Harut, Marut and Magic in Quran

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

When Al-Quran uses the word ‘Sahar’ (magic) it does not mean black magic or Voodoo. Black magic and voodoo may exist however, Quran does not use the word ‘Sahar’ in this context. Magic (Sahar) in Quran is stated to be something which is false (batil). The magicians are those who present the falsehood which they have fabricated, in such a way that it appears alive and thriving. A person who comes under the influence of magic is not able to reason and use his intellect.

People who are much accustomed to magic/falsehood, when Al-Haq (the Truth) comes to them via a Messenger of Allah, they think it to be actually magic, because the Messenger shows the Ayahs of Allah, alive and thriving, which the magicians had convinced them to be archaic and tales of the past (83:13). The Haq/Truth presented by the Messenger engulfs and swallows the falsehood with which the magicians mesmerize the people. However, the people still bent on falsehood and with vested interests, believe in the magic/falsehood of their magicians and they accuse instead, the messenger of Allah for putting forth falsehood and magic:  

38:4  وَعَجِبُوا أَن جَاءَهُم مُّنذِرٌ مِّنْهُمْ ۖ وَقَالَ الْكَافِرُونَ هَٰذَا سَاحِرٌ كَذَّابٌ

So they wonder that a Warner has come to them from among themselves! and the rejecters say, “This is a sorcerer telling lies!

51:52  كَذَٰلِكَ مَا أَتَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا قَالُوا سَاحِرٌ أَوْ مَجْنُونٌ

Similarly, no Messenger came to the People before them, but they said (of him) in (like manner), “A sorcerer, or one possessed/psycopath”!

The falsehood is so perfected by their fabricators that it actually looks true to the onlookers. Only Allah’s help and Spirit of His Book can help overpower and engulf this falsehood.

20:66  قَالَ بَلْ أَلْقُوا ۖ فَإِذَا حِبَالُهُمْ وَعِصِيُّهُمْ يُخَيَّلُ إِلَيْهِ مِن سِحْرِهِمْ أَنَّهَا تَسْعَىٰ

He (Moosa) said, “Nay, throw ye first!” Then behold their ropes and their rods-so it seemed to him on account of their magic – to be in lively motion!

It also depends how we visualize the narrative in Quran. If we visualize it like a competition of sorcery then we may conclude like Pharaoh, who said that Moosa A.S was a bigger sorcerer (20:71). However, if we visualize it as a battle between truth and fabrications, then we will see it like the magicians who attained solid faith after witnessing the Truth from Allah engulfing their fabrications (7:126, 20:72).

10:82  وَيُحِقُّ اللَّهُ الْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُجْرِمُونَ

“And Allah by His Kalamat/Words establish His truth, however much the criminals may hate it!”

20:69  وَأَلْقِ مَا فِي يَمِينِكَ تَلْقَفْ مَا صَنَعُوا ۖ إِنَّمَا صَنَعُوا كَيْدُ سَاحِرٍ ۖ وَلَا يُفْلِحُ السَّاحِرُ حَيْثُ أَتَىٰ

(Allah said) “And put forth from your Right. It will swallow what they have faked; what they have faked is but a magician’s trick, and the magician thrives not, (no matter) where he goes.”

Allah has sent prophets to people and sent with the prophets, Al-Kitab/the Book, to judge between them with Haq/Truth. However, after this Truth came to the people through the Book and Prophets, they started differing among each other.

2:213   كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ فَهَدَى اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لِمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

‘Mankind is one single nation, and Allah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings; and with them He sent the Book in truth, to judge between mankind in matters wherein they differed; but the people given the Book, after the clear Signs came to them, did not differ among themselves, except through selfish contumacy. Allah by His grace guided the believers to the Truth, concerning that wherein they differed, for Allah guides whom He wills to a straight path.’

The corrupt clergy in order to gain control of masses and spread their own fabrications, hid the original Book behind their backs: 

2:101  وَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ نَبَذَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

And when there came to them a Messenger from Allah, confirming what was with them, a party of the people who were given the Book threw away the Book of Allah behind their backs, as if they did not know it!

The corrupt clergy after hiding Allah’s Book behind their back put forth an alternative, i.e a book which they wrote with their own hands and attributed it to be by divine inspiration.

2:79  فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَكْتُبُونَ الْكِتَابَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هَٰذَا مِنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ لِيَشْتَرُوا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا كَتَبَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ

Then woe to those who write the book with their own hands and they say, this is from Allah, to earn with it a small price! woe to them for what their hands write, and woe to the gain they make thereby.

Kingdom of Sulieman A.S is an era of advanced technological developments in mining, electricity, industries, air travel, entertainment industry and innovations. A reading of previous post about ‘who are Jinns as per Quran’ will be useful. Satan Jinns are those from advanced nations who are rejecters and hide their true personalities. Many people after putting the Book of Allah behind their backs, followed what these satans were reciting towards the Kingdom of Sueliman A.S.

2:102  وَاتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَىٰ مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ ۖ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَٰكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ ۚ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ ۖ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ ۚ وَمَا هُم بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنفَعُهُمْ ۚ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُوا لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْا بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ

And they followed what satans recited towards the kingdom of Suleiman/Solomon. And Suleiman did not reject but the satans rejected and taught the people the magic; and was not sent down on two angels with Babel, Harut and Marut.

And neither of the two, taught  anyone without saying. “We are but temptation; so do not reject”. Thus they learned from both of them what causes differences between man and wife. But they could not thus harm anyone except by the will of Allah. And they learned what harmed them, and not profited them. And they knew that whosoever bought it, would have no share in the Hereafter. And vile was the price for which they did sell their nafs/psyche, if they but knew!

The people followed what the satans of advanced nations kept on reciting towards the Kingdom of Sulieman. The satans managed to mesmerize the people with their teaching deviant to the teachings of God.

‘Babel’ is a proper name. In most exegeses, it is said to be the name of  an ancient city ‘Babylon’. However, when we read the previous verse 2:101, it says that the people had put the Book of Allah behind their backs as if they did not know it. This Ayat 2:102 is a continuation, stating that after putting the Book of Allah behind their back, they followed something alternative to Allah’s Book. ‘Babel’, mentioned in Quran should not be the name of a city but it should be the name of this alternative book which these mischievous ones brought forth. The ancient city with the name of ‘Babylon’ cannot be ‘Babel’ of Quran, because as per Quran, Suleiman A.S has been granted a Kingdom, the grandeur of which cannot be surpassed in present or future. Ruins of ancient city Babylone, don’t given indications of high-rise buildings which we see in present day mega cities, therefore this ancient city can not be the Kingdom of Suleiman. A city representing King Suleiman Kingdom, will have such grandeur which will be unsurpassable in all times to come (38:35).

38:35  قَالَ رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَهَبْ لِي مُلْكًا لَّا يَنبَغِي لِأَحَدٍ مِّن بَعْدِي ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ

He (Suleiman) said, “O my Lord! Forgive me, and grant me a kingdom (likes of ) which is not attained by any one after me; for You are the grantor of bounties.

Therefore ‘Babel’  is the name which Quran refers to that alternative book, which people of the world most commonly know as ‘Bible’.  Then Quran states that Suleiman did not reject but actually the satans are the rejecters. We observe that in Bible, satans recite lies towards Suleiman A.S, that Solomon was a sinful prophet who practiced idolatry. This lie in bible is rejected in this Ayat by Quran that Sulieman was not a rejecter.

Considering this part of the Ayat (وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ). There are two schools of thoughts one stating that the ( مَا) is ‘ما الموصولة‘ (relative pronoun) which means ‘what/which’ and the other school saying that this is the ( مَا)/’Ma’ of negation. As satans don’t follow angelic revelation, we will consider the ( مَا) as the negation and thus the above statement is translated as below :

And was not sent down on two angels with Babel, Harut and Marut

This is a statement that Babel (Bible) is not an angelic revelation. It was not revealed on two Angels. (by the way there are only two angels mentioned by name in Bible). Also, Harut and Marut could be separate entities from the angels mentioned in the Ayat and they are associated with Babel. The roots words of Harut and Marut indicate the meanings Harut as the ‘one who tears/splits’ and Marut as the one ‘who makes barren’. These negative names indicate that Harut and Marut are not angles, but those associated with teaching of alternative to the Book of Allah (Babel). Please consider that it is stated in Quran that Malaika/angels only comes with Haq/truth (15:8). So Harut and Marut should not be Malaika if they came with false hood and satans were following them.  

15:8 مَا نُنَزِّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَمَا كَانُوا إِذًا مُّنظَرِينَ

We do not send the angels down except with Haq/truth, and at that time the (rejecters) will not be given any respite.

So we deduce from above that Harut and Marut mentioned in above Ayat are separate entities from the angels mentioned. Harut and Marut are associated with teaching Bible. They apparently say that we all are temptations (of the world) so people should not reject. However, the preachers of bible also teach some thing which causes separation between man and wife. This thing which causes separation between man and wife is the concept of celibacy for priesthood which discourages marriages for the priests and at one time those priest who were already married were forced to forego their marriages.

The people casting the spells and teachings magical falsehood (Batil)  under the garb of religion, mostly are cheaters. Their motivation most of the times is not reward of the hereafter, but worldly gains and other vested interests. This is a very low price they sell their souls for against the reward of hereafter.  

3:187    وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَتُبَيِّنُنَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَكْتُمُونَهُ فَنَبَذُوهُ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ وَاشْتَرَوْا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَبِئْسَ مَا يَشْتَرُونَ

And Allah took the covenant of those who were given the Book: You will make it clear to the people and not conceal it, but they placed it behind their backs and purchased with it a cheap price. Miserable indeed is what they have purchased.

Notes:

The Bible portrays Solomon as the King who was a sinner of idolatry. These are the lies being spreads by the satans. In this Ayat Quran, confirms that Solomon was not a rejecter but those who are propagating these lies are in fact the rejecters.

Quote from Wiki:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon

“The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem,[5] beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel.[7] He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom’s being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam.[8]”

Roots of Harut and Marut:

Harata To spear, slit, widen, impair (reputation), have a wide mouth, have wide sides of the mouth, tear up. Hârût: A descriptive name one who tore up. Marata To break, make barren, Maratun: Barren and stripped land; Man without eyebrows. Mart: Hairless beast. Mârût:

Al-Injeel and Bible:

Important thing to note that Al-Injeel is an attribute of Al-Kitab, i.e the book revealed by God. Al-Injeel is not to be confused by the book known as Bible. Bible is not the altered version of Al-Injeel as Allah Kalima and Words cannot be changed and Bible cannot be presented as remnant of knowledge of Allah’s Book (46:4). See previous post of ‘Who are Ahlal Kitab (https://topicsfromquran.com/2017/03/26/who-are-ahlal-kitab/)

Celibacy initiation:

Evolution of Rules on Celibacy

Because of the doctrine that sexual intercourse with a woman makes a man unclean, married priests were prohibited from celebrating the Eucharist for a full day after sex with their wives. Because the trend was to celebrate the Eucharist more and more often, sometimes even daily, priests were pressured to be celibate just to fulfill their basic religious functions—and eventually, they were prohibited from ever having sex with their wives. Celibacy was thus somewhat common by 300 CE, when the Spanish Council of Elvira required married bishops, priests, and deacons to permanently abstain from sex with their wives. The pressure this put on marriages was not important and the consequences for the wives would only get worse.

The final blow against priests’ ability to marry came through a technicality at the Council of Trent (1545-1563). The church asserted that a valid Christian marriage must be performed by a valid priest and in front of two witnesses. Previously, private marriages performed by priests or, indeed, just about anyone else, were common in some areas. Sometimes the only ones present were the officiant and the couple. Banning such clandestine marriages effectively eliminated marriage for the clergy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Concept of abrogation of Ayas

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The traditionalist’s concept of abrogation (نسخ) of Ayas of Al-Quran is that some of the Ayas in Al-Quran have been abrogated or superseded by other Ayas. The concept originated from their inability to explain some Ayas of Quran so they termed those Ayats as abrogated and considered Ayat 2:106 as the justification of the concept of abrogation of Ayas.

The abrogated Ayas are not indicated by Quran nor in any Hadith, the Prophet has pointed out any Ayas which were abrogated. It was later scholars who faced difficulty in explaining certain Ayas in relation to other Ayas, therefore they used the Ayat 2:106 as pretext for declaring a number of Ayas as abrogated. Scholars have differed considerably in the number of abrogated Ayats. Some consider the number of abrogated Ayats to be over 500 and some consider it to be less than 10. However, no one dares to strike out from the Book, the Ayas they deem abrogated.

The Book (Al-Quran) has been sent for all people and for all ages. Is it not impossible for Allah to send a Book whose instructions are valid for all times? It does not make sense that Ayas of Al-Quran were abrogated so frequently within a period of 23 years in history, because of changing conditions, and then after 23 years, it was set for the rest of eternity. Were all the changes in the world, happening during these 23 years and after that no changes were to occur to warrant further abrogation of Ayas. This concept of abrogation does not hold ground as we know that conditions of the world change all the time.

We will review the concept of abrogation in the light of Ayas of Quran to see if this concept is really about the cancellation of Ayas or it means something else:

11:1   الر ۚ كِتَابٌ أُحْكِمَتْ آيَاتُهُ ثُمَّ فُصِّلَتْ مِن لَّدُنْ حَكِيمٍ خَبِيرٍ

A.L.R. a Book, whose Ayats have been (firmly) established , and then explained,- from One Who is Wise and Well-acquainted.

2:106  مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا ۗ أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

What we abrogate/cancel or cause to be forgotten (concepts different from spirit of Allah) from an Ayat, We substitute something better or similar. Don’t you know that Allah Has power over all things?

Normally with Ayats there are preconceived notions attached to them. These are from Satan. So Allah, cancels these notions (by other Ayas) and confirms the true Spirit/understanding of Ayats. Therefore, what is cancelled from the Ayats, are the things introduced by Satan and not the Ayas themselves.

22:52   وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ وَلَا نَبِيٍّ إِلَّا إِذَا تَمَنَّىٰ أَلْقَى الشَّيْطَانُ فِي أُمْنِيَّتِهِ فَيَنسَخُ اللَّهُ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ ثُمَّ يُحْكِمُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ

And We have not sent  before you a Messenger nor a Prophet except when he wishes, Satan encounters in his wishes. So Allah cancels what Satan encounters, then Allah confirms His Ayas/Signs and Allah is knowing, wise.

16:101  وَإِذَا بَدَّلْنَا آيَةً مَّكَانَ آيَةٍ ۙ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يُنَزِّلُ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُفْتَرٍ ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

When We substitute the place of one Ayat with another Ayat and Allah knows best what He reveals ,- they say, “You are but a forger”. but most of them do not understand.

When the Messenger delivers understanding of a certain topic from Al-Quran to the people, he explains it with the help of Ayas from various Suras of Al-Quran. The order of these Ayas related to a certain topic is not necessary in their original order or place in the Book. For example if a topic of ‘Talaq’ is explained by the Messenger, he will explain with the help of Ayas from Sura 66 (Al-Talaq), Sura 2 (Baqara) and various other Suras.  The order of Ayas in this explanation will not be in the order in which they occur in Al-Quran. When this is done and the spirit of the words of Allah related to the said topic is conveyed to people, and if this understanding/spirit is different from people’s previous beliefs, they say that the Messenger has invented it himself.

 

 

Response to Blasphemy

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

What should be believers’ response to some one who tries to insult Allah or the Messengers of Allah? Tauheen-Risalat is a hot topic these days as well.  Lets review some of the related Ayas to this topic in Al-Kitab;

25:63   وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا

And the servants of (Allah) Most Gracious are those who walk on the earth in humility, and when the ignorant ones address them, they say,”Salam/Peace!”

28:55  وَإِذَا سَمِعُوا اللَّغْوَ أَعْرَضُوا عَنْهُ وَقَالُوا لَنَا أَعْمَالُنَا وَلَكُمْ أَعْمَالُكُمْ سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ لَا نَبْتَغِي الْجَاهِلِينَ

And when they hear vain talk, they turn away therefrom and say. “To us our deeds, and to you yours; peace be to you. we seek not the ignorant ones.”

It seems that some people were calling the Messenger (PBUH), possessed or crazy (NB). Allah confirmed that the Messenger by the grace of Allah is not that. The instruction to Messenger is to exercise patience on what they say and stay away from these people in a beautiful way.

68:2  مَا أَنتَ بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ بِمَجْنُونٍ

You are not, by the Grace of your Lord, mad or possessed.

73:10   وَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا يَقُولُونَ وَاهْجُرْهُمْ هَجْرًا جَمِيلًا

And have patience with what they say, and leave them with noble way (dignity).

Note that the instruction to the Messenger are not to kill them, or take revenge but to be patient and leave them with dignity. This should also be the practice of the followers of the Messenger.

4:140  وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ أَنْ إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ يُكْفَرُ بِهَا وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِهَا فَلَا تَقْعُدُوا مَعَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ ۚ إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا مِّثْلُهُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ جَامِعُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْكَافِرِينَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ جَمِيعًا

He has sent down to you in the Book, that when you hear Kufr/Covering of Ayats of Allah and ridicule with (Ayats) then do-not to sit with them until they engage in different discourse. if you did, you would be like them. Verily Allah will collect the hypocrites and Kafireen in Hell.

6:108   وَلَا تَسُبُّوا الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ فَيَسُبُّوا اللَّهَ عَدْوًا بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ زَيَّنَّا لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ عَمَلَهُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِم مَّرْجِعُهُمْ فَيُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

Revile not  those whom they call upon besides Allah, lest they out of spite revile Allah in their ignorance. Thus We have made alluring to each people their doings. In the end will they return to their Lord, and We shall then tell them what they used to do.

It is the non believers who engage in violent response when something is said against their beliefs, not the believers. See the behavior of Ibrahim’s father in below Ayat:

19:46   قَالَ أَرَاغِبٌ أَنتَ عَنْ آلِهَتِي يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ ۖ لَئِن لَّمْ تَنتَهِ لَأَرْجُمَنَّكَ ۖ وَاهْجُرْنِي مَلِيًّا

(The father) replied. “Do you hate my gods, O Abraham? If you forbear not, I will indeed stone you. Now get away from me for a good long while!”

Allah is not oblivious of the blasphemers. Their punishment is on Allah. Its not for the believers to indulge in any unbecoming response.

41:40   إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي آيَاتِنَا لَا يَخْفَوْنَ عَلَيْنَا ۗ أَفَمَن يُلْقَىٰ فِي النَّارِ خَيْرٌ أَم مَّن يَأْتِي آمِنًا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۚ اعْمَلُوا مَا شِئْتُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

Those who blaspheme in Our Signs are not hidden from Us. Who is better?- he who is cast into the Fire, or he who comes safe through, on the Day of Judgment? Do what you will. verily He sees (clearly) all that you do.

Is capital punishment allowed in Quran?

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The concept of Qasas in Quran is that if some one gets hurt from your actions, then  an equivalent compensation  commensurate with the hurt caused, should be paid to him by you.

An equivalency/relationship between the hurt caused and its appropriate equivalent compensation needs to be established keeping in view the circumstances.  In some societies general guidelines exists, for example, in an accident a person loses his leg, what amount should be paid to him as compensation. The hurts can be physical or psychological, but the same rule apply.

Qasas is absolutely not that if someone hurts your eye, then you should hurt his eye too. If someone commits any bad or cruel act, he will have an equivalent misfortune befallen on him either the Law of the land punishing the person or  some other physical or psychological misfortune inflicted on him by divine intervention.  The believer who has been wronged by someone, need not take his revenge from the oppressor. He has to take help from this knowledge that the oppressor will get full compensation of his oppression as ordained in the Book. If the believer takes his own revenge then again a similar misfortune will befall on the believer himself as per divine law. For example if someone injures your ear wrongly, then as per divine law a misfortune proportionate to the injuring of your ear, will befall on the person doing it. Either he will get punishment from Law or an equivalent misfortune physical or psychological will befall on him. However, if you take a revenge by injuring his ear as well, then similar misfortune of injuring an ear will befall on you as well.

The believers help heal their psychological wounds with this knowledge if they have been wronged or oppressed. They don’t have to burn in the fire of revenge and hatred as this matter to be left to Allah to take care of. The best course of action is to forgive and let this matter for divine justice.

5:45  وَكَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِيهَا أَنَّ النَّفْسَ بِالنَّفْسِ وَالْعَيْنَ بِالْعَيْنِ وَالْأَنفَ بِالْأَنفِ وَالْأُذُنَ بِالْأُذُنِ وَالسِّنَّ بِالسِّنِّ وَالْجُرُوحَ قِصَاصٌ ۚ فَمَن تَصَدَّقَ بِهِ فَهُوَ كَفَّارَةٌ لَّهُ ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ

And we wrote on them in it (Taurat): “Nafs for Nafs, eye for eye, nose or nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds are related.” Thus the one who pays with it, it is an atonement for himself. And if any fail to judge/govern with what Allah has revealed, they are Zalmin/Wrong-doers.

When Al-Kitab mentions An Eye for an Eye it does not mean you have to take out an eye in compensation of your damaged eye. It means that if you damage some one’s eye, you must pay an equivalent compensation for that wrong doing or otherwise an equivalent form of punishment will befall on you. Ayat 5:45 is sometimes misunderstood in terms of compensation and people think that it means an eye is the compensation of an eye. However if you study Ayat 5:45 and 2:178 together; in the same Arabic syntax in which Ayat 5:45 says an eye for an eye, Ayat 2:178 says a woman for a woman, a slave for a slave. It is evident that if you kill some one’s woman, you will be punished for that crime, not your woman.

2:178  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِصَاصُ فِي الْقَتْلَى ۖ الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ وَالْأُنثَىٰ بِالْأُنثَىٰ ۚ فَمَنْ عُفِيَ لَهُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَيْءٌ فَاتِّبَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَأَدَاءٌ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ تَخْفِيفٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ ۗ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَىٰ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَهُ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

O you who believe! the Qasas is written on you in murder. the free for the free, the slave for the slave, the woman for the woman. But if any remission is made by the brother of the slain, then grant any reasonable demand, and compensate him with handsome gratitude, this is a concession and a Mercy from your Lord. After this whoever exceeds the limits shall be in grave penalty.

2:179  وَلَكُمْ فِي الْقِصَاصِ حَيَاةٌ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

In Qasas there is Life to you, o ye men of understanding; that ye may restrain yourselves.

Ayat 2:178 says that Qasas is written on you which means Qasas is mandatory on believers. (Same syntax as fasting is written/mandatory on you in Ayat 2:183). However, Quran mentions Qasas is for life not for death in Ayat 2:179. It means that Capital punishment is not allowed.  Ayat 17:150 states that the Wali of the victim should not transgress in killing as he is the helped one ( i.e he will get compensation and help from Allah as well).

17:33  وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ ۗ وَمَن قُتِلَ مَظْلُومًا فَقَدْ جَعَلْنَا لِوَلِيِّهِ سُلْطَانًا فَلَا يُسْرِف فِّي الْقَتْلِ ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ مَنصُورًا

Nor take life – which Allah has made sacred – except for just cause. And if anyone is slain wrongfully, we have given his heir authority; let him nor exceed bounds in the matter of taking life; for he is helped one.

42:39  وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَصَابَهُمُ الْبَغْيُ هُمْ يَنتَصِرُونَ

 And those who, when a wrong reaches them, they help themselves

The believers help themselves when they are wronged from the knowledge of the fact that the oppressor who have oppressed them will meet similar fate (by Allah) i.e fully recompensed by Allah for their wrongful acts.

42:40  وَجَزَاءُ سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِّثْلُهَا ۖ فَمَنْ عَفَا وَأَصْلَحَ فَأَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الظَّالِمِينَ

The recompense for a wrong doing is a similar wrong doing (which will be inflicted by Allah). but if a person forgives and makes correction, his reward is due from Allah. for (Allah) does not love those who do wrong.

The point here is that the recompense of the wrong will be inflicted by Allah, therefore taking revenge is not allowed, and the person who forgives with this knowledge, will be compensated by Allah.

42:41  وَلَمَنِ انتَصَرَ بَعْدَ ظُلْمِهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَا عَلَيْهِم مِّن سَبِيلٍ

But indeed if any do help themselves after a wrong (done) to them, against such there is no way.

If the believer retaliate to an oppressor with a similar wrongdoing, then he will be in the same boat, therefore the believers must help themselves with the knowledge that this is not their way of doing things.

42:42  إِنَّمَا السَّبِيلُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَظْلِمُونَ النَّاسَ وَيَبْغُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

This way is for those who oppress people and do wrong-doings in the Earth without right, for such there will be a grievous penalty.

42:43  وَلَمَن صَبَرَ وَغَفَرَ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ لَمِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ

and the one who shows patience and forgive, that would truly be from the great affairs

41:34  وَلَا تَسْتَوِي الْحَسَنَةُ وَلَا السَّيِّئَةُ ۚ ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ فَإِذَا الَّذِي بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُ عَدَاوَةٌ كَأَنَّهُ وَلِيٌّ حَمِيمٌ

Nor is goodness and Evil equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better. Then will he between whom and thee was hatred become as it were your friend and intimate!

Again it is said that that goodness and badness are not equal. The order for the believers is to respond to badness and hurts with something much better. They have to respond the wrongdoing on them with a good response and the result will be end of hatred among former enemies.

 

Notes:

26:93  مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ هَلْ يَنصُرُونَكُمْ أَوْ يَنتَصِرُونَ

“‘Besides Allah? Can they help you or help themselves?’

The Arabic word Antasar means ‘to help one self’ as evident in above Ayat. This is to illustrate that this word has been translated by all translators as to ‘help one self’ in this Ayat, however, on other occasions in Quran, some of the translators have translated this word as revenge, which is not be the case.

16:126  وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُوا بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوقِبْتُم بِهِ ۖ وَلَئِن صَبَرْتُمْ لَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لِّلصَّابِرِينَ

If ye punish, then punish with the like of that wherewith ye were afflicted. But if ye endure patiently, verily it is better for the patient ones.

If the scope of oppression falls under criminal code, then society and law of the land will follow the criminals. The punishments for any crime should be proportionate to the crime as prevalent in most judicial systems in the world. The oppressed ones should be patient as worldly judicial system takes their time in execution. Also, if the judicial system in the world fail to impart appropriate punishment to the criminals, there is no way that they will escape their due punishment from Allah.

Related links:

http://iipctvstream.com/eng_qisaas.html

http://iipctvstream.com/eng_psy_hurts.html