّا ذَلُولٌ تُثِيرُ الْأَرْضَ وَلَا تَسْقِي الْحَرْثَ مُسَلَّمَةٌ لَّا شِيَةَ فِيهَا ۚ قَالُوا الْآنَ جِئْتَ بِالْحَقِّ ۚ فَذَبَحُوهَا وَمَا كَادُوا يَفْعَلُونَ

And when Moses said to his people. “Verily, Allah commands you to sacrifice a cow.” They said. “Are you jesting with us?” He said. “Allah save me from becoming an ignorant one!”. They said. “Beseech on our behalf your Lord to explain to us what  it is (like)!” He said; “He says. The cow should be neither too old nor too young, but of middle age. Now do what you are commanded!”  They said. “Beseech on our behalf your Lord to explain to us its color.” He said. “He says. A fawn-colored cow, pure and rich in tone, an admiration for the onlookers!”  They said. “Beseech on our behalf your Lord to explain to us what she is. To us all cows are alike. If Allah wills, we shall indeed be guided”  He said. “He says. A cow not trained to till the soil or water the fields; sound and without blemish.” They said. “Now you came with the truth.” Then they offered her in sacrifice, although they seemed unlikely to carry this out. 

 

The Prophet actually removes these undue obligations which people have self imposed on themselves and they are over burdened against their weight.

7:157  الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِيَّ الْأُمِّيَّ الَّذِي يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِندَهُمْ التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ يَأْمُرُهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَاهُمْ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبَائِثَ وَيَضَعُ عَنْهُمْ إِصْرَهُمْ وَالْأَغْلَالَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِهِ وَعَزَّرُوهُ وَنَصَرُوهُ وَاتَّبَعُوا النُّورَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ مَعَهُ ۙ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

“Those who follow the messenger, the Ummi Prophet, whom they find written in what is with them,- in the Taurat/Law and the Injeel/Good News;- for he commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure); He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them. So it is those who believe in him, honor him, help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him,- it is they who will prosper.”

2:106   مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا ۗ أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

What we abrogate/cancel or cause to be forgotten (orders other than Allah’s) from an Ayat, We substitute something better or similar. Don’t you know that Allah Has power over all things?

The Non Quranic concepts are cancelled and replaced with Allahs’ orders with Ayas.

The below Ayat is presented in order to stress the point regarding desirable behavior near Prophet house and family. Obviously if any one is invited to Prophet’s house, he will naturally be interested to know about prophet’s behavior. With this opportunity, people will not definitely be indulging in vain talk, but would be interested to know as much information as possible about the Prophet.  This is all but natural.  However, the below Ayat warns people to refrain from showing too much eagerness about (Prophet’s) hadiths i.e petty talks about him, and discussions about his private life. We can reasonably believe that when the companions saw this order, they naturally would have refrained from such behavior. However, we find a lot of narrations about Prophet private life in history books attributed to Prophets companions, which should therefore be taken with a grain of salt.

33:53  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتَ النَّبِيِّ إِلَّا أَن يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ إِلَىٰ طَعَامٍ غَيْرَ نَاظِرِينَ إِنَاهُ وَلَٰكِنْ إِذَا دُعِيتُمْ فَادْخُلُوا فَإِذَا طَعِمْتُمْ فَانتَشِرُوا وَلَا مُسْتَأْنِسِينَ لِحَدِيثٍ ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكُمْ كَانَ يُؤْذِي النَّبِيَّ فَيَسْتَحْيِي مِنكُمْ ۖ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَسْتَحْيِي مِنَ الْحَقِّ ۚ وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِن وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّ ۚ وَمَا كَانَ لَكُمْ أَن تُؤْذُوا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَلَا أَن تَنكِحُوا أَزْوَاجَهُ مِن بَعْدِهِ أَبَدًا ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكُمْ كَانَ عِندَ اللَّهِ عَظِيمًا

O you who believe! Do not enter the Prophet’s houses,- until leave is granted to you,- for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. but when ye are invited, enter; and when you have taken your meal, disperse, without showing fondness for hadith/ narration. Such (behavior) persecutes the Prophet. he is ashamed to dismiss you, but Allah is not ashamed (to tell you) the truth. And when you ask (his ladies) for anything of value (Prophet’s hadith), ask them from behind a screen. that makes for greater purity for your hearts and for theirs. Nor is it right for you that you should persecute Allah’s messenger, or that you should marry his spouses after him at any time. Truly such a thing is in Allah’s sight an enormity (sin).

People usually come with the mind set that following the religion is pure hardship and its instructions are difficult to comprehend. This mind set prevents them from delving deeper and making efforts to get clarity on its commands.  While Allah’s system is actually designed with the intention to reduce hardships and make life better for the followers. A parable could be drawn from the action of Queen of Saba when she was asked to enter a Palace. She thought it was water and she will have to brace through water. As she had made up her mind to follow the order, she prepared herself for entering the water. But later, it turned out that it was not water she had to brace though, instead it was a crystal clear, Palace.

27:44   قِيلَ لَهَا ادْخُلِي الصَّرْحَ ۖ فَلَمَّا رَأَتْهُ حَسِبَتْهُ لُجَّةً وَكَشَفَتْ عَن سَاقَيْهَا ۚ قَالَ إِنَّهُ صَرْحٌ مُّمَرَّدٌ مِّن قَوَارِيرَ ۗ قَالَتْ رَبِّ إِنِّي ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي وَأَسْلَمْتُ مَعَ سُلَيْمَانَ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

She was asked to enter the Palace; but when she saw it, she thought it was a lake of water, and she tucked up her skirts (in preparation to enter the water), . He said. “This is but a palace paved with glass crystals.” She said. “O my Lord! I have indeed wronged my soul. I do (now) submit (in Islam), with Solomon, to the Lord of the Worlds.

 

2:72-73  وَإِذْ قَتَلْتُمْ نَفْسًا فَادَّارَأْتُمْ فِيهَا ۖ وَاللَّهُ مُخْرِجٌ مَّا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ  فَقُلْنَا اضْرِبُوهُ بِبَعْضِهَا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُحْيِي اللَّهُ الْمَوْتَىٰ وَيُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

Remember you killed a self/nafs and then you differed in this, but Allah was to bring forth what you were hiding. So We said. “Strike it with a piece of it (nafs/psyche).” In this way Allah brings the dead to life and shows you His Ayats/Signs. So that you may understand.

Coming back to the hadith of cow, one who is devoid of Allah’s remembrance is considered dead in the eyes of the Lord (6:122). A person has to strike his Nafs/Psyche in order to bring it out from state of death. Some part in above Ayas, would mean here the good part of the Nafs/Psyche. The body should be stricken with the good part of the Nafs/psyche to make the whole self alive. For example, in Fasting/Saum the body is deprived or stricken with the Nafs to control vain desires.

link to a lecture explaining killing of Nafs/psychology :   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hM3qXyNBoZQ